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# Computer fundamental

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Fundamental computer

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### Computer fundamental

1. 1. Computer Fundamental Wednesday, May 17, 2017 Contact: asand343@gmail.com
2. 2. What Is A Computer  An electronic device which is capable of receiving information (data) in a particular form and of performing a sequence of operations in accordance with a predetermined but variable set of procedural instructions (program) to produce a result in the form of information or signals.  The word computer comes from the word "compute", which means, "to calculate" Wednesday, May 17, 2017
3. 3. Characteristics of Computer  Automatic: Given a job, computer can work on it automatically without human interventions.  Speed: Computer can perform data processing jobs very fast, usually measured in microseconds (10-6), nanoseconds (10-9), and picoseconds (10-12).  Accuracy: Accuracy of a computer is consistently high and the degree of its accuracy depends upon its design. Computer errors caused due to incorrect input data or unreliable programs are often referred to as Garbage- In-Garbage-Out (GIGO) . Wednesday, May 17, 2017
4. 4. Cont…  Diligence: Computer is free from tiredness, and lack of concentration. It can continuously work for hours without creating any error and without grumbling.  Versatility: Computer is capable of performing almost any task, if the task can be reduced to a finite series of logical steps.  Power of Remembering: Computer can store and recall any amount of information because of its secondary storage capability. It forgets or looses certain information only when it is asked to do so. Wednesday, May 17, 2017
5. 5. Evolution of Computers  Blaise Pascal invented the first mechanical adding machine in 1642.  Baron Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz invented the first calculator for multiplication in 1671.  Keyboard machines originated in the United States around 1880. Wednesday, May 17, 2017
6. 6. Generation of Computers Generatio n (Period) Key hardware technologies Key software technologies Key characteristi cs Some representativ e systems First (1942- 1955) •Vacuum tubes •Electromagnetic relay memory •Punched cards secondary storage device •Machine and assembly language •Mostly Scientific application. •Bulky in size •Highly unreliable •Difficult to use •ENIAC •EDVAC •EDSAC •IBM 701 Wednesday, May 17, 2017
7. 7. Cont.. Second(1955-64) •Transistors •Magnetic core memory •Magnetic tapes •Disk for Secondary storage device •Batch operating system •High level programming language •Scientific and Commercial application •IBM7030 •CDC 1604 Third (1964-1975) •ICs with SSI and MSI technologies •Larger magnetic cores memory •Larger capacity disks and magnetic tapes secondary •Timesharing operating system •Standardization of high-level programming languages •Unbundling of software from hardware •IBM 360/370 •CDC 6600 Wednesday, May 17, 2017
8. 8. Cont.. Fourth (1975-89) •Ic’s with VLSI Technology •Microprocessor semiconductor memory •Large capacity hard disk •Magnetic disk and floppy disk are the portable device. •Super computer based on parallel Computing •Operating System with GUI •Multi-processing OS •Unix operating system. •Small, affordable and east to use Wednesday, May 17, 2017
9. 9. Cont.. Fifith (1989- present •ULSI technology •Larger capacity main memory •Optical disk work as a storage media •Notebook ,powerful desktop •Cluster computing •Multi-threading distributed OS •Parallel programming •Power full super comuters •IBM notebooks •PARAM 10000 •IBM SP/2 Wednesday, May 17, 2017
10. 10. Components of Computer Wednesday, May 17, 2017 CABINET
11. 11. What is a Processor Wednesday, May 17, 2017 A processor is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drive a computer. The term processor has generally replaced the term central processing unit (CPU). The processor in a personal computer or embedded in small devices is often called a microprocessor.
12. 12. Components of Computer Wednesday, May 17, 2017
13. 13. Hard Disk Wednesday, May 17, 2017 A hard disk is part of a unit, often called a "disk drive," "hard drive," or "hard disk drive," that stores and provides relatively quick access to large amounts of data on an electromagnetically charged surface or set of surfaces.
14. 14. Storage Devices Primary Storage: primary storage of a computer system, also known as main memory, store piece of program instruction and data, intermediate result of processing and recently produced result of those jobs on which the computer system is currently working. Primary storage is a volatile, and has a limited storage. Secondary Storage: It is also known as auxiliary storage. it is much cheaper than primary storage. This is uses for store the data, information. Wednesday, May 17, 2017
15. 15. RAM(Random Access Memory) Wednesday, May 17, 2017 RAM (pronounced ramm) is an acronym for random access memory, a type of computer memory that can be accessed randomly; that is, any byte of memory can be accessed without touching the preceding bytes. RAM is the most common type of memory found in computers and other devices, such as printers.
16. 16. Types of RAM RAM are two types  SRAM DRAM DRAM has become the mainstream in computer main memory despite being slower and more power hungry compared to SRAM. SRAM memory is still used in a lot of devices where speed is more crucial than capacity. The most prominent use of SRAM is in the cache memory of processors where speed is very essential, and the low power consumption translates to less heat that needs to be dissipated. Even hard drives, optical drives, and other devices that needs cache memory or buffers use SRAM modules. Wednesday, May 17, 2017
17. 17. CPU Architecture Wednesday, May 17, 2017 Contact: asand343@gmail.com
18. 18. Input Devices  Keyboard  Mouse  Joystick  Electronic Pen  Scanner  OMR(Optical Mark Reader)  Barcode reader  Magnetic character Recognition(MICR)  Electronic Card Reader Wednesday, May 17, 2017
19. 19. Output Device  Monitors  Printers  Plotters  Projector Wednesday, May 17, 2017
20. 20. I/O (Input-Output Interface) Ports: A computer port is a type of electronic, software- or programming-related docking point through which information flows from a program on your computer or to your computer from the Internet or another computer in a network. (A network, by the way, is a series of computers that are physically or electronically linked.) In computer terms, a computer or a program connects to somewhere or something else on the Internet via a port. Port numbers and the user's IP address combine into the "who does what" information kept by every Internet Service Provider. Wednesday, May 17, 2017
21. 21. Examples of ports  20 & 21: File Transfer Protocol (FTP)  22: Secure Shell (SSH)  23: Telnet remote login service  25: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)  53: Domain Name System (DNS) service  80: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) used in the World Wide Web  110: Post Office Protocol (POP3)  119: Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP)  143: Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)  161: Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)  194: Internet Relay Chat (IRC)  443: HTTP Secure (HTTPS)  465: SMTP Secure (SMTPS) Wednesday, May 17, 2017
22. 22. Role Of IT in Business Information technology (IT) has become a vital and integral part of every business plan. From multi- national corporations who maintain mainframe systems and databases to small businesses that own a single computer, IT plays a role.  Communication  Inventory Management  Data Management  Management Information Systems  Customer Relationship Management Wednesday, May 17, 2017
23. 23. Communication For many companies, email is the principal means of communication between employees, suppliers and customers. Email was one of the early drivers of the Internet, providing a simple and inexpensive means to communicate. Over the years, a number of other communications tools have also evolved, allowing staff to communicate using live chat systems, online meeting tools and video-conferencing systems. Wednesday, May 17, 2017
24. 24. Inventory System When it comes to managing inventory, organizations need to maintain enough stock to meet demand without investing in more than they require. Inventory management systems track the quantity of each item a company maintains, triggering an order of additional stock when the quantities fall below a pre-determined amount. These systems are best used when the inventory management system is connected to the point-of-sale (POS) system. Wednesday, May 17, 2017
25. 25. Data Management  Companies are able to store and maintain a tremendous amount of historical data economically, and employees benefit from immediate access to the documents they need.  The role of the management information system (MIS) manager is to focus on the organization's information and technology systems. The MIS manager typically analyzes business problems and then designs and maintains computer applications to solve the organization's problems. Wednesday, May 17, 2017
26. 26. Role of IT In Education Sector  Access to variety of learning resources  Immediacy to information  Any time learning  Collaborative learning  Multimedia approach to education  Authentic and up to date information  Online library  Distance learning  Better accesses to children with disabilities Wednesday, May 17, 2017Contact: asand343@gmail.com