Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Policy based cluster management in oracle 12c

2,284 views

Published on

Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c enhances the use of server pools by introducing server attributes e.g. memory, CPU_count etc. which can be associated with each server. Server pools can be configured so that their members belong to a category of servers, which share a particular set of attributes. Moreover, administrators can maintain a library of policies and switch between them as required rather than manually reallocating servers to various server pools based on workload. This paper discusses in detail the new features of policy based cluster management in 12c.

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Policy based cluster management in oracle 12c

  1. 1. Policy Based Cluster Management In Oracle 12c ANJU GARG
  2. 2. About me Sangam 16 Anju Garg 2 • Oracle Ace • More than 14 years of experience in IT Industry • Oracle Certified Specialist and Expert • Independent Corporate Trainer (Oracle DBA), Author, Speaker • Member - AIOUG, IOUG, UKOUG • Oracle blog : http://oracleinaction.com/ • Email : anjugarg66@gmail.com
  3. 3. Agenda • Resource management in a cluster – Administrator Managed configuration – Policy Managed configuration • Server Assignment for Policy Based Cluster Management – Illustration-I: New Server Assignment – Illustration-II: Reallocations of servers • Limitations of Policy Based Management In Oracle Clusterware 11g R2 • Policy based cluster management in Oracle clusterware 12c – Server Categorization • Illustration-III – Extended Policy framework • Illustration-IV • Summary • References • Q & A Sangam 16 Anju Garg 3
  4. 4. Resource Management In A Cluster • Administrator Managed configuration • Policy Managed configuration Sangam 16 Anju Garg 4
  5. 5. Resource Management In A Cluster Administrator Managed configuration • Only management strategy available in releases earlier than 11g R2 • Administrator statically assigns clusterware resources to specific servers in the cluster. • Oracle Clusterware is responsible for placing the resources on the specified servers • Hard coupling between the resources and the servers eliminates resource sharing . • An inflexible, manual management configuration best suited for smaller clusters or rather static systems • Cannot scale very well in large clusters having more than 8 nodes. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 5
  6. 6. Resource Management In A Cluster Policy Managed configuration • Introduced in Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 • The cluster can be logically partitioned into groups of servers called server pools. • Administrator assigns clusterware resources to Server pools whose size can change dynamically. • Oracle Clusterware is responsible for placing the resources on the servers belonging to the specified server pool(s). • Flexible management eliminates the need for static definitions physically assigning resources to particular nodes in the cluster. • Best suited for larger clusters and scales very well in large clusters having more than 8 nodes. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 6
  7. 7. Policy Based Cluster Management Server Pools • Foundation of policy based cluster management • Logical groups of servers hosting the resources managed by Oracle Clusterware. • The scalability of resources is controlled by the MIN_SIZE and MAX_SIZE attributes of the server pool. • Different IMPORTANCE can be assigned to server pools • Critical workloads can be mapped to server pools of higher IMPORTANCE. • Based on available compute resources in the cluster, Oracle Clusterware will allocate servers to server pools in order of their IMPORTANCE • Ensures that business critical workload get the compute resources necessary to satisfy performance or availability service level agreements. • Server pools can expand or shrink as requirements change. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 7
  8. 8. Policy Based Cluster Management Server Pool Types • Built-in pools : Created automatically with the installation of the cluster – Generic Server Pool: • Internally managed server pool • All attributes are read-only • Hosts Admininstrator -managed resources. – Free Server Pool: an internally managed pool • Internally managed server pool • IMPORTANCE attribute can be edited by the user • Contains servers that are not assigned to any other server pools. • User-created Server Pool • Created by user • MIN_SIZE, MAX_SIZE and IMPORTANCE attribute can be edited by the user Sangam 16 Anju Garg 8
  9. 9. Server Assignment for Policy Based Management • New Server Assignment • Reallocation of servers Sangam 16 Anju Garg 9
  10. 10. New Server Assignment • New servers are assigned to server pools in the following order: – Generic server pool – User-created server pool • Fill all server pools in order of importance until they meet their minimum (MIN_SIZE). • Fill all server pools in order of importance until they meet their maximum (MAX_SIZE). – Free server pool Sangam 16 Anju Garg 10
  11. 11. Reallocation of servers • If server(s) leave the cluster, a server reallocation between pools may take place. • If there are servers in the Free Pool – If a server pool falls below its MAX_SIZE value, a free server is moved from the Free Pool to the affected server pool. • Else (No free servers) – Only if a server pool falls below its MIN_SIZE, a server reallocation will take place as follows: • Determine the server pool having least IMPORTANCE • If the least IMPORTANT server pool exceeds its MIN_SIZE – Move server to deficient pool • Else (least IMPORTANT server pool <= MIN_SIZE) – If IMPORTANCE of least IMPORTANT server pool < deficient pool » Move server to deficient pool even if it causes the donor pool to fall below its MIN_SIZE Sangam 16 Anju Garg 11
  12. 12. Policy Based Management: Considerations • A server can be part of only one server pool at any point in time • A server pool can have one or more servers. • A particular resource can run on more than one server pool(s) • Multiple resources / databases can run on one particular server pool • A particular service is bound to one database • One Database Service can be assigned to only one server pool. • Database services come as “singletons” or “uniform”. They either run on one server or on all servers in a specific server pool Sangam 16 Anju Garg 12
  13. 13. Illustration-I New Server Assignment
  14. 14. Environment • Consider a cluster having 9 servers. • Three server pools - FrontOffice Pool, BackOffice pool and Line of Business (LOB) pool have been defined as shown. • Currently , all the server pools are empty. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 14
  15. 15. Illustration-I : New Server Assignment • Since FrontOffice Pool has highest IMPORTANCE (=4), and it is below its MIN_SIZE (=2) , first two servers are assigned to it so that it meets its MIN_SIZE (=2) Sangam 16 Anju Garg 15
  16. 16. Illustration-I : New Server Assignment • BackOffice pool which is next in IMPORTANCE (=3) is allocated next server so that it meets its MIN_SIZE (=1). Sangam 16 Anju Garg 16
  17. 17. Illustration-I : New Server Assignment • Front office pool is allocated next server so that it meets its MAX_SIZE (=3). Sangam 16 Anju Garg 17
  18. 18. Example : New Server Assignment • Nest two servers are assigned to BackOffice pool so that it meets its MAX_SIZE (=3). Sangam 16 Anju Garg 18
  19. 19. Illustration-I : New Server Assignment • LOB pool which is next in IMPORTANCE(=2) is allocated two servers so that it meets its MAX_SIZE (=2). Sangam 16 Anju Garg 19
  20. 20. Illustration-I : New Server Assignment • One left over server goes to Free Pool Sangam 16 Anju Garg 20
  21. 21. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 21 Illustration-I Summary • As servers join the cluster, they are assigned to server pools in the following order: – Generic server pool – User-created server pool  Fill all server pools in order of importance until they meet their minimum (MIN_SIZE).  Fill all server pools in order of importance until they meet their maximum (MAX_SIZE). – Free server pool
  22. 22. Illustration-II Reallocation Of Servers
  23. 23. Illustration-II : Reallocation Of Servers • One server leaves FrontOffice Pool so that the pool falls below its MAX_SIZE value (=3). Sangam 16 Anju Garg 23
  24. 24. Illustration-II : Reallocation Of Servers • Since a server is available in Free Pool, that server is moved to FrontOffice Pool Sangam 16 Anju Garg 24
  25. 25. Illustration-II : Reallocation Of Servers • FrontOffice Pool meets its MAX_SIZE (=3) Sangam 16 Anju Garg 25
  26. 26. Illustration-II : Reallocation Of Servers • What will happen if front office pool loses another server? Sangam 16 Anju Garg 26
  27. 27. Illustration-II : Reallocation Of Servers • NOTHING - Since no free servers are available and FrontOffice pool still has 2 servers (=MIN_SIZE). Sangam 16 Anju Garg 27
  28. 28. Illustration-II : Reallocation Of Servers • What will happen if FrontOffice pool loses another server? Sangam 16 Anju Garg 28
  29. 29. Illustration-II : Reallocation Of Servers • If FrontOffice pool loses another server, it is left with only one server and falls below its MIN_SIZE limit of 2 servers. • A server should be sourced from one of the other pools. • Which pool will become the donor in this case? Sangam 16 Anju Garg 29
  30. 30. Illustration-II : Reallocation Of Servers • Of the BackOffice and LOB pools, LOB pool has the lowest IMPORTANCE and has more than its minimum number of servers (=0). • Hence, a server is moved from LOB pool to FrontOffice pool Sangam 16 Anju Garg 30
  31. 31. Illustration-II : Reallocation Of Servers • FrontOffice pool has 2 servers now (=MIN_SIZE). Sangam 16 Anju Garg 31
  32. 32. Illustration-II : Reallocation Of Servers • What happens if any of FrontOffice or BackOffice Pools fall below their MIN_SIZE? Sangam 16 Anju Garg 32
  33. 33. Illustration-II : Reallocation Of Servers • If any of FrontOffice or BackOffice Pools fall below their MIN_SIZE, they will get the only remaining server in the LOB pool since LOB pool has – Lowest IMPORTANCE – More than its minimum number of servers (=0). Sangam 16 Anju Garg 33
  34. 34. Illustration-II : Reallocation Of Servers • What happens if LOB pool is empty, – If FrontOffice pool falls below MIN_SIZE • It can grab server(s) from BackOffice pool so as to meet its MIN_SIZE even if it requires emptying the BackOffice pool. – If BackOffice pool falls below MIN_SIZE • It can get at most one server to meet its MIN_SIZE (=1) from FrontOffice pool only if FrontOffice pool exceeds its MIN_SIZE Sangam 16 Anju Garg 34
  35. 35. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 35 Illustration-II Summary If servers leave the cluster for any reason, a server reallocation may take place as follows: • If there are servers in the Free Pool and another server pool falls below its MAX_SIZE value, a free server is moved from the Free Pool to the affected server pool. • If there are no free servers, then server reallocation takes place only if a server pool falls below its MIN_SIZE value. – If there are server pools exceeding their MIN_SIZE  The least IMPORTANT server pool will be the donor pool – Else (All server pools at or below MIN_SIZE)  If there are Server pools less IMPORTANT than the deficient pool o The least IMPORTANT server pool will be the donor pool even if it causes it to shrink below its MIN_SIZE.
  36. 36. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 36 Policy Based Management: Benefits • Fast resource failover: When the number of nodes in the cluster changes, servers are reallocated online based on defined policy to satisfy workload capacity requirements. • Dynamic capacity assignment : Server Pools can expand or shrink as requirements change. • Guaranteed allocation of resources : Critical work will be allocated required resources preferentially as defined by the policy. • Isolation of resources: Since server pools do not share resources, dedicated servers can be provided in a cluster for applications and databases • Useful for future planning: Once resource requirements has been defined for expected workload, additional capacity, whenever available will be used instantaneously.
  37. 37. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 37 Policy Based Management In Oracle Clusterware 11g R2 Limitations • All servers were assumed to be homogeneous with regard to their CPU count, physical memory and other characteristics. – Placement of servers in server pools could not be governed by server attributes. – Sub-optimal performance of applications executing on inadequate servers – Administrator needed to manually map workload to servers having appropriate attributes  A burden to the administrator  Error prone • Does not consider the fact that server requirements of applications may be different at different times of the day, week, or month. – Though server pool properties can be changed to meet such requirements, it is very cumbersome to do by issuing one command at a time.
  38. 38. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 38 Policy Based Cluster Management In 12c With Oracle clusterware 12c, policy based cluster management is enhanced in three important ways. • Server Categorization • Extended Policy framework • Unification of policy based cluster management with QOS Management
  39. 39. Server Categorization
  40. 40. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 40 Overview • Enables supporting clusters with heterogeneous servers. • Servers can be differentiated based on their attributes which can further govern placement of servers in the server pools. • Workflow: – Every server has a set of server configuration attributes associated with it – Servers are further organized into particular categories based on  Role of the node (Hub / Leaf),  Server attributes and  Various conditions – Server categories are associated with server pools so that now server pools are defined based on server attributes rather than the names of the servers • Provides an efficient, automated mechanism to allocate compute resources to server pools based on pre-defined server attributes.
  41. 41. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 41 Server Attributes • Various server configuration attributes associated with each server are: • As Oracle Clusterware stack is started on a server, these attributes are automatically discovered and stored persistently for each server until stack is restarted on the server • Enable Oracle Grid Infrastructure 12c to understand heterogeneous servers in the cluster
  42. 42. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 42 Server Categories • A new clusterware object • Enables you to organize servers into particular categories. • Two internal categories are created by default - ora.hub.category : Categorizes Hub Nodes - ora.leaf.category : Categorizes Leaf Nodes • New user defined server categories can be created • Various attributes of server category are: • A server can belong to multiple categories at the same time.
  43. 43. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 43 Apply Server Categories To Server Pools • Associate Server Pools with Server Categories so that Server pools are defined based on server attributes such as number of CPUs, CPU speed, Memory etc. rather than the names of the servers. • Applications can be assigned to the server pools so that they will run on the servers belonging to a server category. • If a server pool loses a server, free servers of the associated category, if available, will be moved to the server pool. • If free servers of desired category are not available, servers will be moved from another server pool of lesser IMPORTANCE in order to satisfy the requirements of business critical workloads. • Provides an automated and efficient way to manage environments with varying workload requirements and with servers of varying capacities .
  44. 44. Illustration-III Server categorization
  45. 45. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 45 Illustration-III Server Attributes • Consider a Flex cluster having 3 hub nodes and 2 leaf nodes. • View server attributes – Servers host01, host02 and host03 are Hub Nodes and physical memory associated with them is greater than 2000 MB – Servers host04 and host05 are Leaf Nodes and physical memory associated with them is less than 2000 MB
  46. 46. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 46 Illustration-III Default Server Categories • View default categories
  47. 47. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 47 Illustration-III Default Server Categories • List servers in the two default categories
  48. 48. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 48 Illustration-III User Defined Server Categories Create new categories • Small : Leaf Node and Memory < 2000 • Big : Hub Node and Memory >= 2000
  49. 49. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 49 Illustration-III User Defined Server Categories • View user defined new categories
  50. 50. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 50 Illustration-III User Defined Server Categories • List servers in user defined categories
  51. 51. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 51 Illustration-III Server Categories • List categories for servers
  52. 52. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 52 Illustration-III Apply Server Categories To Server Pools • Create server pools and associate them with big / small categories as follows: Server pool Category Bigpool Big Smallpool Small Testpool Small Backuppool Big
  53. 53. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 53 Illustration-III Apply Server Categories To Server Pools • View server pools and associated categories:
  54. 54. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 54 Illustration-III Summary • Server categorization enables organization of servers into particular categories by using various server attributes. • A Server pool can be associated with a category so that servers belonging to the category are eligible to be members of the pool . • Server pools are defined based on server attributes rather than the names of the servers • Provides an efficient, automated mechanism to manage clusters made up of heterogeneous nodes.
  55. 55. Extended Policy Framework
  56. 56. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 56 Need for Extended Policy Framework • In Oracle clusterware earlier than 12c, the server pools could be configured such that each of the applications is assigned to run in its own server pool. • This configuration, however, does not consider the fact that server time requirement of some applications might be different at different times of the day, week, or month. • Server time requirement can vary due to – An anticipated / unanticipated increase in demand for one or more applications in the cluster. – Planned maintenance operation (a server needs to be taken down for maintenance) – End-of-month or end-of-year changes in demand • Though server pool properties can be changed to meet such requirements, it is very cumbersome to do by issuing one command at a time.
  57. 57. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 57 Overview • Extended Policy Framework in Oracle clusterware 12c provides the infrastructure to handle the fluctuating requirements for server time automatically by means of policies. • Create policies corresponding to different business needs such that each policy contains exactly one definition for each server pool defined in the system. • These policies collectively represent the cluster configuration policy set. • Different policies need to be activated at different times in accordance with business needs. • When a policy is activated at a relevant time, configuration of server pools is changed according to server pool definitions in the policy. • Thus server time allocated to various applications changes automatically in accordance with changing business needs • Moreover these policies can even be changed dynamically. • A centralized policy-based approach allows you to dynamically allocate and reallocate resources to various applications in the cluster as the demand changes.
  58. 58. Illustration-IV Extended Policy Framework
  59. 59. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 59 Illustration-IV Environment • User defined server pools: Bigpool, Smallpool, Testpool and Backuppool • Our requirement is as follows: Night
  60. 60. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 60 Illustration-IV Add Policies • Add Day and Night Policies • Set the SERVER_POOL_NAMES policy set attribute to define the scope of the server pools that are controlled by the policy set.
  61. 61. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 61 Illustration-IV Set Server Pool Attributes In Day Policy
  62. 62. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 62 Illustration-IV Set Server Pool Attributes In Night Policy
  63. 63. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 63 Illustration-IV View Policies • View Day Policy
  64. 64. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 64 Illustration-IV View Policies • View Night Policy
  65. 65. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 65 Illustration-IV Activate Day Policy • Activate day policy
  66. 66. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 66 Illustration-IV Verify Activation Of Day Policy • Verify that as per the day policy, • Smallpool has been assigned both the small nodes (host04,host05) • Bigpool has been assigned three big nodes (host01,host02,host03) • Testpool and Backuppool have not been assigned any servers
  67. 67. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 67 Illustration-IV Activate Day Policy • Activate night policy
  68. 68. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 68 Illustration-IV Verify Activation Of Night Policy • Verify that as per the night policy – Backuppool has been assigned one big node (host01) – Bigpool has been assigned two big nodes (host02,host03) – Smallpool has been assigned one small node (host05) – Testpool has been assigned one small node (host04)
  69. 69. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 69 Illustration-IV Modify And Reactivate Night Policy • Modify the configuration of night policy so that backuppool has 2 big servers and bigpool has 1 big server. • Reactivate the night policy
  70. 70. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 70 Illustration-IV Verify Activation Of Modified Night Policy • As per the modified night policy, one big server (host02) has been taken away from bigpool and has been assigned to backuppool so that bigpool is left with only one server and backuppool has 2 servers as desired.
  71. 71. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 71 Illustration-IV Summary • Extended policy framework enables policies to be configured to change pools in accordance with business needs or application demand • Different policies need to be activated at different times in accordance with business needs. • When a policy is activated, configuration of server pools is changed according to server pool definitions in the policy, so that server time allocated to various applications changes in accordance with changing business needs • These policies can be changed dynamically.
  72. 72. Conclusion • Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 (11.2) laid the foundation of policy based cluster management by introducing server pools . • Limitations of Policy based management in Oracle clusterware 11g R2 : – As there was no way to distinguish between types of servers, placement of servers in server pools could not be governed by server attributes. – This configuration does not consider the fact that server requirements of applications may be different at different times of the day, week, or month. • Enhancements to Policy based management in Oracle clusterware 12c: – Server Categorization: Servers can be differentiated based on their attributes which can further govern placement of servers in server pools. – Extended Policy framework: Policies can be configured to change server pool attributes in accordance with business needs or application demand, so that pools provide the right service at the right time. The administrators can maintain a library of policies and switch between them as required. Sangam 16 Anju Garg 72
  73. 73. References • https://docs.oracle.com/database/121/CWADD/pbmgmt.htm#CWADD91116 • http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/options/clustering/learnmore/policy-managed- deployments12c-twp-2338881.pdf Sangam 16 Anju Garg 73
  74. 74. 74Sangam 16 Anju Garg
  75. 75. ANJU GARG Email:anjugarg66@gmail.com Blog:http://oracleinaction.com Sangam 16 Anju Garg 75

×