Main Topics1. Principal types and purposes of business meetings2. Advantages and potential difficulties of meetings3. Main features of formal meetings4. Terminology associated with formal meetings5. The agenda and the minutes6. The tasks involved in chairing a meeting7. Informal meetings: Team working8. Brainstorming technique9. The rise of the virtual team10. The negotiation process
Meetings: Principal types and purposesType Primary purpose ExampleBriefing To deliver information CEO presents financial results to investment analystsInvestigatory To gather information Board of Inquiry interviews witnesses to a serious accidentAdvisory To provide information Panel of experts advise government department on new legislationConsultative To voice opinions Manager asks her staff how they feel about a proposed profit-sharing schemeExecutive To make decisions Board of trustees agrees a new strategic plan for hospital trust
Identify the type andpurpose of meetingsrelated to the followingissue:The people living nearthe airport demand thatall flights’ departuresand arrivals be stoppedbetween 22.00 – 05.00.
Advantages of meetingsOffer opportunity for instantaneous feedback and intensive flows of verbal and non-verbal communication. rapid exchange of ideas and group synergies which can generate better solutions than individuals working alone or communicating through less intensive channels.
Potential difficulties of meetings Messages criss-cross around the meeting room and are highly vulnerable to noise and incorrect de-coding. Each attendee arrives with his or her own information, pre- conceived ideas, feelings and prejudices. Limited attention spans and selective perception of each individual can lead to different interpretations.
Potential difficulties of meetings (continued) Discussions and arguments can become highly personalised. Loss of direction – drifting into unrelated topics, becoming hijacked. Misallocation of time leaving insufficient time for the main business issues. Most important issues rushed through by an over-tired chair. Etc.
Every month, each employee in yourdepartment is expected to give a brieforal presentation on the status of hisor her project.However, your department hasrecently hired an employee with asevere speech impediment thatprevents people from understandingmost of what he has to say.As department manager, how will youresolve this dilemma? Please explain.
The main features of formal meetings established rules and procedures written records of previous meetings usually a specified membership who are invited to participate.
Terminology associated with formal meetings (1)Term ExplanationAgenda Document which lists the topics to be discussed.Adjournment A break in the meeting before all of the agenda items have been covered.Amendment A small change or improvement that is proposed, seconded and put to the vote.AOB Any Other Business. The things that are discussed at the end of an official meeting that are not on the agenda.Ex officio Individuals appointed to a committee by virtue of the officemembers they hold, rather than by direct appointment or election.Matters This is a standard agenda item, referring to items from thearising previous meetings minutes that require further discussion or clarification.Minutes Document that, once approved by meeting attendees, is intended to provide a record of the meeting.
Terminology associated with formal meetings (2)Motion A proposal that is discussed and voted on at a meeting.Point of If someone thinks that the meeting is not following its writtenorder rules, he can point it out to the chair by calling point of order.Proxy A proxy is someone acting on behalf of a person who is unable to attend the meeting.Quorum This term refers to the minimum number of members or delegates required for a meeting to proceed. If attendance falls below that number at any time in a formal meeting, it is deemed to be inquorate and business must be suspended.Through It is normal practice for all comments at a formal meeting tothe chair be addressed via the chair, rather than in direct exchanges between members.Ultra vires This legal term derives from the Latin, meaning outside the powers. It refers to decisions or actions that fall beyond the remit of a particular committee.
Considerations when preparing the agenda Logical sequence Simple items first Consensus items first Late arrivals and early departures
Sample agenda and notice of meetingFigure 13.4 Sample agenda and notice of meeting
Writing up the minutesTypes of minutes: Verbatim minutes – word for word Narrative minutes – summary of discussion, decision taken and action point arising Resolution minutes – stating only what was agreed
Being a successful chair (1)Before the meeting – tactical planning Consider the purpose Postpone if not enough items/key people Avoid overloading agenda Check venue for seating, equipment etc. Read papers and reports
Being a successful chair (2)During the meeting – diplomacy and timemanagement Time-keep strictly to ensure all business is covered Tactfully and assertively control hijackers etc. Ensure fair contribution from participants Remain calm and objective Ensure secretary has recorded decisions Summarise issues and seek consensus Ensure all action points are agreed
At your last department meeting,three people monopolized theentire discussion. What can youdo at the next meeting toencourage other departmentmembers to voluntarilyparticipate?
Informal Meetings:Team-workingWhat is the difference between a team and a group?A team is a group that combines a joint purposeand a shared sense of responsibility.
Benefits of team-workingAn effective team can Solve complex problems Stimulate creativity and innovation Increase motivation
Brainstorming techniqueA popular and well-established technique for creativeproblem-solving and generating novel ideas.General principles for successful brainstorming: Appoint a ‘facilitator’ Ask everyone else to call out any ideas that come into their heads Once the initial flow of ideas is exhausted, begin to link similar words on the board and drawing out common themes to consolidate the ideas. Finally, seek agreement on which of the new ideas is the most promising.
The rise of the virtual teamVirtual’ teams exploit the full range of electronicallymediated communication channels. Virtual teams tend to be formed if face-to-face contact is impossible face-to-face contact is not cost-effective specialists are spread in different countries or regions.
NegotiationA form of persuasive communication,that may include anything, from twoparties engaged in bilateral discussion,to a large number of participantsengaged in many cross-cuttingexchanges.
The Negotiation ProcessInitial relationship-building activityThe exchange of task-related informationPersuasion and bidding/counter-biddingConcession and agreement