Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Tools of our Trade (RDA, MARC21) 2010-03-15


Published on

Guest lecture on cataloguing standards (RDA, MARC) for cataloguing module at London Metropolitan University.

Published in: Technology, Education

Tools of our Trade (RDA, MARC21) 2010-03-15

  1. 1. UKOLN is supported by: The Tools of our Trade: AACR2/RDA and MARC Guest lecture at London Metropolitan University 15 th March 2010 Ann Chapman Community and Outreach Team
  2. 2. What are our Tools? <ul><li>AACR/RDA = content standard for resource description and access </li></ul><ul><li>MARC = communication and exchange format providing a structure for encoding the content of bibliographic and authority data </li></ul><ul><li>Related to: </li></ul><ul><li>ISBD = rules that organise the display of a bibliographic description of an item in a catalogue </li></ul><ul><li>FRBR = a entity-relational model of the data required to find, identify, select and obtain resources </li></ul>
  3. 3. ISBDs <ul><li>International Standard Bibliographic Descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Developed 1969 onwards by IFLA </li></ul><ul><li>Defined seven areas of description and their order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement of Responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource specific information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publication details </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Series information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notes and standard identifiers </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. FRBR <ul><li>Functional Requirements of Bibliographic Records </li></ul><ul><li>IFLA study; report published 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Entity-relationship model that defines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks : find, identify, select, obtain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource relationships : work, expression, manifestation, item </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entity relationships : people, corporate bodies (agents) concepts, objects, events, places </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. AACR <ul><li>Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A content standard for bibliographic description and access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bibliographic – not just books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built on other, earlier sets of rules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One principle entry per resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalogue from item in hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief source of information </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. AACR timeline <ul><li>1967 UK and US editions </li></ul><ul><li>1978 Second unified edition, consistent with ISBDs; several further revisions </li></ul><ul><li>1997 Toronto conference on AACR2 </li></ul><ul><li>1998 FRBR </li></ul><ul><li>2005 Develop RDA not AACR3 </li></ul><ul><li>2010 RDA launch (provisional) </li></ul>
  7. 7. AACR 2 <ul><li>Part 1: Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 1: General rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapters 2 -12: Resource type - specific rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 13: Analytic entries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Part 2: Headings, Uniform Titles, References </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 21: Choice of access points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapters 22 – 26: Construction of access points </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appendices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A: Capitalisation, B: Abbreviations, C: Numerals, D: Glossary, E: Initial articles </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. What’s wrong with AACR? <ul><li>Increasingly complex </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of logical structure </li></ul><ul><li>Mixing content and carrier data </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical relationships missing </li></ul><ul><li>Anglo-American centric viewpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Written before FRBR </li></ul><ul><li>Not enough support for collocation </li></ul><ul><li>Unclear relationship with MARC Format </li></ul>
  9. 9. RDA – The Aims <ul><li>Rules should be easy to use and interpret </li></ul><ul><li>Be applicable to an online, networked environment </li></ul><ul><li>Provide effective bibliographic control for all types of media </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage use beyond the library community </li></ul><ul><li>Be compatible with other similar standards </li></ul><ul><li>Have a logical structure based on internationally agreed principles </li></ul><ul><li>Separate content and carrier data </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – more of them, more appropriate </li></ul>
  10. 10. Who is working on RDA? <ul><li>Joint Steering Committee (JSC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 representative each from: ACOC, ALA, BL, CCC, CILIP, LC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JSC reps consult with their ‘constituency’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In UK, CILIP/BL Committee on RDA plus specialist groups (e.g. Rare Books Group, IAML(UK & Ireland) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>And in the period 2005 to 2009 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RDA Editor: Tom Delsey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RDA Project Manager: Marjorie Bloss </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. And also <ul><li>Task focused working groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RDA GMD/SMD Working Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RDA and ONIX Initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RDA Examples Working Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RDA MARC Working Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DCMI RDA Task Group </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. How is RDA being developed? <ul><li>Draft – (responses – revised drafts – further responses, etc.) – acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Latest draft released 17 Nov. 2008; responses from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ACOC, ALA, BL, CCC, CILIP, LC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France, Germany, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, Sweden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISSN International Centre </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Final product – the publishers ( ALA , CILIP, CLA) </li></ul>
  13. 13. RDA Timelime <ul><li>2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prospectus and draft of chapters relating to description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content and carrier studies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2006 and 2007 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Further drafts of chapters on description and access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work on appendices and glossary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screenshot demo in August at IFLA conference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draft for consultation released in November </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2010 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Launch of online product (announced as June 2010) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2010 – 2011 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work on deferred issues </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. RDA Outline Structure <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sections 1 to 4 (chapters 1 to 16) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sections 5 to 10 (chapters 17 to 37) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appendices A to M </li></ul><ul><li>Glossary </li></ul>
  15. 15. What will RDA look like? - 1 <ul><li>Section 1: Recording manifestation attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ch. 1 General guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ch. 2 Identifying manifestations and items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ch. 3 Describing carriers (technical description) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ch. 4 Providing acquisition and access information (terms of availability, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. What will RDA look like? - 2 <ul><li>Section 2: Recording attributes of work and expression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ch. 5 General guidelines (incl. construction of access points for works and expressions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ch. 6 Identifying works and expressions (e.g. uniform and collective titles , etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ch. 7 Describing additional attributes of works and expressions (incl. nature and coverage of content, intended audience, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. What will RDA look like? - 3 <ul><li>Section 3 : Ch. 8, 9, 10, 11 Recording attributes of person, family and corporate body (= name headings ) </li></ul><ul><li>Section 4 : Ch. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 Recording attributes of concept, object, event and place (= subject headings ) </li></ul><ul><li>Section 5 : Ch. 17 Recording primary relationships between work, expression, manifestation and item </li></ul><ul><li>Section 6 : Ch. 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 Recording relationships to persons, families and corporate bodies associated with a resource </li></ul>
  18. 18. What will RDA look like? – 4 <ul><li>Section 7 : Ch. 23 Recording subject relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Section 8 : Ch. 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 Recording relationships between works, expressions, manifestations and items </li></ul><ul><li>Section 9 : Ch. 29, 30, 31, 32 Recording relationships between persons, families and corporate bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Section 10 : Ch. 33, 34, 35, 36, 37 Recording relationships between concepts, objects, events and places </li></ul>
  19. 19. What will RDA look like? - 5 <ul><li>Appendices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A: Capitalisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B: Abbreviations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C: Initial articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D: Record syntaxes for descriptive data (ISBD, M21, DC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E: Record syntaxes for access point control data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F: Additional instructions on names of persons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>G: Titles of nobility, rank, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H: Conversion of dates to Gregorian calendar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>J, K, L, M: Relationship designators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glossary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Index </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Using RDA <ul><li>Analyse the resource being described </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the content type? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Held in what carrier form? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To what other resources is it related? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To which persons, families or corporate bodies is it related? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To what concepts, events and places is it related? </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. One rule for all … <ul><li>Mostly: </li></ul><ul><li>Rules apply to all content types </li></ul><ul><li>Rules apply to all media types </li></ul><ul><li>With </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of application to specific content and media </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally: </li></ul><ul><li>Rules apply to specific materials or contents (e.g. treaties, religious texts, music) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Words, words, words … <ul><li>Can look opaque or ‘going round in circles’ </li></ul><ul><li>Trying to avoid reference to specific content and carriers </li></ul><ul><li>Hope to improve wording over time </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Use as the preferred source of information a source forming part of the resource itself that is appropriate to (a) the type of description and (b) the presentation format of the resource .’ </li></ul><ul><li>Means preferred source of information may vary according to: </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive or analytical description </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple pieces, early print, moving images, or ‘all other materials’ </li></ul>
  23. 23. RDA – What will it be? <ul><li>Online resource (full text) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free open access – June to 31 Aug. 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free month trial (not confirmed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US $325 for first user (sliding scale multiple users) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library schools – likely different but not decided </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potentially: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concise text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tailored texts (law, music, serials, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporation into LMS cataloguing modules </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. RDA and beyond <ul><li>RDA aims to be: </li></ul><ul><li>Independent of communication formats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UNIMARC, MARC, MARCXML, MODS/MADS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC, EAD, ISBD, VRA, MPEG7 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compatible / better aligned with other similar standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Archives: ISAD(G) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Museums: Cataloging Cultural Objects </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. RDA and MARC <ul><li>Mapping RDA and MARC 21 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Report issued in Nov. 2006; various proposals subsequently go through MARBI process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How will RDA impact on MARC 21? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some new fields / subfields are being defined </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How will MARC 21 impact on RDA? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data provisions in MARC 21 not covered in current draft of RDA </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. MARC – 1960s <ul><ul><li>Library of Congress project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Database of catalogue records </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Production of catalogue cards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US & UK versions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflected differing cataloguing practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developed in parallel but not identical ways </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. MARC – 1970s <ul><li>Variant formats developed </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on either US or UK formats (AUSMARC, DANMARC, KORMARC, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USMARC developed 8 material formats (Books, Serials, Maps, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>UNIMARC developed in 1977 by IFLA </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intended as exchange format </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used as the Bib format in some countries (e.g. France) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. MARC – Recent changes <ul><li>Expansion of USMARC to a family of formats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bibliographic, Holdings, Authority, Classification, Community Information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integration of USMARC bibliographic format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Previous 8 formats integrated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Widespread adoption of MARC 21 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some countries simply adopt USMARC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1997 – USMARC & CANMARC become MARC 21 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2003/4 – MARC 21 enhanced by UK proposals; British Library adopts MARC 21 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2006/7 – MARC 21 enhanced by German proposals: this will enable libraries to move from MAB to MARC 21 </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. MARC Structure <ul><li>Leader </li></ul><ul><li>0xx – control numbers, coded data </li></ul><ul><li>1xx – primary access point </li></ul><ul><li>2xx – description, GMD, edition, publication </li></ul><ul><li>3xx – physical description </li></ul><ul><li>4xx – series </li></ul><ul><li>5xx – notes </li></ul><ul><li>6xx – subject access points </li></ul><ul><li>7xx – additional access points </li></ul><ul><li>8xx – series added entries </li></ul><ul><li>9xx – local fields </li></ul>
  30. 30. Maintaining MARC 21 <ul><li>Twice yearly MARBI meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion papers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UK and MARC 21 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BIC Bibliographic Standards Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Some MARC changes for RDA <ul><li>New fields </li></ul><ul><ul><li>336 Content Type (Bib, Auth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>337 Media Type (Bib, Holdings) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>338 Carrier Type (Bib, Holdings) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>370 to 377 (Auth) (e.g. field of activity, occupation, gender, family information, associated language) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New codes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New codes in 007 (Bib, Holdings) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New codes in 008 (Bib) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See more detail at: </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. MARC and XML <ul><li>MARC has alpha-numeric 3-digit tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100.1 Personal Name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>245 $a Title $b Subtitle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>XML has element labels </li></ul><ul><ul><li><namePersonIndirectOrder> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><title> <titleSubtitle> <titleCoverTitle> </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Looking into the crystal ball <ul><li>FRBR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential influence on cataloguing systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority records, uniform titles, work records </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OPACs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple interfaces for different audiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More flexible search interfaces and displays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance for accessibility - supports all users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links (actual resources, restrictions, supporting or associated resources) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential use outside the library domain </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Contact details <ul><li>Ann Chapman </li></ul><ul><li>UKOLN </li></ul><ul><li>University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  35. 35. Creative Commons Licence <ul><li>This licence allows the slides to be reused and, if necessary, modified for non-commercial use provided acknowledgements are given to Ann Chapman and UKOLN and the same licence is used for such modified resources. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>