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MIS practical file

  1. 1. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 1 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL EXPERIMENT NO.1 AIM: MIS and its functional subsystem. INTRODUCTION OF MIS: MIS is also preferred Information Processing System, Information and Decision System, organizational Information System or simply Information System which is integrated, user machine system or providing information to operations, management and decision making functions in an organization. The system utilizes computer hardware, software, manual procedures, and models for analysis, planning control and decision making and a database. The fact that it is an integrated system doesn’t mean that it is a single but it means that all parts fit into an overall design. Pyramid structure of MIS
  2. 2. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 2 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL MIS has been described as a pyramid structure in which bottom layer consist of information for transaction processing, status inquiries etc. The next level consists of information resources in day to day operation and control. The third level consists of information resources to ate in tactical planning and decision making for management control. The top level consists of information resources to support strategic planning and policy making by higher levels of management. Each level of information processing may make use of data provided for lower level but new data may also be introduced. E.g. some of information to support management and decision making is provided by data obtained for transaction process while some may be new data about activities external to the organization . Computer based user machine system : A MIS can exist without computers but it is a capability of computer which makes MIS feasible. The question is not whether computer should be used in MIS but the extend to which computers should be used in MIS and how much information should be computerized. The concept of user machine system means some functions are best performed by users while others are best performed by machines. The user of MIS is any person responsible for entering input data, instruction given to system or utilizing the information output of the system. For many problems the user and computer forma combined system with results obtained from a set of interactions between computer and user. Computer based means that designer of MIS must have a knowledge of computer and of their use in information processing. The user machine means that the system designer should also understand capabilities of human as system components and behavior of users of information system. Information system application should not require user to be computer experts. However users need to be able to specify their information requirement. Some understanding of computer, the nature of information and its use in various management function aids users in this task.
  3. 3. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 3 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL Significance of MIS : MIS have become a vital component of successful business firms and other organizations. They contribute an essential field of study in business administration and management. That’s why business managers must take a subject in information systems. Since you intend to be a manager or business professional it is very important to have a basic understanding of information systems as it is to understand any other functional area in business. The following are the reasons why Information systems are important. An information system is an organized combination of people, hardware, software communication network and data resources that collects, transfer the information in organization. End users work by using many types of information system. They might include simple manual hardware devices and informal communication channels. An end user perspective Anyone who uses information system or information it produces is an end user. This usually related to all persons in an organization are distinguished from the smaller number of persons who are information system analysts or professional computer programmers. A manager end user is a manager or professional who personally uses information systems so most managers are managerial end users. An enterprise perspective Information system plays a vital role in business success of an enterprise. Information technology can provide the information. A business needs for efficient operations, effective management and competitive advantage. However if information system don’t properly related to the strategic objectives, business operations or management needs of an enterprise they can seriously damage its success so the proper management of information system is a major challenge for managers. Thus information system functions include following point.:- It consists of a major functional area of business. A major part of resource of an enterprise and its cost of doing business makes a major resource management challenge.
  4. 4. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 4 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL It includes any important factor effecting operational efficiency, productivity and costumer service and satisfaction. It helps as a major source of information and a support needed to help effective decision making by manager. It acts as vital, dynamic and challenging opportunity for users. A global society perspective : We are living in a global info society, with a global economy that is increasingly dependent on the creation, management and distribution of information dependent on creation. So information is the basic resource in today’s society. People in many nations no longer stay with agriculture societies composed of farmers or even industrial societies where a majority of work force consists of factory workers. Knowledge workers include executive, managers and supervisors, professional such as accountants, engineers etc. Most of them are end users who make their efficiency in using information system to create, distribute, manage and use information resources. Thus information system helps them to manage financial, material, energy and other resources involved in their work responsibilities. Information or information system are valuable resource or knowledge workers, their organization and society. A major challenge for global information society is to manage its information resources to benefit all members of society while meeting the strategic goals of organization and nation. This means using information system to find more efficient and responsible base of using information system to find more efficient and responsible base of using the limited supply of material energy and other resources. Since the information systems of so many organizations are interconnected by local, global, telecommunication networks, knowledge workers who can know access and distribute information and manage resources all over the world. For these reasons information system play an increasingly vital role in our global economy. MIS MODEL : In the MIS model, the database contains the data provided by the subsystem. In addition both data and information are entered from environment. The database contents are used by software that product periodic and special reports as well as mathematical models that perform various aspects of the firms operation.
  5. 5. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 5 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL The software output are used by people who are responsible for solving the firm’s problems. Note that some of problem solvers can exist within the firm’s environment. The MIS provides information to other members of inter organizational information system. Components of MIS : MIS components are identified by describing the system as a processor. The system process is defined by identification of inputs and transformation of inputs to outputs. The typical example of system as a processor is data processing system. The processes include classification calculation and summarization of data. These processes are related to the production of useful information. A computerized MIS processes the information, in this case the processes consists of computation and skillful management of reports. The functional relationship between input and output of a process is used to design and evaluate feedback systems. Basically the MIS is having three components Process: The total process of a system is the net contribution of many individual processes in MIS design. This is accomplished by ongoing activities in converting inputs to outputs. For example if we consider typical marketing information system, the fundamental inputs and outputs could be processed as follows: Inputs: 1. Sales on units by each salesman for a period. 2. Estimated sales in units of competitor corresponding to above. 3. Economic conditions and trends. Outputs: 1. Sales by product i.e. month wise and till date. 2. Sales by salesman i.e. month wise and till date. 3. Sales by trend analysis. 4. Sales forecasting. For conversion of output from inputs it is important to classify transfer, aggregate and analyze input quantities to get desired outputs variables. This enables the current information at any specific point of time. Parameters of MIS
  6. 6. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 6 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL An introduction of new technologies, restructuring of sales staff or discovery of new market spaces result in constant variations in sales, forecasting reports. These quantities which describe state of system are called the parameters of MIS. Boundaries of MIS Any system is identified by certain limiting factors which includes its components processes and inter relationships. These limiting factors are termed as boundaries of a system. Effective interface can be built among various systems by identification of various boundaries. Example: a teller of accounts in the bank is a system which contributes to the activities of deposits withdraws and related activities affecting the customer bank balance. This excludes other banking activities like trust activities, loan activities etc. it is to be noticed that everything outside the boundary of a system is called its environment. Flow from environment into a system is called inputs and flow from inside boundary of system into environment is outputs. All elements within the boundary contribute to specific goals of system. MIS characteristics : There are many characteristics of a system which serve as a checklist for system designer. The main characteristics are: Management orientation Integration Common data flow Heavy planning element Subsystem concept Database Distributed system Information as a source Business activities Evolution of MIS : In starting all business were local and small in operation. A single individual perform all activities by himself. Single individual was responsible for production of goods, for storage and for the exchanging purpose to the outside environment.
  7. 7. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 7 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL There was practically no need for record keeping because the person knew that how much of stock he had made etc. But over years business started growing and along with growth business complexities also increased i.e. from one or two commodities to several thousand products, with localized operations to global operations with production facilities and wide marketing in many counties. The chief executive of such a big corporation has to depend on reports, mostly periodic paper reports for information. It is impossible for him to visit all his corporation facilities, warehouses etc. It is the operation system that keeps him informed of his corporation activities such full fledged information. System requires an organized system to collect data at source with accuracy, process it and keep all his files updated to feed the manager with most current highly accurate information needing investment. Data is used in the form of raw material and must be subjected to data processing to produce useful information and information system produces this useful information by using data. If the information system generates information which is useful for managers in planning and control then the whole system is called MIS. The evolution of MIS and its growth depends on following: 1. On growth of management theory and techniques 2. On growth of management accounting and its applications in business. 3. On changes in the production and distribution methods. MIS support for decision making : Decisions vary with respect to structure that can be provided for making them. Basically the decisions are of two types: 1. Structured: A highly structured decision can be preplanned or pre specified. Structure decision is also said to be programmable decision in the sense that unambiguous decisions rules can be specified in advance. It doesn’t mean that the decision is automated although making programmable decisions are automated. The structured program decision tends to be routine and frequently repeated. 2. Unstructured: they are not preplanned or pre-specified the unstructured decisions tend to occur with less frequency and tends to be non routine. The unstructured decision has no pre-established decision procedure.
  8. 8. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 8 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL Subsystems of MIS : There are two approaches: 1.Organizational function subsystem : They are somewhat different in terms of activities and are defined with managerial activities as separate responsibilities. MIS may be viewed as a federation of information system one for each major organizational function. There may be common support system used by more than one subsystem but each functional system is unique in its procedure, programs, models etc. Major functional subsystems are: Marketing Manufacturing Logistics Personnel Finance and accounting Information processing Top management 2. Activities subsystem : Another approach to understand the structure of an information system is in terms of the subsystem which performs various activities. Some of activities subsystem will be useful for one organizational function subsystem others will be useful for only one function. Major activity subsystems are : Transaction processing Operational control Management control Strategic planning
  9. 9. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 9 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL main objective of study: - * It should contain all the information of University or a school. * It should contain all the information of University Infrastructure or a school. * It should contain all the information of University Students. PURPOSE: - Computerized STUDENT MANAGEMENT System is developed to facilitate the general administration system to manage the various information of the students and the processes involved in an university. So, that university can access accurate information quickly and easily as and when required, thereby improving its operational efficiency & effectiveness. The basic approach that software engineering takes is to separate the development process from the software. The premise is that the development process controls the quality, scalability, consistency, and productivity. Hence to satisfy the objectives, one must focus on the development process. Design of proper development process and their control is the primary goal of the software engineering. Engineering Paradigm:- The basic objective of software engineering is to: develop methods and procedures for software development that can scale up for large systems and that can be used to consistently produce high quality software at low cost and with a small cycle time. That is, the key objectives are consistency, low cost, high quality, small cycle time, and scalability.
  10. 10. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 10 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL System Requirements Review & Validation User Requirement Specifications Software Requirements Review & Validation Software Requirements Preliminary Design Review & Validation Detailed Functional Specifications Detailed Design Review & Validation Global Implementation Specifications & Detailed Implementation Specifications Code and Debugging Review & Validation Coding &Debugging Testing Review & Validation Testing Maintenance Review & Validation Maintenance STUDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
  11. 11. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 11 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL COMPONENTS OF THE PROJECTS : How to Login : In this module, the user will enter his username and password to view . There will be 2 types of users Administrator/Guest user. How to Register : In this site, the user can join the site ,if he is not a member yet by pressing “signup” link .User should provide some details that are asked to join. MODULES : Login Module : In this module user can enter the site by providing username and password and start exploring record. Admin Module : Can add new account ,view user profile, delete user.
  12. 12. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 12 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL EXPERIMENT NO:2 AIM: Study of physical and conceptual structure of MIS. With a 5000-year-old culture, Indian Art is rich in its tapestry of ancient heritage, medieval times, Mughal rule, British rule, Progressive art and now contemporary art. The earliest recorded art of India originated from a religious Hindu background, which was later replaced by a soaring popular Buddhist art. Moreover, from a timeless era art in India has been inspired by spiritualism and mystical relationship between man and god. Art in India had survived in its homeland and spread from time to time all over the world. This was possible because many kings who recognized budding talent patronized art and themselves were great connoisseurs. Each king has left a deep impression of his affinity to the artist community. Until today, art is patronized by the rich and famous in the country. Conceptual Structure of MIS: Our project has a big scope to do. We can store information of all the arts.Various users can access the information. user can maintain their information and can update it. Notifications are sent to user about the companies. user can access previous information about arts. Physical Structure of MIS: For the purpose of art and artists of the user in , admin have to collect the information and manages them manually and arranges them according to various arts. If any modification is required that is to be also done manually. From a proper analysis of positive points and constraints on the component, it can be safely concluded that the product is a highly efficient GUI based component. This component can be easily plugged in many other systems. Also the component is user friendly. Generally the admin of the site has to face a lot of problems in management of the arts. This all information has to be managed manually. So,
  13. 13. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 13 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL there is a need to develop a system that can solve the mentioned problem. This software comes with just that solution. DETAILED ANALYSIS : The whole project will be based on PHP with MYSQL as the database with certain security constraints added to it. Our aim is also to implement the Administrator part in to the project so that the server or administrator himself can view, add and delete . Administrator : He has to see whether the website is working properly and whether the details available in the system are relevant and correct. He can view, add, delete details. Database : The database keeps all the records of all the users i.e. username,password,country, phone no., city, state,email,etc. For creating such records it takes the help of tables which is created in the MYSQL. The tables can have infinite entries of all the registered users as well as administrators. Guest : Our aim will also to provide efficient way by which guest can enter to see his profile and download arts. Security Constraints : There need to be certain constraints which have to be implemented on the database as well as on the administrator in order to work properly the whole system, such as declaring the primary key, or such constraints in order to keep the database work properly. Some of such constraints are as follows: 1. Each user has a field called username which can be used to differentiate between different users. 2. The administrator has his own password known to no one else to access a unique page.
  14. 14. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 14 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL 3. Only the administrator has the right to delete user, upload arts, view user profile. 4. Administrator has to first login to get access to admin part and add new arts in the website. 5. A new user cannot have same username and password as of some already registereduser STRUCTURE OF STUDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM LOGIN MODULES ADMIN admin can add ,update,delete the user USER
  15. 15. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 15 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL EXPERIMENT NO:3 AIM: Study of DSS, its users and characteristics. DEFINITION: - It is set of well indicated user friendly computer based tools that combined data with various decision making models to solve semi structured and unstructured problems. ITS USERS:- The ultimate user of DSS is decision maker in the cement company. However he or she may not actually run the system. There are four distinct usage patterns 1. Subscription mode: - receives reports that are generated automatically on the regular basis. 2. Terminal mode: - decision maker is the direct user of the system by making online access. 3. Clerk mode: - In this decision maker uses the system directly but offline. 4. Intermediary mode: - the decision maker uses the system with intermediaries who perform the analysis and gives the report of the result. CHARACTERISTICS:- 1. It facilitates semi structured and unstructured decision making by bringing together data. 2. It provides decision support for several independent decisions. 3. It supports a wide variety of decision making processes and styles. 4. It tells the decision maker to make decision under dynamic business conditions. 5. It helps the decision maker to address ad hoc queries. OBJECTIVE : Encourage and promote the development and progress of electronic Data Processing towards achieving self-reliance in the field of computer sciences and technology for scientific research and development, educational
  16. 16. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 16 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL governmental commercial and industrial applications both for indigenous utilization as well as for export. Disseminate knowledge on all aspects of Electronic Data Processing Systems and allied subjects, and to foster the development of this specialized branch of technology. Stimulate and offer aid for research and development of the benefit of manufactures End users Electronic Data Processing Systems. Provide support for software development on consultancy basis. Establish, manage and operate sub-Centre’s for all or any of the objectives of the Centre. In pursuit of these objectives, the Centre may engage in the following activities. Setup Advisory and Consultancy Services. Organize study programmers, symposia, conferences, lectures. Maintain contacts with other learned and professional organizations. Support publication activities. Make available facilities of the Centre for the users.
  17. 17. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 17 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL EXPERIMENT NO:4 AIM: Study of information system and its types. SYSTEM: -INFORMATION : Means an interconnected set of information resources under the same direct management control that shares common functionality. A system normally includes hardware, software, information, data, applications, communications, and people. DEFINITIONS: 1. A system, whether automated or manual, that comprises people, machines, and/or methods organized to collect, process, transmit, and disseminate data that represent user information. 2. The entire infrastructure, organization, personnel, and components for the collection, processing, storage, transmission, display, dissemination, and disposition of information. TYPES OF INFORMATION SYSTEM:- For the business of cement manufacturing, there are a variety of requirements for information. Senior managers need information to help with their business planning. Middle management needs more detailed information to help them monitor and control business activities. Employees with operational roles need information to help them carry out their duties. As a result, business tends to have several "information systems" operating at the same time. This revision note highlights the main categories of information system and provides some examples to help you distinguish between them. The main kinds of information systems in business are described briefly below: EXECUTIVE SUPPORT SYSTEM: An Executive Support System ("ESS") is designed to help senior management make strategic decisions. It gathers analyses and summarizes the key internal and external information used in the business.
  18. 18. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 18 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL A good way to think about an ESS is to imagine the senior management team at the main branch having a software program that shows the current status of all the operating Branches. ESS typically involves lots of data analysis and modeling tools such as "what-if" analysis to help strategic decision-making. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM: A management information system ("MIS") is mainly concerned with internal sources of information. MIS usually take data from the transaction processing systems and summarize it into a series of management reports. MIS reports tend to be used by middle management and operational supervisors. DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM: Decision-support systems ("DSS") are specifically designed to help management make decisions in situations where there is uncertainty about the possible outcomes of those decisions. DSS comprise tools and techniques to help gather relevant information and analyze the options and alternatives. DSS often involves use of complex spreadsheet and databases to create "what-if" models. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: Knowledge Management Systems ("KMS") exist to help businesses create and share information. These are typically used in a business where employees create new knowledge and expertise - which can then be shared by other people in the organization to create further commercial opportunities. Good examples include firms of lawyers, accountants and management consultants. KMS are built around systems which allow efficient categorization and distribution of knowledge. For example, the knowledge itself might be contained in word processing documents, spreadsheets, PowerPoint presentations, Internet pages or the local plant files. To share the knowledge, a KMS would use group collaboration systems such as an intranet, which are shared by all plants via a communication medium. TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEMS: As the name implies, Transaction Processing Systems ("TPS") are designed to process routine transactions efficiently and accurately.
  19. 19. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 19 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL A business will have several (sometimes many) TPS; for example: - Billing systems to send invoices to customers - Systems to calculate the weekly and monthly payroll and tax payments - Production and purchasing systems to calculate raw material requirements - Stock control systems to process all movements into, within and out of the business OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEMS: Office Automation Systems are systems that try to improve the productivity of employees who need to process data and information. Perhaps the best example is a system that allow employees to work from home or whilst on the move.
  20. 20. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 20 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL EXPERIMENT NO:5 AIM: Study of GDSS and its possible configurations. DEFINITION: It is an interactive computer based system to facilitate the solution of unstructured problems by a set of decision makers working in a group. It improved the quality and effectiveness of meetings. The GDSS includes the following in to its configuration:- 1. The top management 2. Middle management 3. Employees 4. Workers In G-DSS there is a committee which is generally made for higher level decisions. In top management there is Company Manager. In middle management there is Plant manager. In lower level there are Employees. At the last stage there are Workers. A problem arises due to heavy pollution near by residential areas in air due to silt. So the company G-DSS committee decides to solve this problem and solution is to protect the manufacturing surroundings with plants. Exhaust pipes length increased.
  21. 21. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 21 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL EXPERIMENT NO:6 AIM: Study of ERP and its applications. An enterprise resource planning system is fully integrated resource planning system covering functional areas of an enterprise. It organises and integrates operation processes and information flow to make optimum use of resources such as men, material, money and machine. ERP promises one database, one application and one user interface for entire enterprise. Taking information from every function it is a tool that assist employees and manager plans and control the entire business. An ERP enhances the manufacturer ability to accurately schedule production, utilize the capacity, reduce inventory and meet promised shipping dates. GENERAL MODEL OF ERP
  22. 22. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 22 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL Evolution of ERP:- ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) is the evolution of Manufacturing Requirements Planning (MRP) II. From business perspective, ERP has expanded from coordination of manufacturing processes to the integration of enterprise- wide backend processes. From technological aspect, ERP has evolved from legacy implementation to more flexible tiered client-server architecture. The following table summarizes the evolution of ERP from 1960s to 1990s. Timeline System Description 1960s Inventory Management & Control Inventory Management and control is the combination of information technology and business processes of maintaining the appropriate level of stock in a warehouse. The activities of inventory management include identifying inventory requirements, setting targets, providing replenishment techniques and options, monitoring item usages, reconciling the inventory balances, and reporting inventory status. 1970s Material Requirement Planning (MRP) Materials Requirement Planning (MRP) utilizes software applications for scheduling production processes. MRP generates schedules for the operations and raw material purchases based on the production requirements of finished goods, the structure of the production system, the current inventories levels and the lot sizing procedure for each operation. 1980s Manufacturing Requirements Planning (MRP II) Manufacturing Requirements Planning or MRP utilizes software applications for coordinating manufacturing processes, from product planning, parts purchasing, inventory control to product
  23. 23. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 23 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL distribution. 1990s Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Enterprise Resource Planning or ERP uses multi- module application software for improving the performance of the internal business processes. ERP systems often integrates business activities across functional departments, from product planning, parts purchasing, inventory control, product distribution, fulfillment, to order tracking. ERP software systems may include application modules for supporting marketing, finance, accounting and human resources. Characteristics of ERP Solution:- Modular structure Scalable architecture Seamless integration of modules RDBMS independent Independence of hardware platform Interface capabilities PC download/upload facility Benefits of the ERP:- Better management of resources reducing the cost of operations. Planning at functional and process level. Simultaneous increase in the productivity of the business possible Customer satisfaction increased due to shorter delivery cycle. Closer contact with the customer. Simultaneous activisation of the decision centers because of instant inducement through triggers or updates. Business operations transparency between business partners cutting down the execution time of critical business operations. Intelligent ERP downloads the decision making at lower level, releasing the burden on the middle management.
  24. 24. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 24 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL Due to faster processing technology and SQL, management can see the information in their perspective and take different view of the business Due to strong interface capabilities, the human resource can be utilized better due to access to information across the database distributed over the organization. Since, the ERP design is proactive; it makes the management alert at a number of points demanding the decision or action. The process becomes faster due to work group technology and application of workflow automation. Implementation of ERP:- Implementing ERP reuires a team of experts who understand the business and technical aspects of the project. A separate ERP solution provider is employed for working with each department in understanding their processes and challenges. Implementation of ERP involves the following steps: Planning and Requirements Analysis:- This is the initial phase where the company takes a decision on implementing ERP. The decision could based on their need to comply with legal requirements, replace their legacy applications, for benefits of integration, reduction of inventory, reduction of operational costs, risk management, additional functionality or speeding up processes. The team chooses an ERP system. Typically a niche player in resource planning software developement is chosen instead of developing from scratch. Some of the leading vendors are: SAP, PeopleSoft, Oracle,Sage Group, MS Business Solutions, SSA Global, Lawson and Intentia. Design:- This is the phase where the ERP team re-engineers the business processes around the Best Practices wherever feasible and identifies the processes that will result in customizing the ERP software application. The IT infrastructure requirements based on ERP system architecture and vendor are prepared.
  25. 25. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 25 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL Detailed Design:- In this phase, the ERP team uses the identified business processes as the basis for implementation to build prototypes by choosing standard models, processes, inputs and outputs. This phase involves business super-users in determining the system elements. Implementation:- This phase involves installation of the ERP software, migration of data from the old applications to the ERP system, configuring the ERP system for reporting, implementing security, interfaces etc. The end users are involved at this stage to test the system after being trained. The implementation consultants seek feedback, identify software bugs/corrections, performance bottlenecks and apply the fixes. A decision on switching to the new ERP system is taken. Maintenance:- This is an ongoing phase which involves patching/upgrading the software, enhancing the functionality of the applications, changes in reports etc. This is either taken care of by in-house IT department or outsourced to consulting firms.
  26. 26. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 26 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL EXPERIMENT 7 AIM: Define ERP marketing and its implementation. Implementation of ERP:- A tremendous effort has been made in discussing the implementations of ERP systems. Al-Mashari and Zairi (2000a) proposed an integrative framework for SAP R/3 implementaion Their framework was based on the premise that effective deployment of sap r/3 is greatly determined by the extent to which certain key elements such as the business case, implementation strategy, change management and BPR, are comprehensively consider and fully integrated. A more detailed case study focused on sap r/3 implementation is available from Sieber et al. (2000). Implementing ERP requires a team of experts who understand the business and technical aspects of the project. A separate ERP solution provider is employed for working with each department in understanding their processes and challenges. Implementation of ERP involves the following steps: Planning and Requirements Analysis:- This is the initial phase where the company takes a decision on implementing ERP. The decision could based on their need to comply with legal requirements, replace their legacy applications, for benefits of integration, reduction of inventory, reduction of operational costs, risk management, additional functionality or speeding up processes. The team chooses an ERP system. Typically a niche player in resource planning software developement is chosen instead of developing from scratch. Some of the leading vendors are: SAP, PeopleSoft, Oracle,Sage Group, MS Business Solutions, SSA Global, Lawson and Intentia.
  27. 27. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 27 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL Design:- This is the phase where the ERP team re-engineers the business processes around the Best Practices wherever feasible and identifies the processes that will result in customizing the ERP software application. The IT infrastructure requirements based on ERP system architecture and vendor are prepared. Detailed Design:- In this phase, the ERP team uses the identified business processes as the basis for implementation to build prototypes by choosing standard models, processes, inputs and outputs. This phase involves business super-users in determining the system elements. Implementation:- This phase involves installation of the ERP software, migration of data from the old applications to the ERP system, configuring the ERP system for reporting, implementing security, interfaces etc. The end users are involved at this stage to test the system after being trained. The implementation consultants seek feedback, identify software bugs/corrections, performance bottlenecks and apply the fixes. A decision on switching to the new ERP system is taken. Maintenance:- This is an ongoing phase which involves patching/upgrading the software, enhancing the functionality of the applications, changes in reports etc. This is either taken care of by in-house IT department or outsourced to consulting firms.
  28. 28. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 28 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL EXPERIMENT NO:8 AIM:-Study of information parameters – quality, age and value Quality of information:- There is no proper way for STUDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM that could keep the information about the students which was all in manual implementation. It was very difficult to maintain information manually. This system will keep track of students and also keep track of their academic record or new users in each year. We have been successful in our attempt to take care of the needs of both the user as well as the administrator This is a self-advantageous application for the use of any educational institute for data record keeping. There need to be certain constraints which have to be implemented on the database as well as on the administrator in order to work properly the whole system, such as declaring the primary key, or such constraints in order to keep the database work properly. It is not a online service. Keeping pace with changing times and an ever-growing need for specialized services ,it can be further modified to a online service or even modified to run on a vocal command. Value of Information:- Information has a great impact on decision making, and hence its value is closely tied to the decisions that result from its use. Information does not have an absolute universal value. Its value is related to those who use it, when it is used, and in what situation it is used. In this sense, information is similar to other commodities.
  29. 29. SUBJECT:- MIS LAB NAME: ANKIT DIXIT COLLEGE ROLL #: IT/10/10605 UNIV.ROLL #-100420825160 ___________________________________________________________________ 29 INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHONOLOGY, BHADDAL The concept of normative value of information has been developed by economists and statisticians and is derived from decision theory. The basic premise of the theory is that we always have some preliminary knowledge about the occurrence of events that are relevant to our decisions. Additional information might modify our view of the occurrence probabilities and consequently change our decision and the expected payoff from the decision. The value of additional information is, hence, the difference in expected payoff obtained by reduced uncertainty about the future event. Information supports decisions, decisions trigger actions, and actions affect the achievements or performance of the organization. If we can measure the differences in performance, we can trace the impact of information, provided that the measurements are carefully performed, the relationships among variables are well defined, and possible effects of irrelevant factors are isolated. The measured difference in performance due to informational factors is called the realistic value or revealed value of information. For most information systems, particularly those supporting middle and top management, the resulting decisions often relate to events that are not strictly defined and involve probabilities that cannot be quantified. The decision-making process often is obscure and the outcomes are scaled by multiple and incomparable dimensions. In such cases, we may either attempt to perform a multi attribute analysis or derive an overall subjective value. The subjective value reflects people's comprehensive impression of information and the amount they are willing to pay for specific information.So as the website “STUDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM” has been carefully constructed to on track the record of the students in any educational institute with the sense of an ease.

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