Definition?A multimedia instructional message is a communication usingwords and pictures that is intended to promote learning.For example, a multimedia instructional message in a bookcould include printed text and illustrations, whereas amultimedia instructional message on a computer could includenarration and animation. Richard Mayer (2003) p.21 Multimedia Learning
MULTIMEDIA DESIGN7 principles of multimedia design
7 principle of multimedia design Multimedia principle: Students learn better from words and pictures than from words alone. Spatial Contiguity Principle: Students learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented near rather than far from each other on the page or screen. Temporal Contiguity Principle: Students learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented simultaneously rather than successively. Coherence Principle: Students learn better when extraneous words, pictures, and sounds are excluded rather than included. Modality Principle: Students learn better from animation and narration than from animation and on-screen text. Redundancy Principle: Students learn better from animation and narration than from animation, narration, and on-screen text. Individual Differences Principle: Design effects are stronger for low-knowledge learners than for high-knowledge learners and for high-spatial learners rather than low-spatial learners.
Colour Fashion Colours go in and out of fashion. Bright colours are used to demand attention and make a statement. Designers of luxury items want their products to appear reputable and durable, and be seen to outlast the fashion of the day; gaudy colours such as bright pinks and yellows are unlikely.
Colour The environment Australians live in a hot, dry environment so often use cool colours (such as pastel tints) in their buildings to make their physical environment seem cooler. In a European environment that is predominantly cold you tend to see warm, bright primary colours, creating a cheerful, cosy illusion.
Colour Culture Culture and history shape colour choice. If you visit Asia you will find temples painted in bright, primary colours. A European church is more likely to have more sombre colours.
Contrast Contrast can be the most important visual aspect of a page. The principle is to avoid elements on the page that are merely similar – if they are not the same – then make them VERY different.Purpose: To create interest Aid in the organisation of information Supports visual hierarchy Eg. use of colour
Repetition Repeat visual elements throughout – colour, shape, etc. Develops organisation and strengthens the unity.Purpose: To unify and add interest For consistency Eg. navigation, colour identifiers, layout – anything your learner may visually recognize. Avoid repeating the element so much that it becomes annoying and distracts from the message
Alignment Nothing should be placed on your page randomly. Every element should have some visual connection with another element on the page. This creates a clean, sophisticated look.Purpose: To unify and organize your page design Be conscious of where you place your elements – always try to find something that aligns themAvoid: More than 1 type of text alignment on the same page Don’t always centre align
Proximity Items relating to each other should be group close together. Items in close proximity become one visual unit rather than several separate, unrelated units.Purpose: Reduces clutter and confusing your reader Organizes information – reduces cognitive load Logical information is more likely to be remembered
References and acknowledgements Mayer, Richard E. & Moreno, Roxana 2003, Nine Ways to Reduce Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning in Educational Psychologist, 38 (1), pp43-52. Clark, Ruth Colvin & Mayer, Richard, 2002, e-Learning and the Science of Instruction, Pfeiffer, USA. Gotz, V. 1998, Color & Type for the Screen, Rotovision SA, Switzerland Kristof, Ray & Satran, A 1995, Interactivity by Design – Creating & Communicating with New Media, Adobe Press, USA Lynch, Patrick J. & Horton, Sarah 1999, Web Style Guide – Basic Design Principles for Creating Web Sites, Yale University Press. Williams, Robin 1994, The Non-designer’s Design Book, Peachpit Press, USA This presentation is adapted from the 2009 E-learning Design Activity Guide compiled by Anne Bartlett-Bragg.