Hospital waste management


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Hospital waste management

  2. 2. BIOMEDICAL WASTE What is Bio-Medical Waste? The term “Bio- medical waste” covers all wastes produced in health-care or diagnostic activities. The Bio-Medical Waste means any solid, fluid or liquid waste including the containers and any intermediate product, which is generated during the diagnosis treatment or immunisation of human beings or animal.
  3. 3. Quantity Of Waste Generated At Various Places In India
  5. 5. Classification of hazardous medical waste
  6. 6. Risks associated with hazardous medical waste Health-care wastes are a source of potentially dangerous micro-organisms that can infect hospital patients, personnel and the general public. There are many different exposure routes: through injury (cut, prick), through contact with the skin or mucous membranes, through inhalation or through ingestion. The health risks associated with hazardous medical waste can be divided into five categories:  risk of trauma. (waste category 1)  risk of infection. (waste categories 1 and 2)  chemical risk. (waste categories 3 and 4)  risk of fire or explosion. (waste categories 3 & 4)  risk of radioactivity.
  8. 8. Cat- 1 Human Anatomical Wastes Cat- 2 Animal Anatomical Wastes Cat- 3 Microbiology and Biotechnology wastes Cat- 4 Waste Sharps Cat- 5 Discarded medicines and Cytotoxic drugs
  9. 9. Cat- 6 Soiled wastes include items contaminated with blood, body fluids such as cotton, dressings, linen, beddings etc. Cat- 7 Solid wastes i.e. waste generated from disposable items other than sharps such as tubing, catheters, IV sets. Cat- 8 Liquid wastes ( washing, cleaning ) Cat- 9 Incineration ash Cat- 10 Chemical wastes ( disinfectants, insecticides )
  10. 10. Sorting principles of waste Do not correct mistakes: if non-hazardous material has been placed in a container for wastes entailing the risk of contamination, that waste must now be considered hazardous (precautionary principle). Sorting of the waste must be done as close as possible to the site where the wastes are produced
  11. 11. Coding recommendations by WHO
  12. 12. Container equipped with a Plastic bag stand on castors Sharps container black plastic bag (household refuse) HANDLING A BAG OF WASTES  Bags and containers must be closed whenever they are two-thirds full.  Never pile bags or empty them.  grasp them from the top (never hold them against the body) and wear gloves
  14. 14. 2. THERMAL TECHNOLOGY :-  It uses heat to decontaminate instruments and equipment and the temperatures in this process may rise to extremely high levels.  Most of the microbes are destroyed at temperatures below 100°C. 1. Autoclave 2. Microwave 3. Hydroclave 4. Incinerator low temperatures (100° to 180°C) high temperatures (200° to over 1000°C):
  15. 15. Here vacuum pumps are utilized to evacuate the air in the chamber of autoclave and steam under pressure is pushed in, which is able to penetrate the waste material more thoroughly. This technology thus reduces the cycle time to 30 - 60 minutes and the temperatures attained are 132°C. where air is pushed out of the autoclave by steam under pressure. This system operates at temperatures of 121°C and has a cycle time of approximately 60 - 90 minutes.
  16. 16. The principle of De Montfort incinerators - Incineration is a high heat system process of burning combustible solids at very high temperature in a furnace. -It employs combustion of waste material in stages, followed by cleaning of the flue gas through a number of pollution control devices. The end product is devoid of infectious organisms and organic compounds of waste, which is aesthetically acceptable. Based on the type of fuel consumed the division could be- ● Conventional incinerator using wood/charcoal ● Electrical incinerator ● Oil fired incinerator using electricity and diesel oil
  17. 17. Advantage And Disadvantage Of Incineration
  18. 18. 3. MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY 1. Compaction: Compacting is carried out by a hydraulic ram against a hard surface. 2. Grinding / Shredding: Waste material is broken down into smaller particles under negative pressure to avoid any spillage outside the chamber. 3. Pulverization: Waste is mixed with large volume of water and bleach solution. The waste is torn to shreds and then fed to an ultra high speed hammer mill with large spin blades which pulverize the matter into small, safe particles.
  19. 19.  This involves exposing the waste matter to ultraviolet or ionizing radiation in an enclosed chamber.  Decontamination occurs when nucleic acids in the living cells are irradiated.  The advantage with this technology is that energy input is minimal and it is used to treat items, which cannot be heated.  Source of radiation needs to be properly disposed off after its decay.
  20. 20. TREATMENT OBJECTIVE:- o To prevent transmission of diseases. o To prevent injuries. o To prevent general exposure to harmful effects of biomedical wastes. o Reducing the amount of waste at source. o Purchasing policy geared to minimizing risks. o Product recycling.
  21. 21. FINAL DISPOSAL METHODS General non hazardous waste Secured landfills Liquid wastes Chemical disinfectant F/b neutralization with reagent, and discharged into the sewerage system. Human anatomical wastes Incinerated and sent to landfill sites. Sharps Needles can be cut by needle cutter and contained in 1% bleach solution, and sent to landfill for disposal. Microbiology waste Autoclave/Microwave/Incineration F/b landfill disposal. Infectious solid waste Autoclave/Microwave/Incineration F/b landfill disposal. Radioactive waste The solid wastes are disposed by concentration and storage. Pressurised containers Disposed off with general waste in secured landfills.