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Power scenario in india


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Power scenario in india

  1. 1. “ A walk to power scenario in INDIA” By: Ankur Mahajan NITTTR, Chandigarh
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION• From the time immemorial human race has survived, grown , flourished and prospered on the basis of energy produced , established and utilized .
  3. 3. • The invention of fire accidentally proved a major boost for early man to evolve into what we are today.
  4. 4. HISTORY• The first demonstration of electric light in Calcutta was conducted on 24 July 1879.• The first hydroelectric installation in India was installed near a tea estate at Sidrapong for the Darjeeling Municipality in 1897.• The first hydroelectric power station in j&k was established at mohra in baramulla by maharaja partap Singh in 1905.• Company (B.E.S.T.) set up a generating station in 1905 to provide electricity for the tramway.• The first electric train ran between Bombays Victoria Terminus and Kurla along the Harbour Line.
  5. 5. First hydel power project at darjelling established in 1897
  6. 6. First electric train in INDIA
  7. 7. Electricity sector in INDIA• The electricity sector in India had an installed capacity of 205.34 Gigawatt (GW) as of June 2012, the worlds fifth largest.• Thermal power plants constitute 68% of the installed capacity, hydroelectric about 16% and rest being a combination of wind, small hydro, biomass, waste-to- electricity, and nuclear.• India generated 855 BU (855 000 MU i.e. 855 TW) electricity during 2011-12 fiscal.
  8. 8. • In terms of fuel, coal-fired plants account for 56% of Indias installed electricity capacity, compared to South Africas 92%; Chinas 77%; and Australias 76%. After coal, renewal hydropower accounts for 19%, renewable energy for 12% and natural gas for about 9%.• As of January 2012, one report found the per capita total consumption in India to be 778 kWh.• India is the worlds fourth largest energy consumer after United States, China and Russia .
  10. 10. There are two types of energy inworld on the basis of there sources and production cycles .
  11. 11. THERMAL POWER Thermal power plants convert energy rich fuel into electricity and heat. Possible fuels include coal, natural gas, petroleum products, agricultural waste and domestic trash / waste.• Coal and lignite accounted for about 67% of Indias installed capacity.• Indias electricity sector consumes about 80% of the coal produced in the country. A large part of Indian coal reserve is similar to Gondwana coal.
  12. 12. On average, the Indian power plants usingIndias coal supply consume about 0.7 kg of coal to generate a kWh, whereas United Statesthermal power plants consume about 0.45 kg of coal per kWh.
  13. 13. TypesThermal power plants can deploy a wide range of technologies. Some of the major technologies include:• Steam cycle facilities (most commonly used for large utilities);• Gas turbines (commonly used for moderate sized peaking facilities);• Cogeneration and combined cycle facility (the combination of gas turbines or internal combustion engines with heat recovery systems); and• Internal combustion engines (commonly used for small remote sites or stand-by power generation).
  14. 14. Vindhyachal is the largest thermalpower plant in india with capacity of 3260 MW.
  15. 15. The installed capacity of Thermal Power in India, as of June 30, 2011, was 115649.48 MW which is 65.34% of total installed capacity.• Current installed base of Coal Based Thermal Power is 96,743.38 MW which comes to 54.66% of total installed base.• Current installed base of Gas Based Thermal Power is 17,706.35 MW which is 10.00% of total installed capacity.• Current installed base of Oil Based Thermal Power is 1,199.75 MW which is 0.67% of total installed capacity.• The state of Maharashtra is the largest producer of thermal power in the country.• INDIA LACKS THE GOOD CALORIFIC VALUE COAL AND IMPORTS 30% demand from INDONESIA.
  17. 17. NUCLEAR POWER• India had 4.8 GW of installed electricity generation capacity using nuclear fuels• Indias Nuclear plants generated 32455 million units or 3.75% of total electricity produced in India.• Indias nuclear power plant development began in 1964 by commissioning of two boiling water reactors at Tarapur.
  18. 18. Fission Reaction
  19. 19. Capacity• Indias share of nuclear power plant generation capacity is just 1.2% of worldwide nuclear power production capacity, making it the 15th largest nuclear power producer.• Nuclear power provided 3% of the countrys total electricity generation in 2011.• India aims to supply 9% of it electricity needs with nuclear power by 2032.• 2032. Indias largest nuclear power plant project under implementation is at Jaitapur, Maharashtra in partnership with Areva, France.
  21. 21. HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER• India is one of the pioneering countries in establishing hydro-electric power plants. The power plants at Darjeeling and Shimsha (Shivanasamudra) were established in 1898 and 1902 respectively and are among the first in Asia.• India is endowed with economically exploitable and viable hydro potential assessed to be about 84,000 MW at 60% load factor. In addition, 6,780 MW in terms of installed capacity from Small, Mini, and Micro Hydel schemes have been assessed. used form of renewable energy.• India is blessed with immense amount of hydro-electric potential and ranks 5th in terms of exploitable hydro- potential on global scenario
  23. 23. Solar energy
  24. 24.  India is bestowed with solar irradiation ranging from 4 to 7 kWh/square meter/day across the country, with western and southern regions having higher solar incidence. India is endowed with rich solar energy resource. India receives the highest global solar radiation on a horizontal surface. Government of India launched its Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission.
  25. 25. • The first Indian solar thermal power project (2X50MW) is in progress in Phalodi Rajasthan.• Land acquisition is a challenge to solar farm projects in India.• exploring means to deploy solar capacity above their extensive irrigation canal projects, thereby harvesting solar energy while reducing the loss of irrigation water by solar evaporation.
  26. 26. Solar panels at gujarat
  27. 27. WIND ENERGYo India has the fifth largest installed wind power capacity in the world.
  28. 28. WIND PLANT• The largest wind power generating state was TAMIL NADU accounting for 30% of installed capacity, followed in decreasing order by Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, and Rajasthan.• The state of Gujarat is estimated to have the maximum gross wind power potential in India, with a potential of 10.6 GW.
  29. 29. GEO-THERMAL ENERGY• Indias geothermal energy installed capacity is experimental. Commercial use is insignificant.• India has about 340 hot springs spread over the country. Of this, 62 are distributed along the northwest Himalaya, in the States of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.• Andaman and Nicobar arc is the only place in India where volcanic activity geo-thermal energy is present.
  30. 30. India plans to set up its first geothermal power plant, with 2–5 MW capacity at Puga in ladakh.• Tattapani in Chhattisgarh• Puga in Jammu & Kashmir• Cambay Graben in Gujarat• Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh• Surajkund in Jharkhand• Chhumathang in Jammu & Kashmir
  31. 31. TIDAL WAVE ENERGY• India is surrounded by sea on three sides, its potential to harness tidal energy is significant.• The Gulf of Khambhat and the Gulf of Kutch on Indias west coast where the maximum tidal range is 11 m and 8 m with average tidal range of 6.77 m and 5.23 m respectively AND 4m is sufficient.• Barrage technology could harvest about 8 GW from tidal energy in India, mostly in Gujarat.
  32. 32. • Potential along the Indian coast is between 5 MW to 15 MW per meter, suggesting a theoretical maximum potential for electricity harvesting from Indias 7500 kilometer coast line may be about 40 GW.
  33. 33. BIO-MASS POWER• In this system biomass, bagasse, forestry and agro residue & agricultural wastes are used as fuel to produce electricity.• In 2011, India started a new initiative with the aim to demonstrate medium size mixed feed biogas-fertilizer pilot plants. This technology aims for generation, purification/enrichment, bottling and piped distribution of biogas.• India has additionally commissioned 158 projects under its Biogas based Distributed/Grid Power Generation programme, with a total installed capacity of about 2 MW.
  34. 34. • India has additionally commissioned 158 projects under its Biogas based Distributed/Grid Power Generation programme, with a total installed capacity of about 2 MW.• India is rich in biomass and has a potential of 16,881MW (agro-residues and plantations), 5000MW (bagasse cogeneration) and 2700MW (energy recovery from waste).• Biomass power generation in India is an industry that attracts investments of over INR 600 crores every year, generating more than 5000 million units of electricity and yearly employment of more than 10 million man-days in the RURAL areas.
  35. 35. Agro food for bio fuels
  36. 36. Jatropha plant seeds used as efficient bio fuel
  37. 37. TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION• INDIA is a energy deficient state, with almost 400 million people without electricity which equals the combined population of u. s .a and germany.• The density of distribution is not equal and is unequal .Thus, to overcome this problem an interconnected grid system is used so that on the basis of demand ,supply could be managed and easily delivered to areas far away from generating units.
  38. 38. THERE ARE 5 GRIDS IN INDIA:• 1. Northern Grid• 2. Southern Grid ( not connected with other grids)• 3. Western Grid• 4 . Eastern Grid• 5. North- Eastern Grid
  39. 39. TRANSMISSION SPAN• 800 KV • 173 CKM• 550KV • 636CKM• 400KV • 3198CKM• 220KV • 3024CKM• TOTAL • 7031CKM
  40. 40. TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION LOSSES• Total distribution and transmission accounts for 23% in INDIA.• In DELHI losses are as high as 50%.• The proliferation of Low Tension (L.T) distribution lines has led to a low load density (as measured by demand in MW divided by length of T& D system) and high ratio of LT to HT lines.• Equal investment as to generation can reduce transmission and distribution losses.• Flatten load curve prices
  41. 41. National grid at AGRA
  42. 42. RURAL ELECTRIFICATION• Six decades after Independence, India’s villages are groping in the dark — literally.• One-third rural areas have no electricity.• Situation is particularly bad in india’s cow belt.• Bihar-25%,jharkhand-43%, orissa- 45%, u.p- 38%.• China on other hand way back in 1991 has 92% electricity in rural areas .• Gujarat and goa has 100% rural electrification and himachal 98%.
  43. 43. Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidhyutikaran Yojana has not changed much .
  44. 44. ENERGY CONSERVATION INDIA’S per capita consumption is very low and 35% rural households are powerless but still india is energy deficient . Thus , one alternative is to preserve energy .
  45. 45. Conservation necessary?
  46. 46. Smart grid• A smart grid is an electrical grid that uses information and communications technology to gather and act on information, such as information about the behaviors of suppliers and consumers, in an automated fashion to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and sustainability of the production and distribution of electricity.
  47. 47. One –watt initiative• The One Watt Initiative (or the proper One- Watt Initiative) is an energy-saving initiative by the International Energy Agency (IEA) to reduce standby power-use by any appliance to not more than one watt in 2010, and 0.5 watts in 2013, which has given rise to regulations in many countries and regions.• It will reduce 1% of total co2 release.
  48. 48. Stand by power reduced to 1 watt.
  49. 49. PILFERAGE• Kundi, ( )( ) as known in some parts of India, is the criminal but widespread practice by common people of stealing electric power. It is a crime and punishable by heavy fines and, in some cases, imprisonment.• The simplest process is to put a direct wire-connection to a main power route passing by a house or shop so that electricity can flow to the consumer without crossing the electric meter that is fixed by the State Electricity Board to calibrate the load the sub-total of your appliances is drawing .• Insulating neutral can prevent power theft.
  50. 50. PASSIVE HOUSES• They are actually energy efficient building by preventing cooling or heat losses in house.• There are only 15000 to 20000 houses around world.• It has been calculated that it reduces 20-155 energy bills.
  51. 51. STAR – RATED APPLIANCES• Energy Star (trademarked ENERGY STAR) is an international standard for energy efficient consumer products originated in the United States of America.• Devices carrying the Energy Star service mark, such as computer products and peripherals, kitchen appliances, buildings and other products, generally use 20%–30% less energy than required by federal standards.• Energy Star qualified fluorescent lighting uses 75% less energy and lasts up to ten times longer than normal incandescent lights.• Reduces cooling costs — LEDs produce very little heat.
  52. 52. ADVANTAGES• Brightness is equal to or greater than existing lighting technologies (incandescent or fluorescent) and light is well distributed over the area lighted by the fixture.• Light output remains constant over time, only decreasing towards the end of the rated lifetime (at least 35,000 hours or 12 years based on use of 8 hours per day).• Excellent color quality. The shade of white light appears clear and consistent over time.• Efficiency is as good as or better than fluorescent lighting.• Light comes on instantly when turned on.• No flicker when dimmed.• No off-state power draw. The fixture does not use power when it is turned off, with the exception of external controls, whose power should not exceed 0.5 watts in the off state.
  53. 53. PRE-PAID ENERGY METERS• With this, paying bills will no longer be a problem and one can just pay the bill with the click of the mouse.• People had got worried due to increase in power bills, pre-paid power meter has come to their rescue.• The meter comes with a unit called CIU or consumer interface unit. It keeps the consumers updated with the balance, hourly consumption and units used at any time of the day.• For people who have bad memory and forget to recharge the prepaid meter, the CIU unit will raise an alarm thrice when the balance drops to 100.
  54. 54. IMPROVEMENT IN POWER QUALITY• Power shortage/quality thus leads to large scale use of Voltage Stabilizers, Inverters, Generators, UPS Systems, etc.• Such Electrical Equipments, which require unwanted investments, in turn not only lead to enhanced shortage in the overall situation but also cause air and soil pollution by burning of coal, diesel, etc.• Widespread use of lead-acid batteries in these equipments further causes pollution of soil and water Voltage Stabilizers don’t have efficiencies better than 80%. While a 1.5 Tr AC consumes 2 units; its stabilizer consumes 0.4 units; it even consumes power if left ON when AC is OFF.• Assuming we have 10 Million ACs in India; on account of stabilizers for ACs alone we lose around 4 million units, even during peak hours, which is double the power generated by many large generating stations.• Assuming an AC runs for 5 hours in a day, this means a loss of 20 million units per day.
  55. 55. • The average efficiency of the domestic inverters is 50% and unlike fuel-based generators, inverters don’t generate power.•• There is an estimated 50 million inverters being used for domestic purposes each consuming say 250W/day or 0.25 units. The power drain by inverters is thus to the tune of 12.5 million units.• Further, inverters use lead-acid batteries which severely pollute the environment.• UPS systems being like inverters cause power wastage and pollution by use of lead-acid batteries.
  56. 56. • Diesel/Kerosene gensets not only cause pollution but also deplete scarce natural resources. Pumps/Motors consume roughly 20% of total electricity in India. An estimated 75% of this is consumed by the pumps for agricultural sector mainly for water/irrigation. The balance is for other motor applications.• Most Indian pumps operate at 33% efficiency while motors have an average efficiency of 40%. These cause heavy loss of electrical energy.• Taking usage of 4 units at 4 hours/day, the consumption in this category is over 250 million units/day and the estimated loss is 160 million units /day.• Pilferage (Power theft) in India is responsible for the disappearance of 29% of electricity generated.• In energy terms this amounts to 613.87 million units/day
  57. 57. CONCLUSION• INDIA HAS A VAST POTENTIAL TO BE THE ENERGY SURPULUS STATE DUE TO ITS ABUNDANT RESOURCES AND EASY AVAILABILITY, BUT IT NEEDS TO CUT ITS POWER LOSSES AND CONTROL OVER POPULATION WHICH LEDS TO OVERBURDEN ON ITS PRODUCTION.• India has the reputation of having the highest distribution losses in the world with a figure of nearly 47%, ranking above Burma with 36 % losses and Bangladesh at 33 %.• How do we bring these losses down and become an energy surplus Nation?
  60. 60. ANKUR MAHAJAN NITTTR CHANDIGARH CONTACT: 7696371190/9797547426 EMAIL: mahajanankur786@yahoo.inURL: