“The struggle between incompatible or opposing
need, wishes, ideas, interests, or people. Conflict
arises when individuals or groups encounter goals that
both parties cannot obtain satisfactorily.”
In simple words conflict can understood as collision or
disagrement. It may be within the individual, between
individuals or between groups or departments.
CONFLICT AND COMPETITION :
Competition takes place when individual s or groups
have incompatible goals but do not interfere with
each other as they try to achieve their respective
Conflict occurs when individuals or groups have
incompatible goals and they try to interfere with each
other as they try to attain their respective goals.
Competition : Track events
Conflict: Football , Hockey
1. Conflict is avoidable
2. Conflict is caused by management error in
designing organizations or by trouble makers
3. Conflict Disrupts the organization and prevents
4. The task of the management is to eliminate
5. Optimal organizational performance requires the
removal of conflict.
1. Conflict is inevitable.
2. Conflict arises from many causes, including
organizational structure, unavoidable differences
in goals, differences in perception and values of
specialized personnel and so on.
3. Conflict contributes and detracts from
organizational performance in varying degrees.
4. The task of the management is to manage the level
of conflict and its resolution for optimal
5. Optimal organizational performances requires a
moderate level of conflict.
CONFLICT: (Functional and Disfunctional)
- Increases awareness.
- Motivates organizational members to consider
- Promotes change.
- Results high quality decisions
- Stimulates interest and creativity.
- Low conflict low performance
- High conflict low performance
- Moderate conflict high performance.
Stages of Conflict:
1. Latent Conflict: Situation when it is hidden n will
trigger in come in light at a later stage.
2. Perceived Conflict: Awareness. (realization of
3. Felt Conflict: Higher degree of perceived conflict.
Focus on individual views.
4. Manifest Conflict: Actions, interference.
5. Conflict Outcome: Functional/ disfunctional
LEVELS of Conflict:
1)Intra individual conflict.
2)Inter individual conflict.
3)Intra group conflict.
4)Inter group conflict.
LEVELS of Conflict:
1. Intra- individual conflict:
a)Conflict from frustration.
Need(deficiency)->Drive(deficiency with direction)
Frustration(aggression-attack of barrier, withdrawal-
backing away from barrier, fixation-continuous
effort to break barrier, compromise-search of new
b)Goal conflict- arise when the attainment of one goal
excludes the possibility of attaining other.
-> Approach approach conflict arises when one is
caught between two or more positive but mutually
exclusive goals. (sleeping and eating)
->Approach avoidance conflict occurs when one is
attracted to and is repelled by the same goal
object. Eg- party with a friend and a foe.
->Avoidance avoidance conflict arises when one is
forced to chose between two unattractive
mutually exclusive goals.( pain of injury and fear
->Multiple approach-avoidance conflict – this
arises due to alternatives with both negative and
c)Role conflict- Result of Need of an individual to play
several roles simultaneously with constraints of
time and resource.(eg.foreman- before a
labour, now in management cadre. Eg. A man who
loooks after home and work)
d)Cognitive dissonance-Caused to inconsistency in
ones own thoughts and/or behavior
e)Neurotic tendencies- irrational personility
mechanisms.(over exercise of control or discipline
due to doubts).
2. Inter- individual conflict:
a)Transactional Analysis: When two people interact
with each other there results a social transaction.
Analysis of the social transaction is called
Transactional analysis. TA – the study of moves
people make in their dealings with each other and
is based on the idea that people’s interactions
resemble moves in games.
- Ego states:-
- Parent ego state:
- Parent ego state:
authoritative, dogmatic, overprotective, controllin
g, nurturing, critical, and righteous – usually learnt
- Adult ego state: mature, rational and objective-
learnt while one matures into adolescence and
- Child ego state: Childish, dependent, and
immature. Childhood experience laden with
emotion, joy, rebellion. (felt)
People interact from the child , adult and parent ego
state. Interactions are based on the extent of
involvement of ego states.
Types of interactions:
Complimentary transactions: When message sent or
behavior exhibited by one is met with appropriate
or expected response. P-C, P-P, A-A, P-A, C-C.
Conflict scope- Nill.
Crossed transaction: Stimulus and response are not
parallel. Not in accordance. Stimulus under parent
ego and response under child ego.
Ulterior transactions: More than two ego states
involved by the first person.