Tools of our Trade (RDA, MARC21) 2010-03-15


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Guest lecture on cataloguing standards (RDA, MARC) for cataloguing module at London Metropolitan University.

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Tools of our Trade (RDA, MARC21) 2010-03-15

  1. 1. UKOLN is supported by: The Tools of our Trade: AACR2/RDA and MARC Guest lecture at London Metropolitan University 15 th March 2010 Ann Chapman Community and Outreach Team
  2. 2. What are our Tools? <ul><li>AACR/RDA = content standard for resource description and access </li></ul><ul><li>MARC = communication and exchange format providing a structure for encoding the content of bibliographic and authority data </li></ul><ul><li>Related to: </li></ul><ul><li>ISBD = rules that organise the display of a bibliographic description of an item in a catalogue </li></ul><ul><li>FRBR = a entity-relational model of the data required to find, identify, select and obtain resources </li></ul>
  3. 3. ISBDs <ul><li>International Standard Bibliographic Descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Developed 1969 onwards by IFLA </li></ul><ul><li>Defined seven areas of description and their order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement of Responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource specific information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publication details </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Series information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notes and standard identifiers </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. FRBR <ul><li>Functional Requirements of Bibliographic Records </li></ul><ul><li>IFLA study; report published 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Entity-relationship model that defines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks : find, identify, select, obtain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource relationships : work, expression, manifestation, item </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entity relationships : people, corporate bodies (agents) concepts, objects, events, places </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. AACR <ul><li>Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A content standard for bibliographic description and access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bibliographic – not just books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built on other, earlier sets of rules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One principle entry per resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalogue from item in hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief source of information </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. AACR timeline <ul><li>1967 UK and US editions </li></ul><ul><li>1978 Second unified edition, consistent with ISBDs; several further revisions </li></ul><ul><li>1997 Toronto conference on AACR2 </li></ul><ul><li>1998 FRBR </li></ul><ul><li>2005 Develop RDA not AACR3 </li></ul><ul><li>2010 RDA launch (provisional) </li></ul>
  7. 7. AACR 2 <ul><li>Part 1: Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 1: General rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapters 2 -12: Resource type - specific rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 13: Analytic entries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Part 2: Headings, Uniform Titles, References </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 21: Choice of access points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapters 22 – 26: Construction of access points </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appendices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A: Capitalisation, B: Abbreviations, C: Numerals, D: Glossary, E: Initial articles </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. What’s wrong with AACR? <ul><li>Increasingly complex </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of logical structure </li></ul><ul><li>Mixing content and carrier data </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical relationships missing </li></ul><ul><li>Anglo-American centric viewpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Written before FRBR </li></ul><ul><li>Not enough support for collocation </li></ul><ul><li>Unclear relationship with MARC Format </li></ul>
  9. 9. RDA – The Aims <ul><li>Rules should be easy to use and interpret </li></ul><ul><li>Be applicable to an online, networked environment </li></ul><ul><li>Provide effective bibliographic control for all types of media </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage use beyond the library community </li></ul><ul><li>Be compatible with other similar standards </li></ul><ul><li>Have a logical structure based on internationally agreed principles </li></ul><ul><li>Separate content and carrier data </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – more of them, more appropriate </li></ul>
  10. 10. Who is working on RDA? <ul><li>Joint Steering Committee (JSC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 representative each from: ACOC, ALA, BL, CCC, CILIP, LC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JSC reps consult with their ‘constituency’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In UK, CILIP/BL Committee on RDA plus specialist groups (e.g. Rare Books Group, IAML(UK & Ireland) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>And in the period 2005 to 2009 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RDA Editor: Tom Delsey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RDA Project Manager: Marjorie Bloss </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. And also <ul><li>Task focused working groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RDA GMD/SMD Working Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RDA and ONIX Initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RDA Examples Working Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RDA MARC Working Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DCMI RDA Task Group </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. How is RDA being developed? <ul><li>Draft – (responses – revised drafts – further responses, etc.) – acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Latest draft released 17 Nov. 2008; responses from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ACOC, ALA, BL, CCC, CILIP, LC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France, Germany, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, Sweden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISSN International Centre </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Final product – the publishers ( ALA , CILIP, CLA) </li></ul>
  13. 13. RDA Timelime <ul><li>2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prospectus and draft of chapters relating to description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content and carrier studies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2006 and 2007 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Further drafts of chapters on description and access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work on appendices and glossary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screenshot demo in August at IFLA conference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draft for consultation released in November </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2010 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Launch of online product (announced as June 2010) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2010 – 2011 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work on deferred issues </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. RDA Outline Structure <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sections 1 to 4 (chapters 1 to 16) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sections 5 to 10 (chapters 17 to 37) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appendices A to M </li></ul><ul><li>Glossary </li></ul>
  15. 15. What will RDA look like? - 1 <ul><li>Section 1: Recording manifestation attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ch. 1 General guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ch. 2 Identifying manifestations and items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ch. 3 Describing carriers (technical description) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ch. 4 Providing acquisition and access information (terms of availability, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. What will RDA look like? - 2 <ul><li>Section 2: Recording attributes of work and expression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ch. 5 General guidelines (incl. construction of access points for works and expressions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ch. 6 Identifying works and expressions (e.g. uniform and collective titles , etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ch. 7 Describing additional attributes of works and expressions (incl. nature and coverage of content, intended audience, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. What will RDA look like? - 3 <ul><li>Section 3 : Ch. 8, 9, 10, 11 Recording attributes of person, family and corporate body (= name headings ) </li></ul><ul><li>Section 4 : Ch. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 Recording attributes of concept, object, event and place (= subject headings ) </li></ul><ul><li>Section 5 : Ch. 17 Recording primary relationships between work, expression, manifestation and item </li></ul><ul><li>Section 6 : Ch. 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 Recording relationships to persons, families and corporate bodies associated with a resource </li></ul>
  18. 18. What will RDA look like? – 4 <ul><li>Section 7 : Ch. 23 Recording subject relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Section 8 : Ch. 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 Recording relationships between works, expressions, manifestations and items </li></ul><ul><li>Section 9 : Ch. 29, 30, 31, 32 Recording relationships between persons, families and corporate bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Section 10 : Ch. 33, 34, 35, 36, 37 Recording relationships between concepts, objects, events and places </li></ul>
  19. 19. What will RDA look like? - 5 <ul><li>Appendices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A: Capitalisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B: Abbreviations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C: Initial articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D: Record syntaxes for descriptive data (ISBD, M21, DC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E: Record syntaxes for access point control data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F: Additional instructions on names of persons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>G: Titles of nobility, rank, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H: Conversion of dates to Gregorian calendar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>J, K, L, M: Relationship designators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glossary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Index </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Using RDA <ul><li>Analyse the resource being described </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the content type? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Held in what carrier form? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To what other resources is it related? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To which persons, families or corporate bodies is it related? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To what concepts, events and places is it related? </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. One rule for all … <ul><li>Mostly: </li></ul><ul><li>Rules apply to all content types </li></ul><ul><li>Rules apply to all media types </li></ul><ul><li>With </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of application to specific content and media </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally: </li></ul><ul><li>Rules apply to specific materials or contents (e.g. treaties, religious texts, music) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Words, words, words … <ul><li>Can look opaque or ‘going round in circles’ </li></ul><ul><li>Trying to avoid reference to specific content and carriers </li></ul><ul><li>Hope to improve wording over time </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Use as the preferred source of information a source forming part of the resource itself that is appropriate to (a) the type of description and (b) the presentation format of the resource .’ </li></ul><ul><li>Means preferred source of information may vary according to: </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive or analytical description </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple pieces, early print, moving images, or ‘all other materials’ </li></ul>
  23. 23. RDA – What will it be? <ul><li>Online resource (full text) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free open access – June to 31 Aug. 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free month trial (not confirmed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US $325 for first user (sliding scale multiple users) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library schools – likely different but not decided </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potentially: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concise text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tailored texts (law, music, serials, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporation into LMS cataloguing modules </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. RDA and beyond <ul><li>RDA aims to be: </li></ul><ul><li>Independent of communication formats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UNIMARC, MARC, MARCXML, MODS/MADS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC, EAD, ISBD, VRA, MPEG7 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compatible / better aligned with other similar standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Archives: ISAD(G) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Museums: Cataloging Cultural Objects </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. RDA and MARC <ul><li>Mapping RDA and MARC 21 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Report issued in Nov. 2006; various proposals subsequently go through MARBI process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How will RDA impact on MARC 21? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some new fields / subfields are being defined </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How will MARC 21 impact on RDA? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data provisions in MARC 21 not covered in current draft of RDA </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. MARC – 1960s <ul><ul><li>Library of Congress project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Database of catalogue records </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Production of catalogue cards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US & UK versions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflected differing cataloguing practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developed in parallel but not identical ways </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. MARC – 1970s <ul><li>Variant formats developed </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on either US or UK formats (AUSMARC, DANMARC, KORMARC, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USMARC developed 8 material formats (Books, Serials, Maps, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>UNIMARC developed in 1977 by IFLA </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intended as exchange format </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used as the Bib format in some countries (e.g. France) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. MARC – Recent changes <ul><li>Expansion of USMARC to a family of formats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bibliographic, Holdings, Authority, Classification, Community Information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integration of USMARC bibliographic format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Previous 8 formats integrated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Widespread adoption of MARC 21 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some countries simply adopt USMARC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1997 – USMARC & CANMARC become MARC 21 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2003/4 – MARC 21 enhanced by UK proposals; British Library adopts MARC 21 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2006/7 – MARC 21 enhanced by German proposals: this will enable libraries to move from MAB to MARC 21 </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. MARC Structure <ul><li>Leader </li></ul><ul><li>0xx – control numbers, coded data </li></ul><ul><li>1xx – primary access point </li></ul><ul><li>2xx – description, GMD, edition, publication </li></ul><ul><li>3xx – physical description </li></ul><ul><li>4xx – series </li></ul><ul><li>5xx – notes </li></ul><ul><li>6xx – subject access points </li></ul><ul><li>7xx – additional access points </li></ul><ul><li>8xx – series added entries </li></ul><ul><li>9xx – local fields </li></ul>
  30. 30. Maintaining MARC 21 <ul><li>Twice yearly MARBI meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion papers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UK and MARC 21 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BIC Bibliographic Standards Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Some MARC changes for RDA <ul><li>New fields </li></ul><ul><ul><li>336 Content Type (Bib, Auth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>337 Media Type (Bib, Holdings) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>338 Carrier Type (Bib, Holdings) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>370 to 377 (Auth) (e.g. field of activity, occupation, gender, family information, associated language) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New codes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New codes in 007 (Bib, Holdings) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New codes in 008 (Bib) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See more detail at: </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. MARC and XML <ul><li>MARC has alpha-numeric 3-digit tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100.1 Personal Name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>245 $a Title $b Subtitle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>XML has element labels </li></ul><ul><ul><li><namePersonIndirectOrder> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><title> <titleSubtitle> <titleCoverTitle> </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Looking into the crystal ball <ul><li>FRBR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential influence on cataloguing systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority records, uniform titles, work records </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OPACs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple interfaces for different audiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More flexible search interfaces and displays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance for accessibility - supports all users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links (actual resources, restrictions, supporting or associated resources) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential use outside the library domain </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Contact details <ul><li>Ann Chapman </li></ul><ul><li>UKOLN </li></ul><ul><li>University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  35. 35. Creative Commons Licence <ul><li>This licence allows the slides to be reused and, if necessary, modified for non-commercial use provided acknowledgements are given to Ann Chapman and UKOLN and the same licence is used for such modified resources. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>