Successfully reported this slideshow.
Your SlideShare is downloading. ×


Upcoming SlideShare
Holistic nursing
Holistic nursing
Loading in …3

Check these out next

1 of 95 Ad

More Related Content

Similar to holisticnursing.pptx (20)

More from Anju Kumawat (20)



  1. 1. HOLISTIC NURSING – healing the whole person
  2. 2. “Just as the body cannot exist without blood, so the soul needs the matchless and pure strength of faith.” -MAHATMA GANDHI
  3. 3. INTER RELATED CONCEPTS OF HEALTH • Health is "the condition of being sound in body, mind, or spirit" (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, 2008). • The WHO defines health as fol-lows: "Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity" (WHO, 1974).
  4. 4. • Healing means to be or become whole. It is a state of harmony or balance in the body, mind, and spirit connection. (Quinn, 2005) • Homeostasis is the balance or stability that the body strives to achieve among these aspects of a person's life by continuous adaptation.
  5. 5. T R A D IT I O N A LM O D E L SO FH E A L T H
  6. 6. Health Illness Continuum Model • According to this model, health is a dynamic state that fluctuates as a person adapts to changes in the internal or external environments to maintain a state of well-being.
  7. 7. • Illness is a process in which the functioning of a client is diminished or impaired when compared with his/ her previous condition. • In this model, high-level wellness and severe illness are at opposite ends of the continuum • The person moves back and forth (forward) within this continuum day by day
  8. 8. • Wide ranges of health or illness are present.
  9. 9. H e a lthB eliefM o d e l • Rosenstoch and Becker and Maiman proposed the Health Belief Model. • This model addresses the relationship between a person’s beliefs and behaviors. • The Health Belief Model helps to understand the factors influencing patients’ perceptions, beliefs, and behaviour to plan the care.
  10. 10. C O M P O N E N T S 1.Individual’s perception of susceptibility to an illness 2. Individual’s perception of the seriousness of the illness 3. Likelihood of taking preventive action
  11. 11. What is holistic care ???
  12. 12. The word holistic was coined in 1926 by Gen. J.C. Smuts (1870-1950) and based on the Greek root “holos”, which means ‘whole’.
  13. 13. Holistic health views the physical, intellectual, sociocultural, psychological , and spiritual aspects of a person's life as an integrated whole.
  14. 14. HOLOS (entire or whole) D De erriiv ve ed dfrro om Inddoo-- E Eu urro op pe ea an rro oo ottS SO OL LO O ffiir rW m W m H ,H ,s O s O o L o L u un nd d or c E E o r r e e c c t t HOLISM
  15. 15. CONCEPT : When applying the concept of holism to states of health , ellicited that health can be influenced by an individual’s ability to adapt to: CONCEPT : When applying the concept of holism to states of health , ellicited that health can be influenced by an individual’s ability to adapt to: Changing environments Aging Times of suffering Expectation of death
  16. 16. CONCEPT • This implies that individuals have the potential to influence their own lives and that holistic care should consider the whole human experience.
  17. 17. • Ancient approach 5000 years ago in India and China, stressed living healthy way of life in harmony with nature. • An approach to health based on a love of life, not a fear of death. • Leads to high level of wellness for the total person throughout the total life style.
  18. 18. Facets of holism ❑ Personal/ inner resources are as important as external ones ❑ Link between the body and the mind. ❑Personal/ inner resources are as important as external ones ❑Link between the body and the mind.
  19. 19. Facets of Holism Ind Indiv iviidu d ual al I In nne ner r R Reso esourc es urces Physical Spiritual Individual Inner Resources Psychological Social
  20. 20. • What is holistic nursing ?????
  21. 21. • Holistic nursing focuses on promoting health and wellness, assisting healing and preventing or alleviating suffering.
  22. 22. A philosophy of nursing practice that takes into account total patient care, considering the physical, emotional, social, economic, and spiritual needs of patients, their response to their illnesses, and the effect of illness on patients' abilities to meet self-care needs.
  23. 23. • Uses medical knowledge + complementary, alternative and integrative methods to care for the patient as a whole. • Insists that total good health and well being can be achieved by understanding the whole person in a perspective that includes his physical, mental, emotional, social and spiritual dimensions”.
  25. 25. • The goal of holistic nursing is the "enhancement of healing the whole person from birth to death" (American Holistic Nurses Association [AHNA], 2004).
  26. 26. the harmonious •Involves balance of body, mind, emotions, and spirit within an everchanging environment. • “Considers the whole person, including physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual aspects.
  27. 27. Body, Mind and Spirit Relationship • The individual according to Indian scriptures is ‘Prakriti’ and ‘Purusha’. Nature (Prakriti) is said to be the formation of body and ‘Purusha’ the soul. • Spirit is the cause of expression of pleasure and pain guided by mind, intellect, ego etc.
  28. 28. Mental Conditions Affecting Bodily Functions • • • • • Our emotions and strong feeling affect the body inwardly and outwardly. Unpleasant emotions such as fear, anger, worry cause headache, insomnia, indigestion and various neurotic diseases. Deep thinking and concentration can cause physical fatigue. Mind motivates all physical and motor activities. Emotional conflicts are responsible to cause various illnesses such as hysteria, gastrointestinal troubles like peptic ulcer, ulcerative colitis, flatulence etc.
  29. 29. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ❑Based on Florence nightingale work ❑1970- nurse scholars start concerned with concept of “whole person” ❑Dossey developed a theory builds upon a solid holistic, integrated, and multidimensional theoretical nursing foundation.
  30. 30. ➢1980- American Holistic Nurses Association was founded ➢1993-94 Steps towards certification for holistic nursing ➢1995- Revised standards of holistic nursing ➢1997- development of basic core curriculum
  31. 31. 1997- American Holistic Nurses Certification Corporation (AHNCC) was founded 2003- development of core curriculum for advanced holistic nursing 2006- recognition as a specialty area in nursing practice in ANA 2007- revision of basic and advance practice standards
  33. 33. ❑ All people have innate healing powers. ❑ The patient is a person, not a disease. ❑ Healing takes a team approach involving the patient and doctor, and addresses all aspects of a person's life using a variety of health care practices. ❑ Treatment involves fixing the cause of the condition, not just alleviating the symptoms.
  35. 35. TRADITIONAL VS HOLISTIC • • Traditional Have knowledge related to nursing Limited methods of care • Treats all patients • Uni level care to patient • • • • Holistic Needs additional knowledge Creativity and unlimited methods of care Usually treat patients with severe conditions Tri level care to patient
  36. 36. Traditional • Found at every health care facility • Easy to get job as traditional nurse Holistic • • Found at more specialized health care facilities Need special areas to provide care
  38. 38. • Health care considers emotional and spiritual wellbeing and other dimensions of an individual as important aspects of physical wellness. • The holistic health model of nursing attempts to create conditions that promote optimal health.
  39. 39. • • In this model, consider patients to be the ultimate experts concerning their own health and respect patients’ subjective experience as relevant in maintaining health or assisting in healing. • Involvement of patients by assuming some responsibility for health maintenance
  40. 40. • Nurses using the holistic nursing model recognize the natural healing abilities of the body and incorporate complementary and alternative interventions such as music therapy, relaxation therapy, therapeutic touch, and guided imagery.
  41. 41. • Nurses use holistic therapies either alone or in conjunction with conventional medicine. For e.g., a.Music therapy in OT creates a soothing environment. b. Relaxation therapy during a painful procedure such as a dressing change.
  43. 43. CORE VALUE 1 • Holistic Philosophy: develop and expand overall philosophy in the art and science of holistic nursing • Holistic Education: acquire and maintain current knowledge and competency in holistic nursing practice
  44. 44. CORE VALUE 2 • • • Holistic Ethics: hold to a professional ethic of caring and healing that seeks to preserve wholeness and dignity of self, students, colleagues, and the person who is receiving care Holistic Nursing Theories: recognize that holistic nursing theories provide the framework for all aspects of holistic nursing practice and transformational leadership Holistic Nursing and Related Research: provide care and guidance to persons through nursing interventions and holistic therapies consistent with research findings and other sound evidence
  45. 45. CORE VALUE 3 • Holistic Nurse Self-Care : engage in self-care and further develop their own personal awareness of being an instrument of healing to better serve self and others
  46. 46. CORE VALUE 4 • • • Holistic Communication: engage in communication to ensure that each person experiences the presence of the nurse as authentic and sincere; Therapeutic Environment: recognize that each person’s environment includes everything that surrounds the individual, both the external and the internal (physical, mental, emotional, social, and spiritual) as well as patterns not yet understood. Cultural Diversity: recognize each person as a whole body-mind-spirit and mutually create a plan of care consistent with cultural background, health beliefs, sexual orientation, values, and preferences
  47. 47. CORE VALUE 5 • Holistic Caring Process A.Assessment: Each client is assessed holistically using appropriate traditional and holistic methods while the uniqueness of the client is honored B.Patterns/Problems/Needs: Actual and potential patterns/problems/needs and life processes related to health, wellness, disease, or illness, which may or may not facilitate well-being, C.identified and prioritized Outcomes: Each client’s actual or potential patterns/problems/needs have appropriate outcomes specified
  48. 48. ▪ ▪ ▪ Therapeutic Care Plan: Each client engages with the holistic nurse to mutually create an appropriate plan of care that focuses on health promotion, recovery or restoration, or peaceful dying so that the person is as independent as possible Implementation: Each client’s plan of care is prioritized, and holistic nursing interventions are implemented accordingly Evaluation: Each client’s responses to holistic care are regularly and systematically evaluated, and the continuing holistic nature of the health process is recognized and honored
  49. 49. Quality Nursing Practices ❖Individual viewed as biopsychosocial being in continuous total interaction of biological, psychological and social aspects. ❖When all aspects are completely balanced the person experiences an excellent state of health. ❖Potential alterations in health exist when any of these areas of the being becomes less stable.
  50. 50. The Characteristics of Holistic Health • • • • • • • Person oriented rather than disease oriented. Objective is full, vibrant health (Positive wellness) not symptom amelioration. Respect the valid contribution of current medical science and practice. Democratic & tolerant rather than authoritarian. Focuses on internal healing as a useful supplement to surgery, radiation, and drug therapy. Tri level (physical, emotional, spiritual) not uni level (physical only). Life cycle oriented (Longitudinal), not event specific (cross-sectional)
  51. 51. • Focuses on primary prevention rather than crisis intervention. • Places major responsibility for health on the client, not the professional. • Long term ongoing and continuous effort and is not fragmented. • Recognizes that not all illness is “bad” and “to be eliminated” at the earliest possible moment. Some symptoms represent detoxification, or signal the need for balancing. • Focuses on primary prevention rather than crisis intervention and it goes beyond prevention. • Recognizes that medicine and health are not synonymous, but are vitally interdependent. • Process of centering, integrating, balancing, harmonizing and vitalizing.
  52. 52. D D I I M M E E N N S S I I O O N N S S O O F FH H O O L L I I S S T T I I C CH H E E A A L L T T H H C C A A R R E E ::
  53. 53. 1. Nutritional awareness • Some principles : ✓Have more natural food, fruits and vegetables and a balanced diet ✓Avoid overcooking, too much oil, processed food, refined food, food additives/ preservatives ✓Limit or avoid non-vegetarian food ✓Drink lots of water ✓Take high fiber roughage ✓Enjoy eating
  54. 54. 2. Over eating – a big problem • A keep healthy, one must remain always a little hungry. • In addition to the quality of food it is also necessary to think of its quantity. Moreover in our society, regarding people with food is considered a token of affection. • So we would be aware of the proper diet in proper age, time and amount.
  55. 55. 3. Physical fitness • “Prevention is better than cure”. We should maintain our physical fitness by : ❑Maintaining personal hygiene ❑Regulating diet ❑Exercise, activity ❑Yoga, meditation ❑Regular adequate sleep ❑Prevention of fatigue, over work etc.
  56. 56. Stress awareness and management ➢Have a clear picture of life’s goal and meaning of life, develop positive attitude ➢Nurture faith dimensions, look at the bright side of life ➢Develop caring relationship ➢Restrictive positive environment ➢Learn to say “no” when it is beyond your ability ➢Have adequate sleep, rest, exercise and diet
  57. 57. ➢Bring variety in daily living/routine ➢Be cheerful, laugh, smile have a sense of honor ➢Relax, have a vacation ➢Think that you are the unique person in this world ➢Love and respect self. ➢Observe thought patterns for few minutes daily ➢Practice meditation for some time daily
  58. 58. 5. Environmental sensitivity • • • • One of essential elements of life – air, water and sunlight. Humans need to co-exit in harmony with our natural environment in order to survive. Today the main causes of human deaths are cancer and diseases of heart and brain. Survey shows that 75% of cancer is caused by environmental pollution and various carcinogenic chemicals absorbed by human.
  59. 59. Health Care Settings for Holistic Nursing Practice • • • • Seeking cost effective ways to deliver an ever increasing range of services Demand of greater accessibility to quality health care services at affordable costs. Nursing need to be theoretically and practically equipped with use of technological advances, biomedical research and state-of-the-art clinical equipment and facilities. Nursing preparation needed to work within health care delivery system that is complex, involving myriad providers such as organization, institutions, groups and individuals, ,consumers and settings.
  60. 60. NURSE’S ROLE IN HOLISTIC HEALTH • • • • • To begin with, nurses themselves have to be a holistic persons and they need to accept the responsibility of their own people and follow the practices of holistic health. Nurses responsibility is to bring awareness to positive life style. They need to encourage positive attitude towards living. Use of Holistic Health approach in specific conditions, e.g. Labour. Develop and initiate programme in different settings, like work places, screening, crisis situation.
  61. 61. ❖Demonstrates awareness that self- healing is a continual process ❖Is familiar with self-development ❖Recognizes personal strengths and weaknesses ❖Models self-care ❖Demonstrates awareness that personal presence is as important as technical skills ❖Respects and loves clients
  62. 62. ❖Presumes that clients know the best life choices ❖Guides clients in discovering creative options ❖Listens actively ❖Shares insights without imposing personal values and beliefs ❖Accepts client input without judgment ❖Views time opportunity to spent serve with clients and share as an (adapted from Dossey, 1998)
  63. 63. Among the holistic modalities most frequently used in nursing are the following: ❑Biofeedback ❑Exercise and movement ❑Goal setting ❑Humor and laughter ❑Imagery ❑Journaling ❑Massage ❑Play therapy ❑Prayer ❑Therapeutic touch
  64. 64. 1. Demonstrate Awareness • Wellness responsibility, a is a choice, a lifestyle design that helps maintain the for personal highest health potential (Hill & Howlett, 2005).
  65. 65. The health continuum is a way to visualize the range of an individual's health, from highest health potential to death.
  66. 66. 2. Providing Quality Care • ►The first step in providing quality client care is to be aware of yourself. • What kind of personality do you have? • Is your self-concept positive, or do you have self- doubts and lack self-confidence? • What are your beliefs and attitudes? • Know-ing the answers to such questions will help you in your role as caregiver.
  67. 67. Providing quality care
  68. 68. • ►The next step is taking care of your own needs. • When you attend to the needs in your own life, you are then free to con-centrate on caring for others. Your example of self-care inspires clients to have confidence that you will provide quality care. Thus, self-care is a factor in your effectiveness as a caregiver.
  69. 69. •Self-awareness is consciously knowing how the self thinks, feels, believes, and behaves at any specific time. Being self-aware is a constant process that is focused on the present. A person's thoughts, feelings, and beliefs are interrelated and greatly influence behavior. Being self-aware influences a person in several ways.
  70. 70. • All decisions about client care must be made in response to the client's needs, not the nurse's needs.
  71. 71. • Self-concept is how a person thinks or feels about himself. These thoughts and feelings come from the experiences the person has with others and reflect how the person thinks others view him.
  72. 72. 3. Self-Care as a Prerequisite to client care • Physical wellness refers to a healthy body that functions at an optimal level. To achieve physical wellness, a person must practice: •►Grooming •►Body Mechanics •►Posture •►Smoking •►Drugs and Alcohol •►Nutrition •►Sleep, Rest, Relaxation, and Exercise
  73. 73. • Intellectual wellness is the ability to function as an inde-pendent person capable of making sound decisions. Such decisions are based on the individual's needs but at the same time take into account the needs of others. Clear thinking, problem-solving skills, good judgment, and the desire to continually learn are all qualities found in the person who is intellectually well.
  74. 74. • Sociocultural wellness is the ability to appreciate the needs of others and to care about one's environment and the inhab-itants of it. As a nurse, you will care for clients of all ages and races who speak different languages and come from various cultural groups.
  75. 75. • Psychological wellness encompasses the enjoyment of cre-ativity, the satisfaction of the basic need to love and be loved, the understanding of emotions, and the ability to maintain control over emotions.
  76. 76. • Spiritual wellness manifests as inner strength and peace. • Spirituality is a broad concept incorporating more than a client's religious affiliation. It encompasses the beliefs that a person has that give meaning and purpose to their existence (Fitchett, 2002).
  78. 78. Quicker relief for pain Improvement of overall general health Understanding the need for a well-balanced lifestyle Awareness of keeping environment safe and healthy Use of more natural resources – natural herbs and medicines Application of more natural methods to cure illness such as proper nutrition, exercise, detoxification and other natural non-invasive treatments
  79. 79. THANK YOU