Michigan Energy Forum - May 2, 2013


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Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) and other green building standards are setting a new bar for energy efficiency in the built environment. Michigan has seen it's share of highly visible success stories recently which have been driven by visionary architects, builders and property owners. Our expert panel will discuss implications for goal setting, strategies, new technologies, public policy and career opportunities.

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  • Too many buildings are being dismissed before their timeRationale cherished buildings will be preserved(how do we create buildings that people will want to occupy)Show examples of demolished buildings that only lasted a few years (World’s Fair Ferris Wheel??, Pruitt Igoe (Minuro Yamasaki), Cabrinni Green, Ford Auditorium, Sanders Hall, Riverfront coliseum, Highland Park Assembly, Packard Motors, etc. buildings that we want to tear down – Joe Louis stadium, Summitt Place Mall, etc.)Hellmuth, Obata + Kassabaum
  • For years, the human race has taken pride in conquering the realities of the harsh environments that we survive within. We have been able to create built environments for ourselves in the most extreme climates where we can live and work. We are just now becoming aware of the impacts of our prowess and are realizing that the real advancement of our species is not about conquering and overcoming, but about living within the balance of the ecosystems that we inhabit. The impact of our growing population is now having a consequential effect on the ability of the planet to support life in the manner that we have come to expect.Quite simply, Sustainable Design is smart planning in order to preserve and maintain the quality of life that we enjoy today for ourselves and our children. We probably cannot destroy the planet by ourselves, but we are finding it quite possible to degrade our life experiences by continuing with current unchecked patterns of development and consumption.
  • The growth in human population over the past 50 years has been extraordinary.In 1959, the World Population consisted of 3 billion people; it is expected to hit 9 billion by 2043; current population in 2010 is 6.854 billion people (32% increase in just 33 years).U.S. Population is 310 million, expected to hit 415 million by 2043; was 180 million in 1959The growth in human population over the past 50 years has been extraordinary.In 1959, the World Population consisted of 3 billion people - expected to hit 9 billion by 2043; (7 billion at the end of 2011 - U.S. Census Bureau)U.S. Population is 310 million, expected to hit 415 million by 2043; was 180 million in 1959
  • A growing population needs more resources.Buildings account for ¾ of all electrical consumption in the U. S.
  • In the U. S., we use 8 times as much electricity as the rest of the world.Figure 1 shows the huge increase in world energy consumption that has taken place in roughly the last 200 years. This rise in energy consumption is primarily from increased fossil fuel use. Figure 1. World Energy Consumption by Source, Based on Vaclav Smil estimates from Energy Transitions: History, Requirements and Prospects together with BP Statistical Data for 1965 and subsequentWith energy consumption rising as rapidly as shown in Figure 1, it is hard to see what is happening when viewed at the level of the individual. To get a different view, Figure 2 shows average consumption per person, using world population estimates by Angus Maddison.Figure 2. Per capita world energy consumption, calculated by dividing world energy consumption shown in Figure 1 by population estimates, based on Angus Maddison data.On a per capita basis, there is a huge spurt of growth between World War II and 1970. There is also a small spurt about the time of World War I, and a new spurt in growth recently, as a result of growing coal usage in Asia.World per Capita Energy ConsumptionLet’s look first at Figure 2. Prior to 1900, energy per capita did not rise very much with the addition of coal energy, suggesting that the early use of coal mostly offset other fuel uses, or permitted larger families. There was a small increase in energy consumption per capita during World War I, but a dip during the depression prior to World War II.Between World War II and 1970, there was a huge ramp-up in energy consumption per capita. There are several reasons why this might happen:During this period, European countries and Japan were rebuilding after World War II.There was a need to find jobs for returning US soldiers, so that the country would not fall back into the recession it was in prior to World War II.The US had a large oil industry that it wanted to develop, in order to provide jobs and tax revenue.Major infrastructure development projects were put into place during this period, including the Eisenhower Interstate System and substantial improvements to the electrical transmission system.To facilitate purchases both by companies and by consumers, the government encouraged the use of debt to pay for the new good. Figure 3, below, from my post, The United States’ 65-Year Debt Bubble, shows that non-governmental debt did indeed rise during this period.Figure 5 shows that the first periods a large percentage increases in energy use occurred about the time of World War I. A second spurt in energy use started about the time of World War II. Population increased a bit with the first spurt in energy use, but did not really take off until the second spurt. Part of the population rise after World War II may be related to the invention of antibiotics–Penicillin (1942), Streptomycin (1943), and Tetracycline (1955). Use of energy to upgrade water and sewer services, and to sterilize milk and to refrigerate meat, may have made a difference as well. Life expectancy in the US grew from 49 in 1900 to 70 in 1960, contributing to population growth.Since 1970, the rate of increase in world population has declined. One reason for this decline may be the use of oral contraceptives. These were first approved for use in the United States in 1960. Other reasons might include more education for women, and more women entering into the paid work force.A person can see that in the most recent decade (2000 to 2010), per capita energy use is again rising rapidly. Let’s look at some detail, to see better what is happening.Source: Our Finite WorldGail TverbergHistorical Statistics of the United States, Millennial Edition, volume 1, p 385-6, summarizes the trends in mortality
  • The majority of our existence is spent inside environments that we have built for ourselves, including places of domicile, work, and leisure.I believe that the built environments that we regularly occupy do affect our well-being, including our health, safety as well as productivity and effectiveness. These buildings can directly influence our very spirit. Consider Winston Churchill’s adage “We shape our buildings, and they then shape us”.Architecture, if designed appropriately, does have healing capabilities.
  • Productivity in green buildings is higher due to a reduction of health related ailments and absenteeism, as well as improved occupant satisfaction with their surroundings. As a result, these buildings often lease faster and for a higher rate.A recent survey by the Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA) revealed that more developers and building owners are interested in developing sustainable buildings and have found rewards when doing so. I am suggesting those built environments that positively affect our human senses are intrinsically most desirable, and will be more highly sought.
  • Building enclosure upgradesNew roof insulation and ‘White’ membraneFoamed in wall insulation1,915 new windows (double pane, thermally broken frames)Water use reductionDrip irrigation Low-flow fixturesEnvironmentally-friendly building refrigerantR-410AMechanical Energy Efficiency Water source heat pumpsHeat exchange and recoveryDual rotary heat recovery wheelsDemand control ventilation99% Efficient boilers reduce emissions (low-NOx, low-CO2, low decibel)BMS with reset schedule fornon-occupied hours20% operating cost reduction(14.8 year simple payback)Electrical UpgradesPower Distribution – switchgear, transformersLighting (20% improvement from ASHRAE 90.1 2004 req’ts, lighting controls w/ partial M & V)
  • The recently completed 300,000gsf Henry Ford West Bloomfield Hospital (300 beds) is of a size and complexity that is, by nature, challenging for many to navigate. The act of passage is celebrated in this building and the atrium spine is the orientational element of the design.
  • Green Features and StrategiesLocal and HealthyNorthern Michigan themed architectureBuilding Materials within 500 miles of project site85% Construction Waste reductionOrganic Hospital FoodLocal, organic food prepared in KitchenPublic Café – healthy food choicesDemonstration Kitchen - healthy meals preparationClean Air and Energy EfficiencyThree phased filtration (Strion Air)Low emitting building products and finishesGreen housekeeping practicesNegative pressured patient rooms (limit air transfer)Economizer cycle utilized 9 months/yearFree cooling heat exchangersVariable frequency drive (VFD) motorsEnergy efficient building envelop (including glass)Motion controlled lighting
  • Michigan Energy Forum - May 2, 2013

    1. 1. ©AnnArborSPARKMichigan Energy Forum:Energy Efficient Design in the BuiltEnvironmentMay 2, 2013
    2. 2. C.S. Mott Children’s HospitalVon Voigtlander Women’sHospitalMichigan Energy ForumLoree Collett RN, BSN, MSBAAssociate Hospital DirectorMay 2, 2013
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    4. 4. 4Building Facts• 1.1 million square feet– 12 story inpatient tower• 348 private beds– 9 story outpatient clinic• 24 Specialty clinics– Dedicated Pediatric Emergency Room• ~2,500 employees
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    8. 8. 8LEED Design• Part of initial design process– Commitment from senior leadershipto include LEED in planning– Sustainable site• Construction responsibilities• 86.64% of waste management recycled–not to landfill
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    10. 10. 10LEED DesignWater efficiency– Green Roof• Reduce water runoff• Reduce energy loss• Improve life span of the roof• 7 Plants– 70,000 seedlings
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    14. 14. 14LEED Design• Energy and Atmosphere– LED lighting– Occupancy sensors– Mid-level HVAC systems• Materials and Resources– Recycle materials– Wood products– Nora rubber floors– Green Seal Certified cleaning products
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    17. 17. 17LEED Design• Indoor environment quality– HEPA filtered building– Low emitting materials• Paint, carpet, wood– Access to natural light– Recycling containers– Thermal study
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    23. 23. Michigan Energy ForumMay 2, 2013Energy Efficient Design in the BuiltEnvironment
    24. 24. Disposable Buildings?Built in 1956, St. LouisPruitt-Igoe housing projectwas demolished in 1972(16 years of service)27-story Sanders Hall,Univ. of Cincinnati,built in 1971 anddemolished in 1991(20 years of service)Cincinnati Red’sRiverfront Stadium,1970 – 2002(32 years of service)
    25. 25. Sustainable DesignWhy does it matter?• World population continues to grow• Earth’s resources are finite• Strong desire to maintain and/or improve ourquality of life for current & future generationsWhat should we do about it?• Exercise intelligent planning and design practicesto manage finite resources
    26. 26. Global Population• World Population is 7 billion (3 billion in 1959)(U.S. Census Bureau, 2011)• 9.0 billion by 2043 (Worldometers info, 2009)U.S. Population is 310 million (415 million by 2043; 180 million in 1959)
    27. 27. Electrical Energy ConsumptionSource: U.S. Energy Information AdministrationEnergy Utilization
    28. 28. Per Capita Energy ConsumptionWorldwide Average - 2000 Kwh/capita/year• India 450 Kwh/capita/year• China 1800 Kwh/capita/year• Brazil 2,200 Kwh/capita/year• Kuwait 13,600 Kwh/capita/year• USA 16,000 Kwh/capita/yearEnergy Utilization
    29. 29. Building Occupancy• We spend 90% or more of our time insidebuildings (EPA, 1989)• 8-12 hours a day at work (healthcare)• Average daily time expenditure (children)(TVA, 1994)o 20.3 hours indoorso 2.8 hours outdoorso 0.9 hours in a vehicle
    30. 30. Green Building Benefits• Green building productivity gains are worth1 – 5% of employee costs (Yudelson, 2009)• Health related symptoms are reduced by41.5% annually (Carnegie Mellon studies, Yudelson, 2009)• LEED-rated buildings have 4.1% greateroccupancy & rent/sell for 30% more (Costar, 08)Green Buildings can improve ROI by 6 – 7%Source: Building Owners & Managers Association (BOMA), 2008
    31. 31. Case Studies1. Adaptive Re-useArgonaut Building Revitalization2. MedicalHenry Ford West Bloomfield Hospital3. CorporateDelta Dental of Michigan
    32. 32. Argonaut Bldg. Revitalization• Text
    33. 33. Argonaut Building OverviewLocation: New Center area of DetroitSite area / Building size:• 5.3 acre site• 760,000gsf, 11-story + Lower LevelConstruction Cost: $145 millionBuilding Population (2,500 people)• 1,100 CCS Students and Staff• 261 beds in CCS Dormitories(growth potential for 300 students)• 960 Henry Ford Learning Institute Students & Staff• 250 Additional TenantsReopened September 2009 (Original built in 1928)Listed on the National Register of Historic Places
    34. 34. Argonaut Historical Images
    35. 35. Argonaut Bldg. RevitalizationOutcomesEnergy performance (actual)• Energy Utilization Intensity = 43 kBTU/sf/yrTarget = 53 kBTU/sf/yr (mixed use)Average = 69 kBTU/sf/yr (mixed use)Target Finder Score = 88Lighting Power Density = 0.74 watts/sfTarget = 1.2 watts/sf20% reduction from ASHRAE 90.1 2004Operational Costs• 20% Reduction, 14.8 year paybackCertifications• Designed to LEED-CS v2.0 standardsResources saved (in lieu of new construction)• 39,000 tons of virgin material• up to 30 acres of undeveloped land
    36. 36. Henry Ford West Bloomfield Hospital
    37. 37. Henry Ford West Bloomfield HospitalLocation: Maple Road, West BloomfieldSite area / Building size:• 160 acre site (80 acres occupied)• 560,000gsf, 4 story(730,000sf, 300-beds planned)Construction Cost: $360 millionBuilding Population• 191 Private Patient Beds(109 additional planned)• Staff (FTE) of 1,369 (828 staff at peak)• Transient (Visitors/Outpatients) count of 541Completed March 2009 (1975 original)
    38. 38. Henry Ford Hospital - AtriumWest Bloomfield, MI
    39. 39. HF West Bloomfield HospitalOutcomesEnergy performance• Energy Utilization Intensity• Lighting Power Density = 1.26 watts/sf20% reduction from ASHRAE 90.1 2001Water use• 1,200,000 gallons saved per year30% reduction from EPAct 1992Certifications• LEED for New Construction, v2.1Silver certification
    40. 40. Delta Dental of Michigan
    41. 41. Delta Dental of MichiganProject Description• Name: Delta Dental Corporate Headquarters Expansion• Location: Okemos, MI• Size: 300,000gsf buildings (4)on a 56.5 acre urban site• Construction Cost: $100,000,000• Building Type: Corporate office buildingsProgram Components• 4 levels of offices (for 600 occupants)• Cafetorium with full service kitchen• Fitness Center and Lounge• Roof and Dining Terrace overlooking pond• Remote Data Center
    42. 42. Delta Dental of MichiganRe-envisioned Site
    43. 43. Delta Dental of Michigan
    44. 44. Delta Dental of MichiganOutcomesEnergy performance (modeled)• Energy Utilization Intensity = 62 kBTU/sf/yrTarget = 108 kBTU/sf/yrTarget Finder score = 9214% reduction from ASHRAE 90.1 2004• Lighting Power Density = 0.81 watts/sf1.0 watts/sf allowed19% reduction from ASHRAE 90.1 2004Water use (modeled)• 529,000 gallons reduced per year44% savings per EPAct 1992Certifications• LEED for New Construction, v2.2Gold certification• Wildlife at Work certificationby the Wildlife Habitat Council
    45. 45. Thank YouSpeakers Contact Information:Jeff Gaines AIA, AICP, LEED AP BD+CChair, Board of DirectorsDetroit Regional Chapter of the U. S. Green Building CouncilManager of Programming and PlanningAlbert Kahn Associates, Inc.jeffrey.gaines@akahn.com
    46. 46. GREEN BUILDING MARKET BAROMETERLynley Weston, PE, LEED APTURNER CONSTRUCTIONSustainable Construction Perceptions and IssuesEnergy Efficient Design in theBuilt Environment -ConstructionMay 2013
    47. 47. OUTLINEConstruction Phases• Preconstruction• Project Engineering• Superintendence & SiteLogistics• Commissioning & CloseoutThe Future of Green BuildingHenry Ford Health SystemWest Bloomfield HospitalWest Bloomfield, MILEED-NC Silver CertifiedPATIENT ROOMS OVERLOOK NATURAL INTERIOR ATRIUM SETTING
    48. 48. Henry Ford Health SystemsWest Bloomfield HospitalLEED SilverMetropolitan HospitalLEED CertifiedBlue Cross Blue Shield Parking DeckLEED CertifiedHaworth Global HeadquartersLEED Gold
    49. 49. PRECONSTRUCTIONDefinition:a collaboration between the Owner, Design Team, andContractor to analyze the design through scheduling,constructability reviews, cost estimating, and value engineeringto achieve the desired function and aesthetic within thespecified budget and duration.City of Harper WoodsPublic LibraryHarper Woods, MILEED-NC SilverHelen DevosChildren’s HospitalHospital FacilityGrand Rapids, MILEED-NC PursuingFIRSTLEED-CERTIFIEDPUBLICLIBRARYINMIEXTENSIVEWASTEMANAGEMENTPROGRAM
    50. 50. Metro Health HospitalHospital FacilityWyoming, MILEED-NC CertifiedALL SYSTEMS FURNITURE AND SEATING ARE GREENGUARD IAQ CERTIFIEDPRECONSTRUCTIONGreen Development Impactso Emphasis on designcollaborationo Attention to synergies betweenbuilding systems throughdesign and value engineeringprocesseso Consideration of ROI/LCAimpacts of design decisions
    51. 51. PROJECT ENGINEERINGLEEDSilverCertifiedProjectsCALIFORNIA NEW YORK PENNSYLVANIADefinition:the management of subcontractor and vendor purchasing whilemaintaining budget and documentation control and facilitatingefficient communication throughout the project team.
    52. 52. PROJECT ENGINEERINGGreen Development Impactso Increased documentation forgreen certification programso Attention to synergy betweenbuilding systems duringchange managemento Monitor subcontractorcompliance with green buildingprogramsHaworth, Inc.Corporate HeadquartersHolland, MILEED-NC GoldWINDOW GLASS REUSED FOR CONCRETE BLOCKS IN NEW BUILDING
    53. 53. SUPERINTENDENCE AND SITE LOGISTICSJoe Serna JR.CAL EPA HQSacramento, CACommercial OfficeLEED-EB PlatinumFIRSTU.S.TAXCREDITTOGREENBUILDINGHearst TowerNew York, NYCommercial OfficeLEED-NC GoldPVPANELSUSE736SOLARCONNECTORSSuperintendence Definition:the management of construction activity on the project siteaccording to the construction schedule and specified qualitystandards while maintaining a safe environment.
    54. 54. SUPERINTENDENCE AND SITE LOGISTICSJoe Serna JR.CAL EPA HQSacramento, CACommercial OfficeLEED-EB PlatinumFIRSTU.S.TAXCREDITTOGREENBUILDINGHearst TowerNew York, NYCommercial OfficeLEED-NC GoldPVPANELSUSE736SOLARCONNECTORSSite Logistics Definition:the relationship between the project site and the constructionsequence.
    55. 55. Eastern Michigan UniversityStudent UnionYpsilanti, MIGLASS ATRIUM PROVIDES DAYLIGHT AND CONNECTION TO OUTDOORSSUPERINTENDENCE AND SITE LOGISTICSGreen Development Impactso Construction WasteManagemento Indoor Air Qualityo Just-In-Time Construction
    56. 56. COMMISSIONING AND CLOSEOUTLEEDGoldCertifiedProjectsPENNSYLVANIA WASHINGTON CALIFORNIACommissioning (Cx) Definition:the Quality Control process that ensures the completedbuilding meets the performance standards per the design andOwner’s project requirements.Close-out Definition:the verification that the Owner and Contractor havesatisfied their contractual obligations.
    57. 57. Green Development Impactso Cx supports a collaborativeenvironmento Cx verifies design andinstallation have met optimizedperformance specificationso Additional documentation tosatisfy certification programsFord Motor CompanyEngineering Design CenterNorthwestern UniversityChicago, ILAcademic BuildingUNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMCOMMISSIONING AND CLOSEOUT
    58. 58. LOOKING TO THE FUTUREo Performance vs. Prescriptive Certificationo Percent Improvements Increaseo Construction Operations
    59. 59. GREEN BUILDING MARKET BAROMETERSustainable Construction Perceptions and IssuesQUESTIONS?
    60. 60. ©AnnArborSPARKNext Michigan Energy Forum:Energy Generation on Brownfields +Contaminated LandJune 6, 2013