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  1. 1. Computer Applications in Business Dr. Ankur Kukreti Associate Professor Dev Bhhomi Uttarakhand University
  2. 2. SYLLABUS • Unit I Introduction to Computers • Introduction, characterstics, Advantages, Types and Applications of computers, Input/output Devices, Computer Memories, Binary number System. • Unit II Introduction to Windows • Components of Application Windows, Concept of window, Types of Windows, Windows as an Operating System, Basic Features and functioning. User interfaces- CUI and GUI. • Unit III • Internet & Its Usage • Applications of Internet, Introduction to Internet, Growth of Internet, ISP, Anatomy of Internet, World Wide Web, Internet Protocols, Usage of Internet to Society, Search Engines. • Unit IV • Introduction to essential tools: MS Word & Power Point • Introduction to Word Processing and power point: Concept, features, mail merge, header and footers, Practical working on Word document. Introduction to power point and its feature, preparation of power point presentation, Role of effects in slides. • Unit V • Spread Sheet & its Business Application • Concept of M. S. Excel: Introduction to Spreadsheet Concepts and its feature, Editing, Inserting, Deleting Work Sheets. Using of Formulae bar, Preparing chart.
  3. 3. UNIT 1
  4. 4. History and Evolution of Computers • The word COMPUTER was first used in a book named as ”The Young Mans Gleanings” written by English writer Richard Braithwait. “I haue read the truest computer of Times, and the best Arithmetician that euer breathed, and he reduce the thy dayes into a short number” is the line taken from that book which first used the word COMPUTER. • Let us go through various computing devices which were developed prior to the existing computer.
  5. 5. Abacus • Many centuries ago when man started to count the numbers, he thought of a device which can trace the numbers and thus came the existence of ABACUS. It was the first counting device which was developed in China more than 3000 years ago. The name Abacus was obtained from Greek word Abacus which means slab. This device basically consists of a rectangular wooden frame and beads. • The frame contains horizontal rods and the beads which have holes are passed through the rods. Counting was done by moving the beads from one end of the frame to the other.
  6. 6. Napier ’s Bones • It is a device which contains a set of rods made of bones. It was developed by John Napier, a Scottish Mathematician and hence the device was named as Napier’s Bones. The device was mainly developed for performing multiplication and division. Later in 1614 he also introduced logarithms.
  7. 7. Pascaline • Pascaline is a calculating machine developed by Blaise Pascal, a French Mathematician. It was the first device with an ability to perform additions and subtractions on whole numbers. The device is made up of interlocked cog wheels which contains numbers 0 to 9 on its circumference. When one wheel completes its rotation the other wheel moves by one segment. Pascal patented this device in 1647 and produced it on mass scale and earned a handful of money.
  8. 8. Punched Card • Punched Card System is used for storing and retrieving data. This was invented by Herman Hollerith, an American Statistician in US Census Bureau. The system stores the data coded in the form of punched holes.
  9. 9. Tabulator • Herman Hollerith also invented Tabulator which was the first step towards programming. The first tabulator which he invented in 1890 was used to operate only on 1890 census cards. As he was a statistician in census bureau, he developed devices to simplify the tasks related to his department. • Later in 1906, Type 1 tabulator was developed with a plug board control panel which allowed it to do different jobs without being rebuilt. His inventions were the basis for the modern information processing industry.
  10. 10. Digital Era • Coming to the digital era, Binary system made its entry into the computer world. According to this system, 0’s and 1’s were used. This system was suggested by Claude Shannon, an American Mathematician. • The first electronic computer was built by Dr. John Vincent Atanasoff, a Physics Professor and Clifford Berry. The computer was names as ABC(Atanasoff-Berry Computer). This computer used vacuum tubes for data storage. It was designed mainly for solving systems of simultaneous equations. • In 1946, General Purpose Computer was developed which contained 18000 valves and used to consume 100kilowatts of power and weighted several tonnes.
  11. 11. Transistors • In 1947, Transistors were introduced into the computers. With the introduction of transistors, computations were simpler and faster.
  12. 12. • In 1957, IBM developed FORTRAN. • In 1959, Integrated Circuit(IC) came into existence which was later used in the computers. • In 1960, Mainframe computer was designed which used IC for the first time. • In 1970, Memory chip with 1KB storage capacity was developed by Intel. • In 1975, First micro computer was developed by H. Edward Roberts(now the father of micro computer) • In 1980’s and 1990’s, many modifications and up gradations were done and the usage of chips and various other stuffs changed the computers completely.
  13. 13. Generations of Computers • Computers in the form of personal desktop computers, laptops and tablets have become such an important part of everyday living that it can be difficult to remember a time when they did not exist. In reality, computers as they are known and used today are still relatively new. Although computers have technically been in use since the abacus approximately 5000 years ago, it is modern computers that have had the greatest and most profound effect on society. The first full-sized digital computer in history was developed in 1944. Called the Mark I, this computer was used only for calculations and weighed five tons. Despite its size and limited ability it was the first of many that would start off generations of computer development and growth.
  14. 14. ZEROETH GENERATION • Man used his fingers, ropes, beads, bones, pebbles and other objects for counting. •Abacus, Pascaline, Difference & Anylitical engines •Electricity was not yet invented
  15. 15. FIRST GENERATION, 1951 – 1958: The Vacuum Tube • The first generation of computers, characterized by vacuum tubes, started in 1951 with the creation of - UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) – a tabulating machine which won the contest for the fastest machine which could count the US 1890 census. VACUUM TUBES – electronic tubes about the size of light bulbs.
  16. 16. DISADVANTAGES: • They generate more heat causing many problems in temperature regulation and climate control. • Tubes were subject to frequent burn-out.
  17. 17. SECOND GENERATION, 1959 – 1964: The Transistor The year 1959 marked the invention of transistors, which characterized the second generation of computers. TRANSISTOR – was a three-legged component which shrunk the size of the first generation computers. Occupied only 1/100th of the space occupied by a vacuum tube More reliable, had greater computational speed, required no warm-up time and consumed far less electricity.
  18. 18. THIRD GENERATION, 1965 – 1970: The Integrated Circuit Third generation computers arose in 1965 with the invention of smaller electronic circuits called integrated circuits (IC’S) INTEGRATED CIRCUITS – are square silicon chips containing circuitry that can perform the functions of hundreds of transistors.
  19. 19. ADVANTAGES: • RELIABILITY – Unlike vacuum tubes, silicon will not break down easily. It is very seldom that you will have to replace it. • LOW COST – Silicon chips are relatively cheap because of their small size and availability in the market. It also consumes less electricity.
  20. 20. FOURTH GENERATION, 1971 – present: The Microprocessor • Marked by the use of microprocessor • MICROPROCESSOR – is a silicon chip that contains the CPU – part of the computer where all processing takes place. 4004 chip – was the first microprocessor introduced by Intel Corporation.
  21. 21. TODAY’S COMPUTER • Today’s Computer is classified as fourth generation computers. • faster, more powerful, tremendous data storage and processing capacity • new brands and models would come out the market almost every other month. • many clones or imitations of the IBM have become even more powerful and a lot cheaper.
  22. 22. • computers became more affordable • computers can now be found in homes, schools, offices etc. • there has been a tremendous improvement in software technology • different software applications to choose from: word processing, spreadsheets, database management, games and entertainment. • computer subjects are now being offered not just to college students but even to high school and elementary. • computers are now used as an aid in teaching math, science etc.
  23. 23. First Generation Computers • First generation computers bore no resemblance to computers of today, either in appearance or performance. The first generation of computers took place from 1951 to 1958 and was extremely large in size. The inner workings of the computers at that time were unsophisticated. These early machines required magnetic drums for memory and vacuum tubes that worked as switches and amplifiers. It was the vacuum tubes that were mainly responsible for the large size of the machines and the massive amounts of heat that they released. These computers produced so much heat that they regularly overheated despite large cooling units. First generation computers also used a very basic programming language that is referred to as machine language.
  24. 24. Second Generation Computers • The second generation (from 1959 to 1964) of computers managed to do away with vacuum tubes in lieu of transistors. This allowed them to use less electricity and generate less heat. Second generation computers were also significantly faster than their predecessors. Another significant change was in the size of the computers, which were smaller. Transistor computers also developed core memory which they used alongside magnetic storage.
  25. 25. Third Generation Computers • From 1965 to 1970 computers went through a significant change in terms of speed, courtesy of integrated circuits. Integrated circuits, or semiconductor chips, were large numbers of miniature transistors packed on silicon chips. This not only increased the speed of computers but also made them smaller, more powerful, and less expensive. In addition, instead of the punch cards and the printouts of previous systems, keyboards and monitors were now allowing people to interact with computing machines.
  26. 26. Fourth Generation Computers • The changes with the greatest impact occurred in the years from 1971 till date. During this time technology developed to a point where manufacturers could place millions of transistors on a single circuit chip. This was called monolithic integrated circuit technology. It also heralded the invention of the Intel 4004 chip which was the first microprocessor to become commercially available in 1971. This invention led to the dawn of the personal computer industry. By the mid-70s, personal computers such as the Altair 8800 became available to the public in the form of kits and required assembly. By the late 70s and early 80s assembled personal computers for home use, such as the Commodore Pet, Apple II and the first IBM computer, were making their way onto the market. Personal computers and their ability to create networks eventually would lead to the Internet in the early 1990s. The fourth generation of computers also saw the creation of even smaller computers including laptops and hand- held devices. Graphical user interface, or GUI, was also invented during this time. Computer memory and storage also went through major improvements, with an increase in storage capacity and speed.
  27. 27. The Fifth Generation of Computers • In the future, computer users can expect even faster and more advanced computer technology. Computers continue to develop into advanced forms of technology. Fifth generation computing has yet to be truly defined, as there are numerous paths that technology is taking toward the future of computer development. For instance, research is ongoing in the fields of nanotechnology, artificial intelligence, as well as quantum computation. • Computer would be using Japanese invented language KIPS (Knowledge instruction per second.
  28. 28. Basic characteristics about computer are: • 1. Speed: - As you know computer can work very fast. It takes only few seconds for calculations that we take hours to complete. You will be surprised to know that computer can perform millions (1,000,000) of instructions and even more per second. • Therefore, we determine the speed of computer in terms of microsecond (10-6 part of a second) or nanosecond (10 to the power -9 part of a second). From this you can imagine how fast your computer performs work. • 2. Accuracy: - The degree of accuracy of computer is very high and every calculation is performed with the same accuracy. The accuracy level is 7 determined on the basis of design of computer. The errors in computer are due to human and inaccurate data. • 3. Diligence: - A computer is free from tiredness, lack of concentration, fatigue, etc. It can work for hours without creating any error. If millions of calculations are to be performed, a computer will perform every calculation with the same accuracy. Due to this capability it overpowers human being in routine type of work.
  29. 29. • 4. Versatility: - It means the capacity to perform completely different type of work. You may use your computer to prepare payroll slips. Next moment you may use it for inventory management or to prepare electric bills. • 5. Power of Remembering: - Computer has the power of storing any amount of information or data. Any information can be stored and recalled as long as you require it, for any numbers of years. It depends entirely upon you how much data you want to store in a computer and when to lose or retrieve these data. • 6. No IQ: - Computer is a dumb machine and it cannot do any work without instruction from the user. It performs the instructions at tremendous speed and with accuracy. It is you to decide what you want to do and in what sequence. So a computer cannot take its own decision as you can. • 7. No Feeling: - It does not have feelings or emotion, taste, knowledge and experience. Thus it does not get tired even after long hours of work. It does not distinguish between users. • 8. Storage: - The Computer has an in-built memory where it can store a large amount of data. You can also store data in secondary storage devices such as floppies, which can be kept outside your computer and can be carried to other computers.
  30. 30. Organizations of a computer • A computer is a fast and accurate device, which can accept data, store data, process them and give, desired results as output. The computer is organized into four units as shown in the following diagram.
  31. 31. Input Unit: Any device designed to assist in the entry of data into a computer is known as input device. Input devices convert data from any convenient external format into binary codes that a computer can store and manipulate internally. Some of the most common, most popularly used devices are following. a) Mouse b) Light Pen c) Touch Screen d) Keyboard e) Scanner f) OCR and MICR g) Bar Code Reader h) Joy Stick etc Output Unit: Any peripheral device that converts the stored binary coded data into convenient external forms as test and pictures are known as Output device. Some of the most popularly used Output devices are following: a) Visual Display Unit (Monitor) b) Printer : Dot Matrix and Impact/Non Impact, Printer, Daisy wheel Printer, Line Printers, Ink-jet, Laser Printer c) Plotters etc
  32. 32. • Central Processing Unit: The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the heart of the computer combined with the processor of a computer. The CPU carries out actions with the help of Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU). This is done following a detailed set of arithmetic instructions written in the main memory. It also uses the main memory storage of information. Through the channels of information specified as “Bus”, the CPU instructs various parts called device controllers to transfer data between secondary memory and the main memory. The CPU accepts the data from the Input unit processes it and gives the result/output to the output device. The data/result can be stored for the use by storing it in the secondary memory. The total operations of the computer is synchronized and controlled by the CPU. The processing capacity of a computer is measured in terms the amount of data processed by the CPU in one operation. The CPU has three important sub units. 1) Arithmetic-Logic unit 2) Control Unit 3) Memory Unit
  33. 33. • Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU): The ALU is an electronic circuit used to carry out the arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. This unit carries out logical operations like greater than, less than, equal to etc. It performs the operation on the data provided by the input devices. A comparison operation allows a program to make decisions based on its data input and results of the previous calculations. Logical operations can be used to determine whether particular statement is TRUE or FALSE. The ALU operates on the data available in the main memory and sends them back after processing again to main memory. • Control Unit: The control unit coordinates the activities of all the other units used in the system. Its main functions are to control the transfer of data and information between various units and to initiate appropriate actions by the arithmetic-logic unit. Conceptually, the control unit fetches instructions from the memory, decodes them, and directs them to various units to perform the on specified tasks.
  34. 34. • Memory Unit: The main memory is also called primary memory, is used to store data temporarily. Although, the CPU is the brain behind all the operations in the computer, it needs to be supplied with the data to be processed and the instructions to tell it what to do. Once the CPU has carried out an instruction, it needs the result to be stored. This storage space is provided by the computer’s memory. Data provided by the input device, and the result of that processed data is also stored in the memory unit. This main memory is like a scratch pad. The storage capacity of the memory is generally measured in megabytes. 8 Bits = 1 Byte 1024 Bytes= 1 Kilobyte (KB) 1 024 Kilobytes= 1 Megabyte (MB) 1024 Megabytes= 1 Gigabyte (GB) Different kinds of primary memory are Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM). You can read and write data in RAM but the data is volatile or temporary that is whenever the power is switched off the contents of RAM is lost so its is required to store the data in the secondary memory if the data is required for the future use. But you can only read the data from ROM and you can not write any thing into it and the data is permanent. The manufacturer himself has written the data in it initially.
  35. 35. Secondary Memory This is the permanent memory. The data stored in it is permanent. But you can delete the data if you want. There are different kinds of secondary storage devices available. Few of them are Floppy disks, Fixed (hard) disks and Optical disks etc. a) Floppy Disk b) Fixed or Hard Disk c) Optical Disk like: CD (Compact Disk) DVD (Digital Versatile Disk) d) Magnetic Tape Drive
  36. 36. Types of Computers • Since the advent of the first computer different types and sizes of computers are offering different services. Computers can be as big as occupying a large building and as small as a laptop or a microcontroller in mobile & embedded systems. • The four basic types of computers are as under: • Supercomputer • Mainframe Computer • Minicomputer • Microcomputer
  37. 37. Supercomputer • The most powerful computers in terms of performance and data processing are the Supercomputers. These are specialized and task specific computers used by large organizations. These computers are used for research and exploration purposes, like NASA uses supercomputers for launching space shuttles, controlling them and for space exploration purpose. • The supercomputers are very expensive and very large in size. It can be accommodated in large air-conditioned rooms; some super computers can span an entire building.
  38. 38. • Uses of Supercomputers In Pakistan Supercomputers are used by Educational Institutes like NUST for research purposes. Pakistan Atomic Energy commission & Heavy Industry Taxila uses supercomputers for Research purposes. • Space Exploration Supercomputers are used to study the origin of the universe, the dark-matters. For these studies scientist use IBM’s powerful supercomputer “Roadrunner” at National Laboratory Los Alamos. • Earthquake studies Supercomputers are used to study the Earthquakes phenomenon. Besides that supercomputers are used for natural resources exploration, like natural gas, petroleum, coal, etc. • Weather Forecasting Supercomputers are used for weather forecasting, and to study the nature and extent of Hurricanes, Rainfalls, windstorms, etc. • Nuclear weapons testing Supercomputers are used to run weapon simulation that can test the Range, accuracy & impact of Nuclear weapons. • Popular Supercomputers 1. IBM’s Sequoia, in United States 2. Fujitsu’s K Computer in Japan 3. IBM’s Mira in United States 4. IBM’s SuperMUC in Germany 5. NUDT Tianhe-1A in China 6. GOI’s Param of India
  39. 39. • Mainframe computer Although Mainframes are not as powerful as supercomputers, but certainly they are quite expensive nonetheless, and many large firms & government organizations uses Mainframes to run their business operations. The Mainframe computers can be accommodated in large air-conditioned rooms because of its size. Super-computers are the fastest computers with large data storage capacity, Mainframes can also process & store large amount of data. Banks educational institutions & insurance companies use mainframe computers to store data about their customers, students & insurance policy holders. • Popular Mainframe computers 1. Fujitsu’s ICL VME 2. Hitachi’s Z800
  40. 40. • Minicomputer Minicomputers are used by small businesses & firms. Minicomputers are also called as “Midrange Computers”. These are small machines and can be accommodated on a disk with not as processing and data storage capabilities as super-computers & Mainframes. These computers are not designed for a single user. Individual departments of a large company or organizations use Mini- computers for specific purposes. For example, a production department can use Mini-computers for monitoring certain production process. • Popular Minicomputers 1. K-202 2. Texas Instrument TI-990 3. SDS-92 4. IBM Midrange computers • Microcomputer Desktop computers, laptops, personal digital assistant (PDA), tablets & smart phones are all types of microcomputers. The micro-computers are widely used & the fastest growing computers. These computers are the cheapest among the other three types of computers. The Micro-computers are specially designed for general usage like entertainment, education and work purposes. Well known manufacturers of Micro-computer are Dell, Apple, Samsung, Sony & Toshiba. Desktop computers, Gaming consoles, Sound & Navigation system of a car, Net books, Notebooks, PDA’s, Tablet PC’s, Smart phones, Calculators are all type of Microcomputers.
  41. 41. Uses of Computers in Business Computers Facilitate Communication • Email services, such as Yahoo and specialized services, like Hush-Mail help businesses send and receive electronic correspondence. Many online email services also enable you to voice chat with others over the Internet. Companies can also use applications such as Outlook to manage business mail, track events and help employees schedule meetings. Skype, Google Hangouts and similar programs give you the ability to hold remote video meetings with people from around the world. Many of these communications platforms also work on smart phones and tablets. Data Mining Benefits • Businesses often acquire and store massive amounts of information in relational databases, spreadsheets, XML files and other repositories. Learn to use data mining techniques and you can tap into a valuable undiscovered source of business intelligence. Data mining software can help businesses identify patterns and discover new relationships in historical data. Although data mining can help small companies, it's particularly useful for businesses with large amounts of complex data. Businesses that use data mining can boost sales, acquire new customers, improve productions, increase customer satisfaction and predict future business trends. Customer Relationship Management • Stand-alone software exists that can help business owners find, service and retain customers. Modern CRM applications integrate many of these functions into a single, unified system. Typical tasks that full-featured CRM apps perform include contact management, customer service and sales force automation.
  42. 42. Order Fulfillment • Fulfilling orders can be a time-consuming task, because it may require the assistance of people in accounting, the warehouse, inventory control and shipping departments. Computers make it easier for businesses to automate and speed up time-consuming order fulfillment processes. For example, an order fulfillment application may use barcode scanners to record product information as a product moves from the warehouse to the shipping trucks. Order fulfillment software can also tell you when to replenish your inventory. Design and Graphics • You don't need to hire a professional graphic artist to create professional looking graphics for your business. Tools, such as image editors and desktop publishing applications, can help novices create Web buttons and banners, draw logos, create marketing materials, enhance photos and produce newsletters. Programs, such as PowerPoint and Open Office Impress, can help you create powerful business presentations by clicking buttons and dragging your mouse. Video editing programs also give you the power to produce your own company videos that you can use for advertising and marketing. Computers can also connect you to the Internet where you can download free graphics that you can customize. Marketing and Advertising • There are several ways for businesses to advertise and market their services. Many business owners use computers to tap into the power of social media sites, such as Facebook and Twitter. In addition to advertising products and services on these sites, businesses can use software to design and manage email marketing campaigns that target potential customers.
  43. 43. Using Computers to Manage People • Human Resources software can help businesses do everything from find potential employees to discipline them when problems occur. By storing employee information in a central repository, HR applications also make it easier for HR personal to track employee performance, maintain information about benefits and communicate with employees efficiently. Many HR apps also give HR managers the to generate reports that profile specific employees. Computer Administration • Regardless of the size of your business, it's important to keep your computers secure. If you have a large company, ensure that your IT department has the skills necessary to set up users, install software and keep your network safe. If you have a small office, assign an administrator to manage your computers.
  44. 44. UNIT 2
  45. 45. Components of a computer 1. Hardware-Physical components of computer 2. Software-set of instructions given to hardware
  46. 46. Types of Software • There are two main types of software: 1. Systems software -: It includes the programs that are dedicated to managing the computer itself, such as the operating system, file management utilities, and disk operating system (or DOS). 2. Application software-: An application is any program, or group of programs, that is designed for the end user. Applications software(also called end-user programs) include such things as database programs, word processors, Web browsers and spreadsheets. • Application software which is software that uses the computer system to perform special functions or provide entertainment functions beyond the basic operation of the computer itself. There are many different types of application software, because the range of tasks that can be performed with a modern computer is so large like “MS Office”. • System software which is software that directly operates the computer hardware, to provide basic functionality needed by users and other software, and to provide a platform for running application software. System software includes:”Windows” , “DOS” etc.
  47. 47. Windows • Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows NT and Windows Embedded; these may encompass subfamilies, e.g. Windows Embedded Compact (Windows CE) or Windows Server. Defunct Windows families include Windows 9x, Windows Mobile and Windows Phone.
  48. 48. • Older versions • Windows 1.0, the first version, released in 1985 • The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager". It was announced in November 1983 (after the Apple Lisa, but before the Macintosh) under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985. Windows 1.0 was to compete with Apple's operating system, but achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system; rather, it extends MS-DOS. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Calendar, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Clock, Control Panel, Notepad, Paint, Reversi, Terminal and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Versions of Windows
  49. 49. • Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, and was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user interface and memory management.Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights.Windows 2.0 also introduced more sophisticated keyboard shortcuts and could make use of expanded memory. • Windows 2.1 was released in two different versions: Windows/286 and Windows/386. Windows/386 uses the virtual 8086 mode of the Intel 80386 to multitask several DOS programs and the paged memory model to emulate expanded memory using available extended memory. Windows/286, in spite of its name, runs on both Intel 8086 and Intel 80286 processors. It runs in real mode but can make use of the high memory area. • In addition to full Windows-packages, there were runtime-only versions that shipped with early Windows software from third parties and made it possible to run their Windows software on MS-DOS and without the full Windows feature set. • The early versions of Windows are often thought of as graphical shells, mostly because they ran on top of MS-DOS and use it for file system services. However, even the earliest Windows versions already assumed many typical operating system functions; notably, having their own executable file format and providing their own device drivers (timer, graphics, printer, mouse, keyboard and sound). Unlike MS-DOS, Windows allowed users to execute multiple graphical applications at the same time, through cooperative multitasking. Windows implemented an elaborate, segment-based, software virtual memory scheme, which allows it to run applications larger than available memory: code segments and resources are swapped in and thrown away when memory became scarce; data segments moved in memory when a given application had relinquished processor control.
  50. 50. • Windows 3.x • Windows 3.0, released in 1990 • Windows 3.0, released in 1990, improved the design, mostly because of virtual memory and loadable virtual device drivers (VxDs) that allow Windows to share arbitrary devices between multi-tasked DOS applications. Windows 3.0 applications can run in protected mode, which gives them access to several megabytes of memory without the obligation to participate in the software virtual memory scheme. They run inside the same address space, where the segmented memory provides a degree of protection. Windows 3.0 also featured improvements to the user interface. Microsoft rewrote critical operations from C into assembly. Windows 3.0 is the first Microsoft Windows version to achieve broad commercial success, selling 2 million copies in the first six months. • Windows 3.1, made generally available on March 1, 1992, featured a facelift. In August 1993, Windows for Workgroups, a special version with integrated peer-to-peer networking features and a version number of 3.11, was released. It was sold along Windows 3.1. Support for Windows 3.1 ended on December 31, 2001. • Windows 3.2, released 1994, is an updated version of the Chinese version of Windows 3.1. The update was limited to this language version, as it fixed only issues related to the complex writing system of the Chinese language. Windows 3.2 was generally sold by computer manufacturers with a ten-disk version of MS-DOS that also had Simplified Chinese characters in basic output and some translated utilities.
  51. 51. • Windows 9x • The next major consumer-oriented release of Windows, Windows 95, was released on August 24, 1995. While still remaining MS-DOS-based, Windows 95 introduced support for native 32-bit applications, plug and play hardware, preemptive multitasking, long file names of up to 255 characters, and provided increased stability over its predecessors. Windows 95 also introduced a redesigned, object oriented user interface, replacing the previous Program Manager with the Start menu, taskbar, and Windows Explorer shell. Windows 95 was a major commercial success for Microsoft; Ina Fried of CNET remarked that "by the time Windows 95 was finally ushered off the market in 2001, it had become a fixture on computer desktops around the world."Microsoft published four OEM Service Releases (OSR) of Windows 95, each of which was roughly equivalent to a service pack. The first OSR of Windows 95 was also the first version of Windows to be bundled with Microsoft's web browser, Internet Explorer. Mainstream support for Windows 95 ended on December 31, 2000, and extended support for Windows 95 ended on December 31, 2001. • Windows 95 was followed up with the release of Windows 98 on June 25, 1998, which introduced the Windows Driver Model, support for USB composite devices, support for ACPI, hibernation, and support for multi-monitor configurations. Windows 98 also included integration with Internet Explorer 4 through Active Desktop and other aspects of the Windows Desktop Update (a series of enhancements to the Explorer shell which were also made available for Windows 95). In May 1999, Microsoft released Windows 98 Second Edition, an updated version of Windows 98. Windows 98 SE added Internet Explorer 5.0 and Windows Media Player 6.2 amongst other upgrades. Mainstream support for Windows 98 ended on June 30, 2002, and extended support for Windows 98 ended on July 11, 2006. • On September 14, 2000, Microsoft released Windows ME (Millennium Edition), the last DOS-based version of Windows. Windows ME incorporated visual interface enhancements from its Windows NT-based counterpart Windows 2000, had faster boot times than previous versions (which however, required the removal of the ability to access a real mode DOS environment, removing compatibility with some older programs),expanded multimedia functionality (including Windows Media Player 7, Windows Movie Maker, and the Windows Image Acquisition framework for retrieving images from scanners and digital cameras), additional system utilities such as System File Protection and System Restore, and updated home networking tools. However, Windows ME was faced with criticism for its speed and instability, along with hardware compatibility issues and its removal of real mode DOS support. PC World considered Windows ME to be one of the worst operating systems Microsoft had ever released, and the 4th worst tech product of all time.
  52. 52. • Early versions • In November 1988, a new development team within Microsoft (which included former Digital Equipment Corporation developers Dave Cutler and Mark Lucovsky) began work on a revamped version of IBM and Microsoft's OS/2 operating system known as "NT OS/2". NT OS/2 was intended to be a secure, multi-user operating system with POSIX compatibility and a modular, portable kernel with preemptive multitasking and support for multiple processor architectures. However, following the successful release of Windows 3.0, the NT development team decided to rework the project to use an extended 32-bit port of the Windows API known as Win32 instead of those of OS/2. Win32 maintained a similar structure to the Windows APIs (allowing existing Windows applications to easily be ported to the platform), but also supported the capabilities of the existing NT kernel. Following its approval by Microsoft's staff, development continued on what was now Windows NT, the first 32-bit version of Windows. However, IBM objected to the changes, and ultimately continued OS/2 development on its own. • The first release of the resulting operating system, Windows NT 3.1 (named to associate it with Windows 3.1) was released in July 1993, with versions for desktop workstations and servers. Windows NT 3.5 was released in September 1994, focusing on performance improvements and support for Novell's NetWare, and was followed up by Windows NT 3.51 in May 1995, which included additional improvements and support for the PowerPC architecture. Windows NT 4.0 was released in June 1996, introducing the redesigned interface of Windows 95 to the NT series. On February 17, 2000, Microsoft released Windows 2000, a successor to NT 4.0. The Windows NT name was dropped at this point in order to put a greater focus on the Windows brand.
  53. 53. • Windows XP • The next major version of Windows NT, Windows XP, was released on October 25, 2001. The introduction of Windows XP aimed to unify the consumer-oriented Windows 9x series with the architecture introduced by Windows NT, a change which Microsoft promised would provide better performance over its DOS-based predecessors. Windows XP would also introduce a redesigned user interface (including an updated Start menu and a "task- oriented" Windows Explorer), streamlined multimedia and networking features, Internet Explorer 6, integration with Microsoft's .NET Passport services, modes to help provide compatibility with software designed for previous versions of Windows, and Remote Assistance functionality. • At retail, Windows XP was now marketed in two main editions: the "Home" edition was targeted towards consumers, while the "Professional" edition was targeted towards business environments and power users, and included additional security and networking features. Home and Professional were later accompanied by the "Media Center" edition (designed for home theater PCs, with an emphasis on support for DVD playback, TV tuner cards, DVR functionality, and remote controls), and the "Tablet PC" edition (designed for mobile devices meeting its specifications for a tablet computer, with support for stylus pen input and additional pen-enabled applications). Mainstream support for Windows XP ended on April 14, 2009. Extended support ended on April 8, 2014. • After Windows 2000, Microsoft also changed its release schedules for server operating systems; the server counterpart of Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, was released in April 2003. It was followed in December 2005, by Windows Server 2003 R2.
  54. 54. • Windows Vista • After a lengthy development process, Windows Vista was released on November 30, 2006, for volume licensing and January 30, 2007, for consumers. It contained a number of new features, from a redesigned shell and user interface to significant technical changes, with a particular focus on security features. It was available in a number of different editions, and has been subject to some criticism, such as drop of performance, longer boot time, criticism of new UAC, and stricter license agreement. Vista's server counterpart, Windows Server 2008 was released in early 2008. • Windows 7 • On July 22, 2009, Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 were released as RTM (release to manufacturing) while the former was released to the public 3 months later on October 22, 2009. Unlike its predecessor, Windows Vista, which introduced a large number of new features, Windows 7 was intended to be a more focused, incremental upgrade to the Windows line, with the goal of being compatible with applications and hardware with which Windows Vista was already compatible. Windows 7 has multi-touch support, a redesigned Windows shell with an updated taskbar, a home networking system called Home Group, and performance improvements.
  55. 55. • Windows 8 and 8.1 • Windows 8, the successor to Windows 7, was released generally on October 26, 2012. A number of significant changes were made on Windows 8, including the introduction of a user interface based around Microsoft's Metro design language with optimizations for touch-based devices such as tablets and all-in- one PCs. These changes include the Start screen, which uses large tiles that are more convenient for touch interactions and allow for the display of continually updated information, and a new class ofapps which are designed primarily for use on touch-based devices. Other changes include increased integration with cloud services and other online platforms (such as social networks and Microsoft's own One Drive (formerly Sky Drive) and Xbox Live services), the Windows Store service for software distribution, and a new variant known as Windows RT for use on devices that utilize the ARM architecture. An update to Windows 8, called Windows 8.1, was released on October 17, 2013, and includes features such as new live tile sizes, deeper One Drive integration, and many other revisions. Windows 8 and Windows 8.1 has been subject to some criticism, such as removal of the Start menu. • Windows 10 • On September 30, 2014, Microsoft announced Windows 10 as the successor to Windows 8.1. It was released on July 29, 2015, and addresses shortcomings in the user interface first introduced with Windows 8. Changes include the return of the Start Menu, a virtual desktop system, and the ability to run Windows Store apps within windows on the desktop rather than in full-screen mode. Windows 10 is said to be available to update from qualified Windows 7 with SP1 and Windows 8.1 computers from the Get Windows 10 Application (for Windows 7, Windows 8.1) or Windows Update (Windows 7). • On November 12, 2015, an update to Windows 10, version 1511, was released.This update can be activated with a Windows 7, 8 or 8.1 product key as well as Windows 10 product keys. Features include new icons and right-click context menus, default printer management, four times as many tiles allowed in the Start menu, Find My Device, and Edge updates. • In February 2017, Microsoft announced the migration of its Windows source code repository from Perforce to Git. This migration involved 3.5 million separate files in a 300 gigabyte repository. By May 2017, 90 percent of its engineering team now uses Git, in about 8500 commits and 1760 Windows builds per day.
  56. 56. Basic Functions of the Windows • The key five basic functions of any operating system are as follows-: 1. Interface between the user and the hardware : An OS provides an interface between user and machine. This interface can be a graphical user interface (GUI) in which users click onscreen elements to interact with the OS or a command-line interface (CLI) in which users type commands at the command-line interface (CLI) to tell the OS to do things.
  57. 57. 2. Coordinate hardware components :An OS enables coordination of hardware components. Each hardware device speaks a different language, but the operating system can talk to them through the specific translational softwares called device drivers. Every hardware component has different drivers for Operating systems. These drivers make the communication
  58. 58. • 3. Provide environment for software to function: An OS provides an environment for software applications to function. An application software is a specific software which is used to perform specific task. In GUI operating systems such as Windows and macOS, applications run within a consistent, graphical desktop environment. • 4. Provide structure for data management : An OS displays structure/directories for data management. We can view file and folder listings and manipulate on those files and folders like (move, copy, rename, delete, and many others). • 5. Monitor system health and functionality: OS monitors the health of our system’s hardware, giving us an idea of how well (or not) it’s performing. We can see how busy our CPU is, or how quickly our hard drives retrieve data, or how much data our network card is sending etc. and it also monitors system activity for malware.
  59. 59. Character User Interface • CUI stands for character user interface and can also be referred to as the command prompt, C prompt or command line. In the direct operating system called DOS this is generally displayed on the screen by a "C:>" or "C>". This is the point at which commands are written out before being sent to the computer by pressing "Enter" on the keyboard.
  60. 60. Graphical User Interface • GUI stands for graphical user interface and eliminates the need to type commands on the C prompt or command line. With a GUI, you use a mouse to move the cursor around the screen, place it on an icon and click. By doing so a command is sent that would otherwise have to be typed using the CUI.
  61. 61. UNIT 3
  62. 62. Internet A global computer network providing a variety of information and communication facilities, consisting of interconnected networks using standardized communication protocols.
  63. 63. Applications of Internet • The Internet has many important applications. Of the various services available via the Internet, the three most important are e-mail, web browsing, and peer-to-peer services . E-mail, also known as electronic mail , is the most widely used and successful of Internet applications. Web browsing is the application that had the greatest influence in dramatic expansion of the Internet and its use during the 1990s. Peer- to-peer networking is the newest of these three Internet applications, and also the most controversial, because its uses have created problems related to the access and use of copyrighted materials. 1. E-Mail Whether judged by volume, popularity, or impact, e-mail has been and continues to be the principal Internet application. This is despite the fact that the underlying technologies have not been altered significantly since the early 1980s. In recent years, the continuing rapid growth in the use and volume of e-mail has been fueled by two factors. The first is the increasing numbers of Internet Service Providers (ISPs) offering this service, and secondly, because the number of physical devices capable of supporting e-mail has grown to include highly portable devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) and cellular telephones.
  64. 64. • The volume of e-mail also continues to increase because there are more users, and because users now have the ability to attach documents of various types to e-mail messages. While this has long been possible, the formulation of Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) and its adoption by software developers has made it much easier to send and receive attachments, including word-processed documents, spreadsheets, and graphics. The result is that the volume of traffic generated by e-mail, as measured in terms of the number of data packets moving across the network, has increased dramatically in recent years, contributing significantly to network congestion. • E-mail has become an important part of personal communications for hundreds of millions of people, many of whom have replaced it for letters or telephone calls. In business, e-mail has become an important advertising medium, particularly in instances where the demand for products and services is time sensitive. For example, tickets for an upcoming sporting event are marketed by sending fans an e-mail message with information about availability and prices of the tickets. In addition, e-mail serves, less obviously, as the basis for some of the more important collaborative applications that have been developed, most notably Lotus Notes. • In the near future, voice-driven applications will play a much larger role on the Internet, and e-mail is sure to be one of the areas in which voice-driven applications will emerge most rapidly. E-mail and voice mail will be integrated, and in the process it seems likely that new models for Internet- based messaging will emerge. • Synchronous communication, in the form of the highly popular "instant messaging," may be a precursor of the messaging models of the near future. Currently epitomized by AOL Instant Messenger and Microsoft's Windows Messenger, instant messaging applications generally allow users to share various types of files (including images, sounds, URLs ), stream content, and use the Internet as a medium for telephony, as well as exchanging messages with other users in real time and participating in online chat rooms.
  65. 65. 2. Web Browsing • The web browser is another Internet application of critical importance. Unlike e-mail, which was developed and then standardized in the early, noncommercial days of the Internet, the web browser was developed in a highly commercialized environment dominated by such corporations as Microsoft and Netscape, and heavily influenced by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). While Microsoft and Netscape have played the most obvious parts in the development of the web browser, particularly from the public perspective, the highly influential role of the W3C may be the most significant in the long term.
  66. 66. • Founded in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee the original architect of the web, the goal of the W3C has been to develop interoperable technologies that lead the web to its full potential as a forum for communication, collaboration, and commerce. What the W3C has been able to do successfully is to develop and promote the adoption of new, open standards for web-based documents. These standards have been designed to make web documents more expressive (Cascading Stylesheets), to provide standardized labeling so that users have a more explicit sense of the content of documents (Platform for Internet Content Selection, or PICS), and to create the basis for more interactive designs (the Extensible Markup Language, or XML). Looking ahead, a principal goal of the W3C is to develop capabilities that are in accordance with Berners- Lee's belief that the web should be a highly collaborative information space. • Microsoft and Netscape dominate the market for web browsers, with Microsoft's Internet Explorer holding about three-quarters of the market, and Netscape holding all but a small fraction of the balance. During the first few years of web growth, the competition between Microsoft and Netscape for the browser market was fierce, and both companies invested heavily in the development of their respective browsers. Changes in business conditions toward the end of the 1990s and growing interest in new models of networked information exchange caused each company to focus less intensely on the development of web browsers, resulting in a marked slowing of their development and an increasing disparity between the standards being developed by W3C and the support offered by Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. • Now, the future of the web browser may be short-lived, as standards developers and programmers elaborate the basis for network-aware applications that eliminate the need for the all-purpose browser. It is expected that as protocols such as XML and the Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) grow more sophisticated in design and functionality, an end user's interactions with the web will be framed largely by desktop applications called in the services of specific types of documents called from remote sources. • The open source model has important implications for the future development of web browsers. Because open source versions of Netscape have been developed on a modular basis, and because the source code is available with few constraints on its use, new or improved services can be added quickly and with relative ease. In addition, open source development has accelerated efforts to integrate web browsers and file managers. These efforts, which are aimed at reducing functional distinctions between local and network-accessible resources, may be viewed as an important element in the development of the "seamless" information space that Berners-Lee envisions for the future of the web.
  67. 67. 3. Peer-To-Peer Computing • One of the fastest growing, most controversial, and potentially most important areas of Internet applications is peer-to-peer (P2P) networking. Peer-to-peer networking is based on the sharing of physical resources, such as hard drives, processing cycles, and individual files among computers and other intelligent devices. Unlike client-server networking, where some computers are dedicated to serving other computers, each computer in peer-to-peer networking has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities. • Internet-based peer-to-peer applications position the desktop at the center of a computing matrix, usually on the basis of "cross-network" protocols such as the Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) or XML-RPC (Remote Procedure Calling), thus enabling users to participate in the Internet more interactively. • There are two basic P2P models in use today. The first model is based on a central host computer that coordinates the exchange of files by indexing the files available across a network of peer computers. This model has been highly controversial because it has been employed widely to support the unlicensed exchange of commercial sound recordings, software, and other copyrighted materials. Under the second model, which may prove ultimately to be far more important, peer-to- peer applications aggregate and use otherwise idle resources residing on low-end devices to support high-demand computations. For example, a specially designed screensaver running on a networked computer may be employed to process astronomical or medical data. • The Future • The remarkable developments during the late 1990s and early 2000s suggest that making accurate predictions about the next generation of Internet applications is difficult, if not impossible. Two aspects of the future of the Internet that one can be certain of, however, are that network bandwidth will be much greater, and that greater bandwidth and its management will be critical factors in the development and deployment of new applications. What will greater bandwidth yield? In the long run, it is difficult to know, but in the short term it seems reasonable to expect new communication models, videoconferencing, increasingly powerful tools for collaborative work across local and wide area networks, and the emergence of the network as a computational service of unprecedented power.
  68. 68. Internet History and Growth
  69. 69. What Is the Internet? • A network of networks, joining many government, university and private computers together and providing an infrastructure for the use of E-mail, bulletin boards, file archives, hypertext documents, databases and other computational resources • The vast collection of computer networks which form and act as a single huge network for transport of data and messages across distances which can be anywhere from the same office to anywhere in the world. Copyright 2002, William F. Slater, III, Chicago, IL, USA
  70. 70. • The largest network of networks in the world. • Uses TCP/IP protocols and packet switching . • Runs on any communications substrate. What is the Internet? Dr. Vinton Cerf, Co-Creator of TCP/IP
  71. 71. Brief History of the Internet • 1968 - DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) contracts with BBN (Bolt, Beranek & Newman) to create ARPAnet • 1970 - First five nodes: – UCLA – Stanford – UC Santa Barbara – U of Utah, and – BBN • 1974 - TCP specification by Vint Cerf • 1984 – On January 1, the Internet with its 1000 hosts converts en masse to using TCP/IP for its messaging
  72. 72. *** Internet History ***
  73. 73. A Brief Summary of the Evolution of the Internet 1945 1995 Memex Conceived 1945 WWW Created 1989 Mosaic Created 1993 A Mathematical Theory of Communication 1948 Packet Switching Invented 1964 Silicon Chip 1958 First Vast Computer Network Envisioned 1962 ARPANET 1969 TCP/IP Created 1972 Internet Named and Goes TCP/IP 1984 Hypertext Invented 1965 Age of eCommerce Begins 1995
  74. 74. From Simple, But Significant Ideas Bigger Ones Grow 1940s to 1969 1945 1969 We can access information using electronic computers We do it reliably with “bits”, sending and receiving data We can do it cheaply by using Digital circuits etched in silicon. We can accomplish a lot by having a vast network of computers to use for accessing information and exchanging ideas We will prove that packet switching works over a WAN. Packet switching can be used to send digitized data though computer networks Hypertext can be used to allow rapid access to text data Copyright 2002, William F. Slater, III, Chicago, IL, USA
  75. 75. From Simple, But Significant Ideas Bigger Ones Grow 1970s to 1995 1970 1995 Ideas from 1940s to 1969 We need a protocol for Efficient and Reliable transmission of Packets over a WAN: TCP/IP The ARPANET needs to convert to a standard protocol and be renamed to The Internet Computers connected via the Internet can be used more easily if hypertext links are enabled using HTML and URLs: it’s called World Wide Web The World Wide Web is easier to use if we have a browser that To browser web pages, running in a graphical user interface context. Great efficiencies can be accomplished if we use The Internet and the World Wide Web to conduct business. Copyright 2002, William F. Slater, III, Chicago, IL, USA
  76. 76. The Creation of the Internet • The creation of the Internet solved the following challenges: – Basically inventing digital networking as we know it – Survivability of an infrastructure to send / receive high-speed electronic messages – Reliability of computer messaging Copyright 2002, William F. Slater, III, Chicago, IL, USA
  77. 77. Internet Growth Trends
  78. 78. Internet Growth Trends • 1977: 111 hosts on Internet • 1981: 213 hosts • 1983: 562 hosts • 1984: 1,000 hosts • 1986: 5,000 hosts • 1987: 10,000 hosts • 1989: 100,000 hosts • 1992: 1,000,000 hosts • 2001: 150 – 175 million hosts • 2002: over 200 million hosts • By 2010, about 80% of the planet will be on the Internet
  79. 79. No. of Participating Hosts Oct. ‘90 - Apr. ‘98
  80. 80. March 2001 Over 115 Million Hosts (As of Jan. 2001) Over 407 Million Users (As of Nov. 2000) 218 of 246 Countries (As of Jan. 2000) About 100 TB of Data > 31 Million Domain Names Dr. Vint Cerf presents in Chicago at the Drake Hotel on March 2001 The event was a fund-raiser for the ITRC Digital Photo March 2001 by William F. Slater, III, Chicago, IL, USA
  81. 81. By September 2002 The Internet Reached Two Important Milestones: – from Telcordia
  82. 82. Growth of Internet Hosts * Sept. 1969 - Sept. 2002 0 50,000,000 100,000,000 150,000,000 200,000,000 250,000,000 9 / 6 9 0 1 / 7 1 0 1 / 7 3 0 1 / 7 4 0 1 / 7 6 0 1 / 7 9 0 8 / 8 1 0 8 / 8 3 1 0 / 8 5 1 1 / 8 6 0 7 / 8 8 0 1 / 8 9 1 0 / 8 9 0 1 / 9 1 1 0 / 9 1 0 4 / 9 2 1 0 / 9 2 0 4 / 9 3 1 0 / 9 3 0 7 / 9 4 0 1 / 9 5 0 1 / 9 6 0 1 / 9 7 0 1 / 9 8 0 1 / 9 9 0 1 / 0 1 0 8 / 0 2 Time Period No. of Hosts The Internet was not known as "The Internet" until January 1984, at which time there were 1000 hosts that were all converted over to using TCP/IP. Chart by William F. Slater, III Sept. 1, 2002 Dot-Com Bust Begins Copyright 2002, William F. Slater, III, Chicago, IL, USA
  83. 83. The Internet Host Count in Realtime on September 1, 2002 - Over 204,000,000 IP Hosts!!! Chart showing Internet Growth from Sept. 1, 2001 to Sept. 1, 2002. Source
  84. 84. Domain Name Registration Jan. ‘89 - Jul. ‘97 April 2001: 31,000,000 Domain Names!!!
  85. 85. Statistics from the IITF Report The Emerging Digital Economy * • To get a market of 50 Million People Participating: • Radio took 38 years • TV took 13 years • Once it was open to the General Public, The Internet made to the 50 million person audience mark in just 4 years!!! • – Released on April 15, 1998 * Delivered to the President and the U.S. Public on April 15, 1998 by Bill Daley, Secretary of Commerce and Chairman of the Information Infrastructure Task Force
  86. 86. Conclusion • The Internet (and World Wide Web) was have today was created by some very bright, talented people who either had vision, or were inspired by other talented people’s visions. • Though their ideas were not always popular, they pressed ahead. • Their perseverance and hard work brought us to where we are today. • There is a lot to be learned by studying these people, their early work and keeping in mind what they had to work with. • Today, we owe a great deal for the wired world we enjoy, to the hard work of these people.
  87. 87. Network, Internet and World Wide Web Essential Concepts Natalia Mosina - 2005
  88. 88. Network • Most people work in a network environment A network is a collection of computers connected together with special hardware and software to manage it. LAN – local area network (small area) WAN – wide area network (long distances)
  89. 89. From LAN to WAN (a) Home Network (b) Local Area Network
  90. 90. From LAN to WAN (continued) (c) Wide Area Network
  91. 91. The Internet and How We Connect to It Using an ISP • Explain what the Internet is
  92. 92. Internet • The Internet is a worldwide collection of computer networks • The Internet is a network of networks that connects users in every country in the world. There are currently over one billion Internet users worldwide.
  93. 93. The Internet and How We Connect to It Using an ISP • Define an Internet Service Provider and its purpose
  94. 94. ISP • An ISP is a company that provides the connections and support to access the Internet. • It can also provide additional services such as Email and web hosting. • ISPs are essential to gaining access to the Internet • ISPs range in size from small to very large and differ in terms of the area they service. • ISPs also differ in the types of connection technologies and speeds they offer
  95. 95. The Internet and How We Connect to It Using an ISP • Describe how you connect to the Internet through the ISP and the ISP’s relationship to the Internet
  96. 96. PoP • A POP is the connection point between the ISP's network and the particular geographical region that the POP is servicing. • An ISP may have many POPs depending on its size and the area it services • The Internet is made up of very high-speed data links that interconnect ISP POPs and ISPs to each other. • These interconnections are part of the very large, high capacity network known as the Internet Backbone.
  97. 97. The Internet and How We Connect to It Using an ISP • ISPs provide a variety of ways to connect to the Internet, depending on location and desired connection speed. • The choice of Internet access technologies depends on availability, cost, access device used, media used and the speed of the connection.
  98. 98. The Internet and How We Connect to It Using an ISP • The contract with the ISP determines the type and level of services that are available.
  99. 99. How Information is Sent When Using an ISP • Define and explain that the most important protocol of the Internet is the Internet Protocol (IP).
  100. 100. The World Wide Web (www) • The Web presents information through multimedia formats: graphics, sound, animation, and video. • The Web uses several tools to provide a visual layout: • Hypertext links • Browser software • Code structure • The Web resembles an electronic library – each location or site is like a book. • These books are created using Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). • These materials, along with interactive objects such as Java, JavaScript, and VBScript adds functionality to web pages.
  101. 101. Client vs. Server • When you connect to Internet to become part of the web, your computer becomes a Web client in a worldwide client/server network. • Web browser is the software that you run on your computer to make it work as a Web client.
  102. 102. A Client/Server Model • A server (Web server or Web site) is any computer that stores documents and furnishes them upon request • A client is any computer that requests services (requests and then displays documents ) • Every client must be able to display every document from every server and does so through a browser (e.g., Netscape or Internet Explorer) •
  103. 103. Connecting to the Internet • Elements required to connect to the Internet: • Computer, WebTV, mobile phone, or Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) • Dial-up modem, digital subscriber line (DSL) modem, or cable modem • Operating System: Windows 95/98/Me, Windows NT/2000/XP, Linux/UNIX, Macintosh • Telecommunications/Client Software: Web browser, e-mail or news client programs • Internet Connection (telephone line or cable connection): dial-up or direct connection to an Internet Service Provider (ISP) or Value-Added Network (VAN) such as America Online (AOL) or Microsoft Network (MSN) • Internet Addresses: Web addresses (e.g.,, e-mail addresses (e.g.,, server addresses (e.g., ss1.ProSoftTraining)
  104. 104. Connecting to the Internet • At Work or School – Via a Local Area Network • At Home – Traditional Modem (56Kbps) – Cable Modem • Uses TV cable • Requires network card – DSL Modem • Voice and data on the same line • Requires network card •
  105. 105. Connection Types • Dial-Up Connection – Use a modem to access the Internet on a per-use basis. The user accesses the ISP via phone line and when finished, disconnects from the ISP. – The speed of access is determined by the speed of your modem. – To gain faster access, you can install an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) line, which is a digital phone line. • Direct Connection – Provide continuous access to the Internet – Convenient and fast and capable of handling high bandwidth
  106. 106. Domain Name System (DNS) • To access a website, you must enter the address of the web server in your browser. • The IP address (the dotted quad) is one way to identify the server; however, most users prefer to use domain names because they are easier to remember. • The Domain Name System (DNS) translates IP addresses into easily recognizable names. • Examples: IP address: Domain name:
  107. 107. Domain Names • Each domain name is unique. It consists of letters and numbers separated by dots and includes two or more words (labels). • The last label in a domain name is usually a two- or three-letter code called a top-level domain. • Example: Server (Host) Name Registered Company Domain Category Domain Name (Top-Level Domain)
  108. 108. Domain Name Syntax • A domain name, read left to right, specifies general divisions, then specific companies, and individual computers (web servers or e-mail servers) com = a commercial site microsoft = the name registered by the company www = the name of the web server at the company, also called the web site host
  109. 109. Domain Names • A fully qualified domain name (FQDN) is the complete domain name of an Internet computer. It provides enough information to covert the domain name to an IP address. • Top-Level Domains .com = commercial or company sites .edu = educational institutions .gov = U. S. civilian government .mil = U. S. military .org = organizations .net = network sites, including commercial ISPs .int = international organizations • Two-Letter Country Codes – categorize domains by country or region. For example: us = United States au = Australia
  110. 110. Registering a Domain Name • To register a domain name, your Internet Service Provider (ISP), your employer, or you must make a formal request to a domain name registrar. • In the U. S., the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) verifies which companies can serve as domain name registrars. The ICANN is responsible for accrediting its registrars. • Each country has a different process for registering domain names. • Domain name registrars activate domain names using a first- come, first-served basis. • If your domain name choice is available, you will receive notice via standard and electronic mail.
  111. 111. • Network Solutions ( was selected as one of the original five registrars. • Registrars provide the following services: – Domain name registration – Registration service forms for domain name transfers, modifications, etc. – Resource links for payment options and policies. – Search capabilities for registered domain names, host IP addresses, and last name/first name queries using WHOIS (an internet utility primarily used to query databases to determine registered hosts) Registering a Domain Name
  112. 112. Uniform Resource Locators (URL) • A URL is a text string that supplies an internet or intranet address and the method by which the address can be accessed. • URLs start with the http:// prefix which identifies them as web pages using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol. • For example, if you enter the following web address: The URL will access a web page because it begins with http. It then contacts the web server and domain named It will locate a file on the server.
  113. 113. Uniform Resource Locator (URL) Protocol (means of access) Web Server Directory where the Page is stored Name of the page Or document
  114. 114. URL  Top-level domains include “edu,” “gov,” and “org,” but “com” is most common  Examples:     
  115. 115. Cookies • Cookies are small text files placed on a website visitor’s computer so website managers can customize their site to a visitor’s preferences. They also gain information about visitors that could be used for marketing needs. • Unless you register with a site, cookies do not have access to any personal information about you. • The text is entered into the memory of the browser. The browser in turn stores the cookie information on the hard drive so when the browser is closed and reopened at a later date the cookie information is still available.
  116. 116. Cookies • Cookies are small text files placed on a website visitor’s computer so website managers can customize their site to a visitor’s preferences. They also gain information about visitors that could be used for marketing needs. • Unless you register with a site, cookies do not have access to any personal information about you. • The text is entered into the memory of the browser. The browser in turn stores the cookie information on the hard drive so when the browser is closed and reopened at a later date the cookie information is still available.
  117. 117. Web sites use cookies for several different reasons: • To collect demographic information about who is visiting the Web site. Sites often use this information to track how often visitors come to the site and how long they remain on the site. • To personalize the user's experience on the Web site. Cookies can help store personal information about you so that when you return to the site you have a more personalized experience.
  118. 118. Web sites use cookies for several different reasons: If you have ever returned to a site and have seen your name mysteriously appear on the screen, it is because on a previous visit you gave your name to the site and it was stored in a cookie so that when you returned you would be greeted with a personal message. A good example of this is the way some online shopping sites will make recommendations to you based on previous purchases. The server keeps track of what you purchase and what items you search for and stores that information in cookies.
  119. 119. Web sites use cookies for several different reasons: • To monitor advertisements. Web sites will often use cookies to keep track of what ads it lets you see and how often you see ads. • To collect demographic information about who is visiting the Web site. Sites often use this information to track how often visitors come to the site and how long they remain on the site. • To personalize the user's experience on the Web site. Cookies can help store personal information about you so that when you return to the site you have a more personalized experience.
  120. 120. Web sites use cookies for several different reasons: If you have ever returned to a site and have seen your name mysteriously appear on the screen, it is because on a previous visit you gave your name to the site and it was stored in a cookie so that when you returned you would be greeted with a personal message. A good example of this is the way some online shopping sites will make recommendations to you based on previous purchases. The server keeps track of what you purchase and what items you search for and stores that information in cookies.
  121. 121. Web sites use cookies for several different reasons: • To monitor advertisements. Web sites will often use cookies to keep track of what ads it lets you see and how often you see ads.
  122. 122. Cookies • Cookies do not act maliciously on computer systems. They are merely text files that can be deleted at any time - they are not plug ins nor are they programs. • Cookies cannot be used to spread viruses and they cannot access your hard drive. This does not mean that cookies are not relevant to a user's privacy and anonymity on the Internet. • Cookies cannot read your hard drive to find out information about you; however, any personal information that you give to a Web site, including credit card information, will most likely be stored in a cookie unless you have turned off the cookie feature in your browser. In only this way are cookies a threat to privacy.
  123. 123. Cookies • The cookie will only contain information that you freely provide to a Web site.
  124. 124. Cookies have six parameters that can be passed to them: • The name of the cookie. • The value of the cookie. • The expiration date of the cookie - this determines how long the cookie will remain active in your browser. • The path the cookie is valid for - this sets the URL path the cookie us valid in. Web pages outside of that path cannot use the cookie.
  125. 125. Cookies have six parameters that can be passed to them: • The domain the cookie is valid for - this takes the path parameter one step further. This makes the cookie accessible to pages on any of the servers when a site uses multiple servers in a domain. • The need for a secure connection - this indicates that the cookie can only be used under a secure server condition, such as a site using SSL.
  126. 126. Internet Applications and Services • But what does one do with the Internet? May be four things, basically: mail, discussion groups, long-distance computing, and file transfers. Internet mail is (e-mail or electronic mail), much faster as compared to normal postal mail. One can also send software and certain forms of compressed digital image as an attachment. News groups or discussion groups facilitate Internet user to join for various kinds of debate, discussion and news sharing. Long-distance computing was an original inspiration for development of ARPANET and does still provide a very useful service on Internet. Programmers can maintain accounts on distant, powerful computers, execute programs. File transfer service allows Internet users to access remote machines and retrieve programs, data or text.
  127. 127. Internet applications • We can roughly separate internet applications into the following types: online media, online information search, online communications, online communities, online entertainment, e- business, online finance and other applications.
  128. 128. Applications of internet: The internet is treated as one of the biggest invention. It has a large number of uses. 1. Communication 2. Job searches 3. Finding books and study material 4. Health and medicine 5. Travel 6. Entertainment 7. Shopping 8. Stock market updates 9. Research 10. Communicating through email 11. E-resources 12. Professional networking websites
  129. 129. Conclusion • Whenever you write any formal email, remember that you want your email to achieve its purpose. To make sure this happens, you must create emails which are presented in an easy to read format, appropriately written with regard to tone and also show consideration of your reader.
  130. 130. Professional networking websites • Whether it’s to keep in contact with friends or family to advance your career, you are likely on at least one social network. While Facebook, Twitter,and Google are extremely popular, these platforms might not be able help you professionally. That’s when professional social networking sites come into play. And, there’s one name that instantly jumps out when you mention “professional social networking” – LinkedIn. • LinkedIn has been proven to be more effective than Facebook and Twitter at generating leads, 227% more effective to be exact. And, despite the 225 million registered members, LinkedIn does have some issues. For starters, the site is known to flood your inbox with annoying spam. Even worse than having to get rid of LinkedIn’s persistent junk mail, there’s also allegations that the company hacked into customer’s email addresses. • Even with these problems, most of us join potentially rewarding sites like LinkedIn. But, if you’re not a fan of the most popular professional networking site, then I suggest that you try out one the following eight alternatives.
  131. 131. • 8. Twylah Twylah is a solid option if you’re looking to increase your presence on Twitter through brand pages. This allows you to determine your true brand identity and how your brand pages are doing with your audience. Another useful feature is the allowance of page optimization, which can to visibility to generate traffic from search engines. • 7. Opprtunity Opprtunity uses a scientific approach approach to find the right sales leads, job opportunities, job candidates via an algorithm that uses data points, such as location, industry types, skill sets and other signals from around the Internet. And, you can sign in with your LinkedIn account. • 6. PartnerUp The most appealing feature with PartnerUp is how the site focuses on the needs of small business owners and entrepreneurs. There’s also a lot of beneficial articles written by small business owners that could come in handy. The company has now moved to the Google + Communities, but the advice and connections are still there. • 5. VisualCV Official AdWords Campaign Templates Select your industry. Download your campaign template. Custom built with exact match keywords and converting ad copy with high clickthrough rates. VisualCV allows you to create a unique digital resume that can be shared to other colleagues or prospective employers. Not all that different than LinedIn, but VisualCV does look more engaging.
  132. 132. • 4. Meetup Meetup is an online social networking portal that facilitates offline group meetings with like-minded people, both professionally and personally, in your area. Known for posting a ton of events, MeetUp is a great tool to network in the really real world. • 3. Zerply Not only can you post a resume on Zerply, you can actual showcase your work through videos, portfolios or even story boards. The perfect location for creative and talented job seekers and employers. • 2. AngelList Known primarily as platform for startups, AngelList can connect you with thousands of startups seeking your skills and talent. As a whole, the site is extremely efficient, easy to use and secure. • 1. BranchOut If you have Facebook, then you might have spotted BranchOut before, it’s only the most popular app for professional networking on Facebook platform. While it resembles LinkedIn, recruiting and job hunting is achieved through Facebook connections, which means no awkward introductions and the ability to tap into any company. While LinkedIn has proven to be a great resource for finding employment or employees – which is why it’s such an extremely popular site – there are other sites that offer similar, if not better, services. If you’ve used one of these site that were mentioned, or know of one that we’ve neglected, let us know in the comments!
  133. 133. UNIT-4