Ann Cudworth (Annabelle Fanshaw) will present a comprehensive overview of process for designing an effective virtual environment for teaching, training and entertainment. She will be presenting an early look at the information from her book "Virtual World Design" which will be published in early 2014. She will also share mesh and methodologies for using it across OpenSim, Second Life and Unity3D platforms. Ann Cudworth (Annabelle Fanshaw) is an Emmy award winning set designer in the physical world, and creator of virtual environments in the Metaverse. She and her build team have been making interactive landscapes and story/game sims in Second Life and OpenSim since 2008. In early 2014, Taylor and Francis will publish her first book- "Virtual World Design". Excerpts from that will be included in this workshop.
Hello EveryoneSo glad you all could make itToday I would like to show you some interesting ideas and concepts that I discovered while I was writing my new book- Virtual World Design.In some cases, I had actually been using these concepts, and didn’t know their formal names.And in other cases I discovered that I could use them to create more emergent design.A delightful event in either case.
I would like you to think about these three things while I show these to you.1- how to play with concepts as you design2- how to use them as tools to get a better design3- how to foster emergence in your designing
Let’s look at Illusion, Perception, and the History of Virtual Worlds for a bit:First we had Conceptual and Philosophical ideas:Plato believed that our experience was only a shadow of the real and unknowable Forms, his version of a virtual world.Almost 400 years after Aristotle, Pliny the Elder wrote about illusion and human perception.Immanuel Kant’s writing influenced Magritte, the French surrealist painterThen we got some 2D tech together:The Camera Obscura led to the invention of photographyProjected images began with the Magic LanternThe Lumière brothers created a new cinematic reality.And then we invented the computer and how to make virtual space:In 1974, “Maze War” was created, an early ancestor of the first person shooter game.First instance of avatars, game space maps, and a first person 3D perspective within the game space. By 1978, the first MUD (Multi-User Dungeon) arrived. Known as the “Essex MUD”By 1986, Lucasfilm Games, Quantum Link and Fujitsu had opened “Habitat”. This was a significant step towards creating online gaming communities in virtual worlds.In 1993, “Doom” created the foundation of a gamer sub-cultureEverQuest and Runescape were early members of the online virtual world MMORPG.In the early 2000’s, the virtual worlds of Second Life, and There, combined social connection with user generated content in a virtual world market.In 2007, OpenSimulator arrived and started the creation of a system of virtual world grids, the foundation of a 3D internet. Kinect for Xbox 360 has been hacked , Oculus Rift Head Mounted Display is shipping As Designers of virtual worlds, you will be well served to know the history of its concepts and devices, it is a rich source of ideas.
For a few minutes, imagine your favorite childhood space. Perhaps it was the dinosaur exhibit of your local museum, or the corridors of your elementary school, or your backyard. In your mind’s eye, take a walk through that place, remembering the size, and shape of each area, and the objects, furniture and architectural elements it contained. When you first perceived the objects in this environment, your brain made comparisons to other kinds of objects.Comparisons of scale, and shape, color and outline. You may have been looking at a lighthouse, And your brain was comparing it to other lighthouses or tall vertical structures.The objects in that environment have been stored in your memory. You may have seen a tree.Whether you call it a tree, or arbre, or árbol, in your native speaking language, it represents a 3D form in your mind, and that form is part of the universal language of forms we use to create a virtual 3D environment. This collection of forms, stored in your memory, allows you to “time travel” to places that may no longer exist. As a designer, you need to allow yourself to be inspired by your encoded memories. Utilize your “Vis uo spatial sketchpad”, your “Inner Eye” which stores these forms for you, and calls them back up when inspiration strikes.Rediscover this great repository you have been adding to since you were a child, and utilize it as often as possible when you are designing, or teaching or just showing your children how to imagine new places.
Deciding what you want to do, and where you want to take 3D modeling is often the most difficult aspect of a project. When I was learning how to draw, and for me this was not an easy thing.I had a great teacher- John Wilson, who always said, look for the smaller parts of the whole.Every complex form can be broken down into simple geometric solids like cubes, spheres, and toriYou just have to look closely, and disassemble it in your mind’s eyeThat kind of exercise will strengthen your visualization muscles.This motorcycle model was made by Tim Widger, also known as Layton Destiny.He models exclusively in Blender, which as you may know is a free program.This image was made on our grid, Alchemy Sims Grid, using a water and sky windlight setting combo.
In all cultures of the world, color has emotional overtones spiritual meaningpsychological impactphysiological influenceand a socio-economic relationship. The most obvious example of this is represented by the flags of each nation. Colors chosen for corporate logos, seasonal fashion, uniforms, and industrial signage are all fascinating examples of how color serves global marketing, creates a company’s image, and is utilized to communicate with all cultures. Because blue is the universal favorite color, it is often used in multi-national corporate logos, such as IBM, also known as “Big Blue”.When you are designing a virtual world environment, you are designing for the real world too. Every designer working must have an awareness of what colors mean in the client’s native culture because it helps them communicate ideas with the client, and ultimately supports the client’s message. Here are some questions you should ask yourself as you prepare to design the color scheme of a new virtual environment.1) Who is your client, and what kind of culture do they want you to represent?2) What is the climate like in the virtual environment? 3) What country/region will this virtual environment represent?4) What demographic is this virtual environment designed for?5) What goals/effects/mood does your client hope to achieve?
In a virtual world, the images of the environments we light are made from a combination of the Red, Green and Blue diodes on the screen surface. These computer screen diodes, interestingly enough, mimic the color sensing cones inside our eye structure that are sensitive to red, green and blue frequencies. When various amounts of these three colors are mixed, the entire spectrum of colored light and its colored environment can be displayed for us on the screen surfaceThe color of light in the real world changes throughout the day, and is measured by a standard called “color temperature”. This phenomenon is imitated in the virtual environments of Second Life (Windlight system) and OpenSim (LightShare). As you can see fromthe middle diagram, color temperature and color of the light changes dramatically during the arc of a virtual day. During the midday period, the light has a high color temperature number of 15,000-27,000 K, and creates a “cool color” in the bluish range to our eyes (12PM-top picture). Conversely, sunset lighting produces a “warm colored” or yellow-orange light to our eyes, but has a low color temperature number of 2000-3000K.On the right side, 2 scenes from Stanley Kubrick’s films, “Barry Lyndon”, and “Eyes Wide Shut” have been recreated to display how color temperature in a virtual scene can be manipulated for machinima, just as it was for these films. In a nutshell, there are three basic things that lighting should do within a virtual environment. However you structure the arrangement of these lights, or change the materials on your forms and no matter how complex the environmental structures or characters; your lighting must illuminate the meaning (or purpose) of this environment, 2) support the mood(s), and 3) augment the visual style.
The IEZA (Interface, Effect, Zone, and Affect) is a design framework created by Sander Huiberts and Richard van Tol at the Utrecht School of the Arts (2003-2008)It is a useful structure to analyze and plan sound for virtual environments.They divided all the game/virtual space audio into 4 major categories: “Diegetic”, or sound coming from within the virtual environment such as your player’s footsteps, 2) “Non-Diegetic”, or sound from a source outside the virtual environment, such as a musical score, 3) “Setting”, which includes things like surf sounds at an ocean beach, and 4) “Activity”, for sounds that are related to what is happening. Within these four categories they have defined four domains, “Zone”, “Effect”, “Affect”, and “Interface”. While there is no specific recipe for creating the soundscape structure of a given virtual environment, this framework can be a valuable tool to help you analyze your audio plans. When the Alchemy Sims build group created the Alchemy/Particles region in Second Life, they built an environment that would tell the visitor in sound and notecards the historic tale of an imaginary population that once lived there. It was the tale of a native population who was contacted, modernized and then abandoned by an alien race that they called the Alchemists. The terrain of that region was subdivided and developed visually into areas that each defined an “Age” or era in the history of the now vanished civilization. With IEZA- uou can see how a storytelling soundscape was laid out across the region of Alchemy. As you plan your soundscape on the IEZA grid, think about what kind of virtual environment you want to develop and how that would be balanced across the framework. For example, would the sound design of a virtual nightclub with live musical acts appear only in the Interface zone or can it have some action in the Affect area too? Does a “God game” environment with your avatar ruling over all creation and destruction represent itself mostly in the Affect zone? Would getting a large roar from the dragon in your cave when you poke him draw too much focus away from all the dripping and slithering sounds going on around you? Think in terms of how you want to balance the soundscape of your environment, one large Interface sound effect might be enough to counterweigh a whole collection of Zone type effects, or perhaps you would like to balance Affect with Effect sounds. The choice is up to you.
Your avatar, no matter what manifestation you choose, human figure, fire breathing dragon, or anime doll, is the center of your experience in the virtual world. As you log into the simulator, the vertices take on the body shape you have chosen, modified and made into your own avatar. Your body is stretched or compressed, tinted or made invisible. Meshes and objects are added to create interesting things like wings and hooves. As you rezz into existence, many layers are added. First the shell of a shape and clothes are put on, then a gender (perhaps not your own in the physical world), and finally the social and virtual barriers that define your visibility to others, and availability for social contact.Avatars are the common denominators, the hub of your subjective experience, and the heuristic framework that allows you to observe relative scale and spatial qualities of the virtual environment. They are the representative self through which you can participate in communication (local chat, IM, passed links, etc.) and they are your co-creator (role-playing character) of the shared story in an MMORPG.Be careful about choosing an avatar in cyberspace. The psychological/physical connection to our virtual selves runs deep in our minds. For many people, self-observation and thinking of their avatar lights up the same areas of their brains during scans.Studies about the phenomenon of “body transfer illusion”, have demonstrated that a threat to your avatars body no matter how differently it looks from your actual body, will elicit the same physiological response as a threat to your real body.At the Stanford Virtual Human Interaction Lab (http://vhil.stanford.edu/) there are several research programs that study the body transfer illusion as well as other avatar/human related events. In one experiment they found that people using avatars with super powers to save a lost diabetic child in the virtual scenario would demonstrate a faster response to helping one of the lab assistants pick up a bunch of spilled pens after their virtual session was over. The scientists at the lab have found that more ecological behavior (such as using fewer paper napkins) will be demonstrated by people after they participate as virtual lumberjacks in the toppling of a virtual tree. Testing results have also shown that composite avatars that blend your real life face with a politicians face will make you more likely to vote for that politician.That’s scary.
There is nothing in virtual worlds with the potential to be more useful than a well-designed HUD, and there is also nothing that can be more annoying when it is poorly designed. Given the popularity of HUDs, most avatars would probably feel naked and vulnerable if they didn’t have them on, and yet, they can block your view, and at their worst, they make you feel disconnected by constantly reminding you of that pane of glass between you and the virtual environment. Over the last decade, video games have made some interesting developments in HUD design. Two major factors; the desire for increased immersion, and the desire for more customization, is driving this evolution of the screen design. Since virtual worlds have the screen interface in common with video games, some of this video game HUD design development has a useful application in our virtual world HUDs. In the next section you will be asked some design questions that help you design a better HUD.I have 2 questions for you to consider:Design consideration question # 1- regarding ImmersionWhat kind of immersion do I seek for my visitor/ player/ user and how does my HUD design contribute to that?For instance, consider the minimized use of a HUD in games like Peter Jackson's “King Kong” by Ubisoft (Xbox 360) . For much of this game, the HUD is not visible or much reduced, purposely contributing to the “cinematic” feel, by putting you in the movie within the game. In “Call of Duty 2” by Infinity Ward and Konami (Xbox360), the health bar which is so ubiquitous in video games has been replaced by a simple effect in the viewing frame . As your player’s health declines to dangerously low levels, the screen frame pulses red around the periphery, an elegant yet obvious symbol of impending death for your player if you do not seek aid. Design question #2 – regarding FlowHow can my HUD be designed so that it contributes to Flow, and increases the likelihood of Flow, each time the player returns to the game?Let’s suppose you could see the mind mechanism of a game player, or an avatar inhabiting their virtual world. If they are performing a complex task with a matching level of competency, you will probably find that they have entered a state called “Flow” .Perhaps you have experienced this sensation yourself. To be totally immersed in the world, focused on the task at hand, not cognizant of the time passing, or even of your surroundings, is to be in the state of “Flow”. Here we find an optimal mental environment for performance, learning, and creative expression. Your job as the HUD designer is 1) to enhance the desire to take on that challenge, by providing HUDs that are beautiful and simple to use, 2) create a HUD that can be customized to “fit” the players’ needs (including the capacity to turn it off or severely minimize it), and 3) visually and functionally integrate the HUD into the visual environment, so as not to interfere with the players’ sensation of immersion.
Here is a diagram that shows some of the interconnecting elements of your experience in a virtual world and the modes of storytelling. Essentially there are 2 ways to tell a story, you can talk about it (Diegesis) or you can show it (Mimesis). Both of these are going on simultaneously in most of the media produced today. In the center, is your subjective experience. You see the visual elements in a virtual world as you observe the architecture, landscape and cultural design, the characters of other avatars around you etc. You hear the narrative backstory when the avatars are roleplaying, or presenting a story, or even chatting in IM or local chat. All of this contributes to your temporal and spatial experiences in a virtual world, as well as the various diegetic and non-diegetic elements that enter into your awareness. Furthermore, your attention can be further divided by the effects of camera position, real life interruptions, your avatars position in space, the internet connection you have and other circumstantial things.Narrative is clearly evident in literature, film making or theatre, but when narrative is intertwined with virtual environments that contain immersive 3D design, it becomes much harder to separate and define. In a socially based virtual world, several kinds of narrative happen simultaneously. You are using your personal camera, your point of view, to record and store your visual choices, as a personal narrative that can be experienced collectively, in the 2D environment of a blog page and in the 3D environment of a virtual world. This personal narrative you are collecting may contain someone else’s first or third person narrative, so the collective mix can be deep with meaning. A fine example of this type of environment is the “War Poets Exhibition in Second Life” created by the University of Oxford, UK. It can be visited in the region called Frideswide in Second Life. Within this virtual wartime environment, you walk the trenches of the WW1 western front, seeing and feeling the dismal conditions while listening to sound clips of poetry and journal entries written by the soldiers who experienced it. There are also places for viewing video clips from current day historians who explain what happened there. You are now experiencing both Diegesis (the narrative telling of a story) and Mimesis (the showing or enacting of a story), simultaneously in this virtual environment. Spatial structure and temporal structure can become subjective in virtual environments, and that will influence the progression of narrative. One primary example of this is called “Phasing”. In World of Warcraft, and other MMORPGs the server holding the game content will selectively reveal (or phase) the content available to a player depending on the quests they have achieved. When a group of players is co-located and communicating, differences in what each one will see in the environment can lead to confusion. The WoW server puts a “phased” icon near their name card, but the group involved in a conversation or quest together may forget these differences in the heat of battle. If you decide to ponder this phenomenon, ask yourself “How does the verbal/visual language of my virtual environment create its own linguistic relativity, and how that does support the strength of my social connections within the virtual world and my personal narrative?”
Breaking your design perception away from the mindset that meeting rooms must look like their real space counterparts allows you to invent new usage patterns of a virtual space and new ways to communicate and engage. In 2007, Drew Harry from the MIT Media Lab designed a non-literal conference room in Second Life that looked like a football field, and gradated in color from Orange to Green.  Those members of the meeting who agreed with the topic being discussed were to congregate in the green end of the field, where it said “Agree”, and those who disagreed, were to be found at the orange end, where it was marked “Disagree”. Various other tools such as a Task List, and Dashboard allowed for the delegation of tasks to be assigned and accepted by participants, and for the moderator to change the overall look and resultant purpose of the environment by selecting new textures for the floor. Some images from Drew’s designs are show on the right.Fundamentally, the level of participation, when supported by the environment, increases when the environment interacts with the participants. Interactivity, when it is not complex or distracting, engages the attendees, asks them to communicate, and encourages memorable experiences.As a designer of social spaces for meetings and as a builder the “Ideagora” or a 3D meeting place for the exchange of ideas, you will be impacted by these three things: 1) The relative importance of an idea or the subject being observed is enhanced by the camera’s point of view2) An observer’s personal, subjective needs for involvement influences their choice of a point of view (or positional location) during the event3) Planned design for meeting places is crucial for supporting the importance of an idea being presented and allowing the attendee to witness all they need to see and hear.So, how do you focus the audience’s attention, direct their camera to collect the appropriate visual narrative, and also allow them to connect with their networks in a meaningful supportive way? Three words define the solution: 1) Presence, 2) Affordance and 3) Participation. Presence Create the strongest visual and audio quality you can to support the presence of the speakerAffordanceIn the physical world, affordance is the perceived and implied usage of an object, or 3D space, usually indicated by its design or markings. For instance, if you set up a half ring of chairs in a room surrounding a podium, almost everyone who looks at this arrangement would understand that people sit in the chairs to observe the central speaker’s presentation. ParticipationImmersion is the key word here. Break through the presentation barrier, and invite them to enter the audience space visually and aurally. Ask them to respond to your speaker’s presentation with voting, or by questions, or by moving around the space. By immersing the audience in the presentation as a collaborative event, by putting them in a place where they can move, and even make themselves into part of the presentational information, you will encourage a much higher level of engagement and participation from your audience.
Let’s look at the flow of design ideation. Each step of this design process flows into the next, and concepts from some steps may possibly flow into non-contiguous steps as well. Perhaps your initial design concept was inspired by a very interesting eight sided goblet you found at a flea market. The octagon shape informs your design approach on every level. With the pleasing symmetry of this regular polygon, rooms feel circular but are easier to build and furnish. Interconnections between other rooms, buildings, regions become simplified and organized due to the array of sides on this regular polygon. Where do virtual worlds fit in on this design cycle? Well, if you think about it, they fit in everywhere. All these design phases lend themselves to virtual world utilization. For instance, the development of an octagonal grid, created for a floor, or for a city plaza, can easily be realized in any virtual world, through the use of textures with an octagonal pattern on them, or with octagonal geometry. In fact, the octagonal pattern can even be used on the land textures to visually embed the theme and the terrain itself can be terraformed to octagonal patterns, perhaps resembling columnar basalt, or stepped terrain. How would you convey this octagonal concept to your client, your peers, or your class? It helps to “reverse engineer” the workflow in your mind. Start from the date of the presentation, and who will be seeing the proposal. What are their needs, and how do those relate to your message and the methodologies you will adopt to develop it? Let’s suppose your client wanted to launch a new resort and golf course in the Bahamas, called Octopus Bay. Thinking from the future goals, imagine moving backwards on that project. In your mind’s eye you look past the elegant octagonal paperweights that were printed as promotional items from the 3D model, and think of how you spent lots of time discussing the 8 sided ideas the client and your co-designers had. Farther back you remember 8 sided buildings and furnishings that were designed and how they subtly supported the idea of the octopus’s domain. All of these buildings were nested in a series of interconnected octagonal cul-de-sacs which spanned the octagonal network of your virtual designs. The client was with you every step of the way, even from their offices in the Bahamas. In fact they contributed some of the 3D design because they could get into the virtual world and rough out their ideas alongside you and your team. The proposal was a success, and even now someone is looking at that goblet and thinking of another project. Remember, a virtual world environment, all of it, is a tool. It’s an assembly floor for rapidly making models that embody ideas made visible to people everywhere. It is also a perpetual idea generator that can create its own internal source of content through the process of iteration and modification.
Our terrain defines us; we are mountain people, coastal dwellers, or plains residents. Terrain can provide our physical defense or force us to recognize our physical weakness, and throughout the world, sacred places on our terrain are a source of mythology or spiritual beliefs. Terrain in a virtual environment is 50% of the visitor’s visual experience. A flat terrain fills most of the frame when the avatars camera is in a default follow position. Understandably, a cityscape might be primarily flat, but even New York City has hills, and that terrain overlooks onto the canyons created by the skyscrapers. As a designer, you can create a terrain that has a powerful effect on the experience of your visitor, once you have mastered the fundamentals of loading and editing it in a virtual environment.After the land has been terraformed, the surface patch or terrain, takes on the distortions that provide for the creation of hills and valleys, mountains and coastlines in your virtual space.Just changing the landscape from flat into low hills adds more visual interest to your developing virtual scene, because it allows for the visitor to “discover” your space. Think about how you enter into a great valley from a mountain overpass, or how hills flatten down to the coastline as a river nears a sea. Each landscape we create in a virtual world can define the story of a voyage. If you utilize that “storytelling” concept in your design, it will have a great influence on your visitor’s perception of the environment and the contents you have built in it. For more aesthetic inspiration, to find the “mood” and “personality” in a landscape, look to the great landscape paintings throughout history.
Why do people buy virtual goods?There have been many reports and studies on this topic, as gaming companies work to build even more compelling reasons to buy virtual goods into their game play. The 3 basic reasons why people buy virtual goods are: 1) to establish and customize individual identity, 2) to communicate with others, and 3) to compete with others.CustomizationIt starts with your virtual identity. No player wants to keep the look of a default character from the game company; they all want to express their individuality. Virtual goods such as skins for your avatar, clothing, armor, wearable accessories like hair and shoes are usually the first purchases a player will make and something they will continue to update. This will extend to other virtual attributes such as pets, vehicles and houses, as the player seeks to gain status in the virtual community.CommunicationHuman beings virtually represented or not, need to communicate. Virtual goods can be given as gifts to express love, friendship, and other sentiments. Virtual cards, flowers, jewelry, and toys, are very popular. Body language in virtual worlds is just as important as it is in the real world. “Wearable” avatar animations, called Gestures, are created to express the nuances of communication across the spectrum of human emotion, and the market for them is enormous in Second Life as well as other virtual worlds like Minecraft and IMVU.CompetitionInvariably people will want to compete to gain status and wealth in a virtual world and will challenge and compete to get it. Virtual goods such as weapons, animations, magic spells, and the tools to make these with are always popular. There are extensive online sites where players can buy various items to “level up” their character in the games.Understanding the main forces that drive consumption of virtual goods, will allow you to intertwine your virtual content with gameplay and maximize the profit from your virtual goods market sales.
A chart that illustrates the “Build it Once” content flow for design development in Second Life, OpenSim, and Unity3D. The software was chosen to fit a workgroup that platform agnostic.This design method structure is focused around a “Shared Content Library” full of items with file formats that can be utilized by all the destination platforms. You should look for the common file formats that can be imported and exported from the software your team likes to use. Sure there are plenty of translators, Mesh Lab (http://meshlab.sourceforge.net/ ) is a fine example, but your goal here is to streamline the workflow as much as possible. Just because the final platform of your project will accept 18 file formats, doesn’t mean your team should be working with all of them. Try to utilize the most common file formats like the Collada (.dae format), the Autodesk (. fbx and .3ds formats), and you will have fewer translation issues. Bear in mind that it’s the Collada .dae, not the Autodesk .dae file format that is universally accepted in Second Life and OpenSim. The strength of using SketchUp Pro in this scenario is that your prototype models can be viewed in the virtual worlds and on Unity3D. Blender is a free program, so you can set up lots of workstations for an expanding team without much overhead. 3DSMax is an industry standard for Architecture, Filmmaking and Prototyping. There are probably some more software programs you like and want to include here, but these three will cover most of your needs and fit your price range.
In our virtual worlds we are at the crossroads of humanity. People of all ages and abilities are running their avatars across your landscapes. It is especially important that you consider all levels of ability when you design a virtual environment and make sure that you have created access in Visibility, Audibility, and Mobility. 9% of the male population of the world is red/green color blind. This can become problematic when you are using color to signal with, so always check your graphics with a color proof plug in that allows you to see the graphic as a color blind individual would. Also make sure the fonts and size of lettering is readable, and in a good clear contrast.To make the signage even more accessible, you can add in a proximity activated sound clip, that reads the pertinent information to the visitors. Also, having an audio component to your tour vehicles will support accessibility.Make sure your landscape is accessible, your doorways high enough for cameras, and hallways wide enough for turning around in with the camera in tow. Support the mobility of someone who may be using puffs of breath to move their avatar, by making sure there are no places they can fall into, or get stuck in. When you take the small amount of extra time to check these things, you assure yourself of a happier, more immersed visitor population.
In 1996, Bob Cringely wrote, “People care about people. We watch version after version of the same seven stories on television simply for that reason. More than 80 percent of our brains are devoted to processing visual information, because that’s how we most directly perceive the world around us. In time, all this will be mirrored in new computing technologies.” Bob Cringely was right, this progression towards visually based computing technologies is occurring universally. Just think about how much more graphic our screen interfaces have become, from the simple images of wrenches and gears meaning “this is the edit button and that’s the settings button” to the facial recognition on your cell phone.We are due for some major changes in our relationship with computing technology. Here are three major factors that will contribute to this new experience: 1) the end of Moore’s Law, 2) increased adoption of haptic technology and 3) increased customization of products in an interconnected world.In the process of writing this book, several technologies intertwined. The initial concepts and project plans were developed for it on the quick light modeling system of SketchUp, meetings about the design and content were held weekly in OpenSim and Second Life, and most of the figures that illustrate it were photographed in that virtual world using the client viewer Firestorm. This book would not have been possible a decade ago. Think of the options you will have just 5 years from now. All throughout, in the process of utilizing these new technologies, it will be smart to apply the concepts of “Build it Once” again. A wise designer would plan for the future by learning about the requirements of the new technologies as soon as possible, and incorporating them into their design methodology. You will be accessing the knowledge and techniques from the last 40,000 years, and choosing what critical path of those methods works best for you and your company.
Thanks for watching- I’ll take some questions now.
Virtual World Design: Creating Immersive Spaces for Teaching Training and Entertainment