Chapter 2 identification 09

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Chapter 2 identification 09

  1. 1. Nicholas Krekeler DJM Ecological Services Certified Arborist #MW-4595A Chapter 2. Tree Identification [email_address]
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Plant Classification system. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific names. </li></ul><ul><li>Tree identification techniques. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Key Terms <ul><li>Alternate Foliage Lobe Pinnate </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm Genus Monocotyledon Serrate </li></ul><ul><li>Class Gymnosperm Morphology Species </li></ul><ul><li>Conifer Identification key Nomenclature Specific epithet </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivar Kingdom Opposite Taxonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Dicotyledons Leaf apex Order Variety </li></ul><ul><li>Division Leaf base Palmate Whorled </li></ul><ul><li>Family Leaf margin Phylum </li></ul>
  4. 4. Gymnosperms “naked” seeds. Pine, Fir, Cypress, Juniper, and Spruce
  5. 5. Angiosperms <ul><li>Monocotyledons </li></ul><ul><li>Dicotyledons </li></ul>
  6. 6. Plant Classification <ul><li>K ingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Plantae </li></ul><ul><li>D ivision or Phylum Magnoliophyta </li></ul><ul><li>C lass Magnoliopsida </li></ul><ul><li>O rder Sapindales </li></ul><ul><li>F amily Fagaceae </li></ul><ul><li>G enus Quercus </li></ul><ul><li>S pecies epithet palustris </li></ul>
  7. 7. Plant Nomenclature <ul><li>Nomenclature is the naming of plants. </li></ul>Acer rubrum ‘ Brandywine’ Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis ‘ Shademaster ’
  8. 8. American Hornbeam, Blue Beech, Ironwood, or Muscle wood?
  9. 9. Principles of Identification <ul><li>Morphology : Size, Shape, and Appearance of plant parts. AKA Tree Architecture. Study of this is Taxonomy. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Leaf and Bud Arrangement opposite — leaves occurring in pairs at the nodes alternate — leaves arranged singly at intervals along the stems whorled — leaves occurring three or more at a single node
  11. 11. Leaf Morphology <ul><li>palmately compound — veins or lobes of a leaf radiating from a </li></ul><ul><li>central point and petiole </li></ul><ul><li>pinnately compound — arrangement of leaflets attached laterally </li></ul><ul><li>along the rachis of a compound leaf </li></ul>compound leaf — a type of leaf that has three or more leaflets attached to a common stalk
  12. 12. Leaf Anatomy
  13. 13. Leaf Margins entire — a leaf margin that is smooth without teeth or lobes undulate — a leaf margin that is wavy serrate — a leaf margin that has pointed teeth that are directed upward doubly serrate — a serrate leaf margin where the primary teeth support another set of teeth crenate — a leaf margin that has rounded teeth lobed — a segmented leaf having pointed or rounded extensions separated by sinuses that do not extend more than halfway to the midrib sinus — the space or indentation between the lobes of a leaf blade
  14. 14. Leaf Base cuneate — wedge-shaped obtuse — rounded cordate — heart-shaped truncate — squared or abruptly cut off oblique — asymmetrical, unequally sided
  15. 15. Leaf Apices acute — slightly pointed acuminate — sharply pointed bristle-tipped — sharply pointed tip truncate — squared or abruptly cut off obtuse — rounded
  16. 16. Bud Anatomy
  17. 17. Pith Characteristics Chambered Spongy Solid Star Angular Round
  18. 18. Bark Characteristics <ul><li>Think Texture… </li></ul>• Think Texture
  19. 19. Fruit Types berry — a simple, fleshy fruit, with seeds embedded in a pulpy mass (persimmon) drupe — a one-seeded, fleshy fruit with the seed inclosed in a stony wall (cherry, sugarberry, holly) capsule — a dry fruit which splits open into two or more parts at maturity (sourwood) legume — a dry fruit with two seams in the outer wall (black locust) nut — a hard-shelled, dry fruit, sometimes with a outer covering or husk (hickory, oak acorn, black walnut) dehiscent — the opening by slits or valves of an outer fruit covering indehiscent — an outer fruit covering that does not open by slits or valves pome — a fleshy fruit, with seeds incased by a papery wall (apple) nutlet — a small nut (riverbirch) samara — a winged, one-cell, one-seeded, dry fruit (elm; double samara — maple) multiple — a fruit formed from several flowers into a single structure having a common axis multiple of capsules -- sweetgum multiple of follicles — magnolia multiple of samaras — yellow-poplar, ash multiple of nutlets — sycamore, birch
  20. 20. Tree Growth Forms Excurrent Decurrent
  21. 21. Excurrent
  22. 22. Decurrent
  23. 23. Quiz Questions / Break
  24. 24. Green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica
  25. 25. White ash Fraxinus americana
  26. 26. Bald cypress Taxodium distichum
  27. 27. American basswood Tilia americana
  28. 28. River birch Betula nigra
  29. 29. Ohio Buckeye Aesculus glabra
  30. 30. Southern Catalpa Catalpa bignonioides
  31. 31. Black cherry Prunus serotina
  32. 32. Eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides
  33. 33. Crabapple Malus spp.
  34. 34. Flowering Dogwood Cornus florida
  35. 35. American elm Ulmus americana
  36. 36. Siberian elm Ulmus pumila
  37. 37. Ginkgo, Maidenhair tree Ginkgo biloba
  38. 38. Golden raintree Koelreuteria paniculata
  39. 39. Hackberry Celtis occidentalis
  40. 40. Hawthorn Crataegus spp.
  41. 41. Shagbark Hickory Carya ovata
  42. 42. Honeylocust Gleditsia triacanthos
  43. 43. Kentucky coffeetree Gymnocladus dioicus
  44. 44. Littleleaf Linden Tilia cordata
  45. 45. Black locust Robinia psuedoacacia
  46. 46. Amur maple Acer ginnala
  47. 47. Boxelder Acer negundo
  48. 48. Norway maple Acer platenoides
  49. 49. Red maple Acer rubrum
  50. 50. Silver maple Acer saccharinum
  51. 51. Sugar Maple Acer saccharum
  52. 52. Mulberry Morus spp.
  53. 53. Bur oak Quercus macrocarpa
  54. 54. Northern red oak Quercus rubra
  55. 55. Pin oak Quercus palustris
  56. 56. Post oak Quercus stellata
  57. 57. Shumard oak Quercus shumardii
  58. 58. Swamp white oak Quercus bicolor
  59. 59. White oak Quercus alba
  60. 60. Osage orange Maclura pomifera
  61. 61. Callery pear Pyrus calleryana
  62. 62. Pecan Carya illinoensis
  63. 63. Persimmon Diospyros virginiana
  64. 64. Austrian Pine Pinus nigra
  65. 65. Loblolly pine Pinus taeda
  66. 66. Scotch pine Pinus sylvestris
  67. 67. Shortleaf pine Pinus echinata
  68. 68. Eastern white pine Pinus strobus Kingdom: Plantae Division: Pinophyta Class: Pinopsida Order: Pinales Family: Pinaceae Genus: Pinus Subgenus: Strobus Species: P. strobes
  69. 69. White poplar Populus alba
  70. 70. Eastern redbud Cercis canadensis
  71. 71. Eastern redcedar Juniperus virginiana
  72. 72. Colorado Spruce Picea pungens
  73. 73. Norway spruce Picea abies
  74. 74. Sweetgum Liriodendron tulipifera
  75. 75. Black walnut Juglans nigra
  76. 76. Black willow Salix nigra
  77. 77. Western soapberry Sapindus drummondi

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