Chapter 2 identification

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Chapter 2 identification

  1. 1. Ben Grossman St. Charles County Parks and Rec. Certified Arborist #MW-4418AM Chapter 2. Tree Identification
  2. 2. Key Terms <ul><li>Alternate Foliage Lobe Pinnate </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm Genus Monocotyledon Serrate </li></ul><ul><li>Class Gymnosperm Morphology Species </li></ul><ul><li>Conifer Identification key Nomenclature Specific epithet </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivar Kingdom Opposite Taxonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Dicotyledons Leaf apex Order Variety </li></ul><ul><li>Division Leaf base Palmate Whorled </li></ul><ul><li>Family Leaf margin Phylum </li></ul>
  3. 3. Plant Classification <ul><li>K ingdom Plantae </li></ul><ul><li>D ivision or Phylum Magnoliophyta (angiosperms) </li></ul><ul><li>C lass Magnoliopsida </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(dicotyledons) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Gymnosperms “naked” seeds. Pine, Fir, Cypress, Juniper, Spruce, Ginkgo, Dawn Redwood Seeds are not covered by an ovule .
  5. 5. Angiosperms <ul><li>Seeds are surrounded by ovule </li></ul><ul><li>Deciduous trees, broad-leaved evergreens </li></ul><ul><li>Monocotyledons </li></ul><ul><li>One seed leaf </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel veination </li></ul><ul><li>Scattered vascular bundles </li></ul><ul><li>Floral parts in 3’s </li></ul><ul><li>Dicotyledons </li></ul><ul><li>Two cotyledons </li></ul><ul><li>Net veined leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Vascular bundles in a ring </li></ul><ul><li>Floral parts in 4’s and 5’s </li></ul>
  6. 7. Angiosperms <ul><li>Seeds are surrounded by ovule </li></ul><ul><li>Deciduous trees, broad-leaved evergreens </li></ul><ul><li>Monocotyledons </li></ul><ul><li>One seed leaf </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel veination </li></ul><ul><li>Scattered vascular bundles </li></ul><ul><li>Floral parts in 3’s </li></ul><ul><li>Dicotyledons </li></ul><ul><li>Two cotyledons </li></ul><ul><li>Net veined leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Vascular bundles in a ring </li></ul><ul><li>Floral parts in 4’s and 5’s </li></ul>
  7. 8. Monocots vs. Dicots
  8. 9. Plant Classification <ul><li>K ingdom Plantae </li></ul><ul><li>D ivision or Phylum Magnoliophyta (angiosperms) </li></ul><ul><li>C lass Magnoliopsida </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(dicotyledons) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>O rder Sapindales </li></ul><ul><li>F amily Fagaceae </li></ul><ul><li>G enus Quercus </li></ul><ul><li>S pecific epithet palustris </li></ul>
  9. 10. Plant Nomenclature <ul><li>Nomenclature is the naming of plants </li></ul><ul><li>Developed in 1753 by Carolus Linnaeus </li></ul>Acer rubrum ‘ Brandywine’ Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis ‘ Shademaster ’
  10. 11. American Hornbeam, Blue Beech, Ironwood, or Muscle wood?
  11. 12. What’s in a Name? <ul><li>Genus Quercus </li></ul><ul><li>Species Quercus rubra L. </li></ul><ul><li>Quercus spp. </li></ul><ul><li>Subspecies Quercus ilex ssp. Ballota </li></ul><ul><li>Variety Quercus garryana var. breweri </li></ul><ul><li>Forma Cornus florida f. rubra </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivar Fraxinus uhdei ‘Majestic Beauty’ </li></ul><ul><li>Patented cultivar Betula nigra Heritage® </li></ul><ul><li>Trademark cultivar Betula nigra Dura-Heat™ </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid Quercus x schuettei (bur x swamp white) </li></ul>
  12. 13. Principles of Identification <ul><li>Morphology : Size, Shape, and Appearance of plant parts. These include trunk form and texture, twigs, </li></ul><ul><li>leaves, flowers and fruit. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Leaf and Bud Arrangement opposite — leaves occurring in pairs at the nodes alternate — leaves arranged singly at intervals along the stems whorled — leaves occurring three or more at a single node
  14. 15. Big M.A.D. Cap. Buck <ul><li>Big = Bignoniacea (trumpet creeper, Catalpa ) </li></ul><ul><li>M = Maple ( Acer ) </li></ul><ul><li>A = Ash ( Fraxinus ) </li></ul><ul><li>D = Dogwood ( Cornus ) </li></ul><ul><li>Cap. = Caprifoliaceae (viburnums, honeysuckle) </li></ul><ul><li>Buck = Buckeye </li></ul>
  15. 16. Leaf Arrangement simple pinnately compound palmately compound bi-pinnately compound
  16. 17. Leaf Arrangement 2 needles/fascicle 3 needles/fascicle 5 needles/fascicle
  17. 18. Leaf Anatomy
  18. 19. Leaf Margins entire — a leaf margin that is smooth without teeth or lobes undulate — a leaf margin that is wavy serrate — a leaf margin that has pointed teeth that are directed upward doubly serrate — a serrate leaf margin where the primary teeth support another set of teeth crenate — a leaf margin that has rounded teeth lobed — a segmented leaf having pointed or rounded extensions separated by sinuses that do not extend more than halfway to the midrib sinus — the space or indentation between the lobes of a leaf blade
  19. 20. Leaf Base cuneate — wedge-shaped obtuse — rounded cordate — heart-shaped truncate — squared or abruptly cut off oblique — asymmetrical, unequally sided
  20. 21. Leaf Apices acute — slightly pointed acuminate — sharply pointed bristle-tipped — sharply pointed tip truncate — squared or abruptly cut off obtuse — rounded
  21. 22. Bud Anatomy
  22. 23. Pith Characteristics Chambered Spongy Solid Star Angular Round
  23. 24. Bark Characteristics <ul><li>Think Texture… </li></ul>• Think Texture
  24. 25. Fruit Types berry — a simple, fleshy fruit, with seeds embedded in a pulpy mass (persimmon) drupe — a one-seeded, fleshy fruit with the seed inclosed in a stony wall (cherry, sugarberry, holly) capsule — a dry fruit which splits open into two or more parts at maturity (sourwood) legume — a dry fruit with two seams in the outer wall (black locust) nut — a hard-shelled, dry fruit, sometimes with a outer covering or husk (hickory, oak acorn, black walnut) dehiscent — the opening by slits or valves of an outer fruit covering indehiscent — an outer fruit covering that does not open by slits or valves pome — a fleshy fruit, with seeds incased by a papery wall (apple) nutlet — a small nut (riverbirch) samara — a winged, one-cell, one-seeded, dry fruit (elm; double samara — maple) multiple — a fruit formed from several flowers into a single structure having a common axis multiple of capsules -- sweetgum multiple of follicles — magnolia multiple of samaras — yellow-poplar, ash multiple of nutlets — sycamore, birch
  25. 26. Tree Growth Forms Excurrent Decurrent
  26. 27. Excurrent
  27. 28. Quiz Questions / Break
  28. 29. Green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica
  29. 30. White ash Fraxinus americana
  30. 31. Bald cypress Taxodium distichum
  31. 32. American basswood Tilia americana
  32. 33. River birch Betula nigra
  33. 34. Ohio Buckeye Aesculus glabra
  34. 35. Southern Catalpa Catalpa bignonioides
  35. 36. Black cherry Prunus serotina
  36. 37. Eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides
  37. 38. Crabapple Malus spp.
  38. 39. Flowering Dogwood Cornus florida
  39. 40. American elm Ulmus americana
  40. 41. Siberian elm Ulmus pumila
  41. 42. Ginkgo, Maidenhair tree Ginkgo biloba
  42. 43. Golden raintree Koelreuteria paniculata
  43. 44. Hackberry Celtis occidentalis
  44. 45. Hawthorn Crataegus spp .
  45. 46. Shagbark Hickory Carya ovata
  46. 47. Honeylocust Gleditsia triacanthos
  47. 48. Kentucky coffeetree Gymnocladis dioicus
  48. 49. Littleleaf Linden Tilia cordata
  49. 50. Black locust Robinia psuedoacacia
  50. 51. Amur maple Acer ginnala
  51. 52. Boxelder Acer negundo
  52. 53. Norway maple Acer platenoides
  53. 54. Red maple Acer rubrum
  54. 55. Silver maple Acer saccharinum
  55. 56. Sugar Maple Acer saccharum
  56. 57. Mulberry Morus spp.
  57. 58. Bur oak Quercus macrocarpa
  58. 59. Northern red oak Quercus rubra
  59. 60. Pin oak Quercus palustris
  60. 61. Post oak Quercus stellata
  61. 62. Shumard oak Quercus shumardii
  62. 63. Swamp white oak Quercus bicolor
  63. 64. White oak Quercus alba
  64. 65. Osage orange Maclura pomifera
  65. 66. Callery pear Pyrus calleryana
  66. 67. Pecan Carya illinoensis
  67. 68. Persimmon Diospyros virginiana
  68. 69. Austrian Pine Pinus nigra
  69. 70. Loblolly pine Pinus taeda
  70. 71. Scotch pine Pinus sylvestris
  71. 72. Shortleaf pine Pinus echinata
  72. 73. Eastern white pine Pinus strobus
  73. 74. White poplar Populus alba
  74. 75. Eastern redbud Cercis canadensis
  75. 76. Eastern redcedar Juniperus virginiana
  76. 77. Colorado Spruce Picea pungens
  77. 78. Norway spruce Picea abies
  78. 79. Sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua
  79. 80. Black walnut Juglans nigra
  80. 81. Black willow Salix nigra
  81. 82. Western soapberry Sapindus drummondi

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