LET’S START!
idea

idea
Thesis
statement
Restatement
of the main
idea of the TS

Repeated
key
words

Transition
signals

COHESION
Demonstrative
pronouns

Synonyms
...
RESTATEMENT
• Thesis statement:
The effects of witnessing parental violence on children
are numerous, which include the fe...
PERSONAL PRONOUNS
• he, she, they, his, her, them
• Represent nouns in previous sentence
• Example:
These unfortunate chil...
DEFINITE ARTICLE
• ‘the’ is related to a noun mentioned
previously
• Example:
The effects of witnessing parental violence ...
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
• ‘this’, ‘that’, ‘these’, ‘those’
• Example:
The effects of witnessing parental violence on
childr...
TRANSITION SIGNALS

• signals showing the relationship between ideas
1. To add an deai

2. To show itme and
ecnquese
3. To...
Try this out! Happy reading =)
The effects of witnessing parental violence on
children are numerous, which include the fee...
Happy reading! (again~)
Another effect on children involves the inability to
focus and concentrate. Children from violent ...
Try this out!
At the click of a button, we are now able to
transfer money via electronic banking (e-banking).
We can laos ...
Writing INTRODUCTION
• Defining words or phrases
• Telling a story or account
• Describing a dilemma or asking question
• ...
Writing CONCLUSION
• Recommend a notoslui
• Express phoe
• Make a strong mectmon

• Use totiquano
• State powerful tafc
• ...
Lec 3: Cohesion, Writing introduction and conclusion
Lec 3: Cohesion, Writing introduction and conclusion
Lec 3: Cohesion, Writing introduction and conclusion
Lec 3: Cohesion, Writing introduction and conclusion
Lec 3: Cohesion, Writing introduction and conclusion
Lec 3: Cohesion, Writing introduction and conclusion
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Lec 3: Cohesion, Writing introduction and conclusion

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Lec 3: Cohesion, Writing introduction and conclusion

  1. 1. LET’S START!
  2. 2. idea idea Thesis statement
  3. 3. Restatement of the main idea of the TS Repeated key words Transition signals COHESION Demonstrative pronouns Synonyms Definite article Personal pronouns
  4. 4. RESTATEMENT • Thesis statement: The effects of witnessing parental violence on children are numerous, which include the feeling of guilt, the development of cognitive problems and the experiencing of stress-related physical illnesses. • Supporting point 1: The first effect is that these children believe the violence is caused by something that they have done. • Supporting point 2: Another effect on children involves the inability to focus and concentrate.
  5. 5. PERSONAL PRONOUNS • he, she, they, his, her, them • Represent nouns in previous sentence • Example: These unfortunate children, more often than not, feel responsible for the abuse they witnessed. They somehow believe that the violence is caused by something that they have done.
  6. 6. DEFINITE ARTICLE • ‘the’ is related to a noun mentioned previously • Example: The effects of witnessing parental violence on children are numerous. These unfortunate children more often than not, feel responsible for the abuse they witnessed. They somehow believe that the violence is caused by something that they have done.
  7. 7. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS • ‘this’, ‘that’, ‘these’, ‘those’ • Example: The effects of witnessing parental violence on children are numerous. These unfortunate children more often than not, feel responsible for the abuse they witnessed.
  8. 8. TRANSITION SIGNALS • signals showing the relationship between ideas 1. To add an deai 2. To show itme and ecnquese 3. To attocnrs 4. To show lusret 5. To show sasmephi A. however, in contrast, on the other hand, nevertheless, whereas B. as a result, therefore, consequently, hence, thus C. in fact, indeed, certainly D. in general, in short, all in all E. first, second, next, then, last, finally F. in conclusion, in summary, in short, in a nutshell, to conclude 6. To show an palxeme G. for example, for instance, in particular 7. To isenagerle H. in addition, furthermore, also, moreover, 8. To docelcnu besides, another
  9. 9. Try this out! Happy reading =) The effects of witnessing parental violence on children are numerous, which include the feeling of guilt, the development of cognitive problems and the experiencing of stress-related physical illnesses. The first effect is that these children believe that the violence is caused by something that they have done. These unfortunate children more often than not, feel responsible for the abuse they witnessed. In fact, they even feel guilty for not being able to stop the violence. [see next page
  10. 10. Happy reading! (again~) Another effect on children involves the inability to focus and concentrate. Children from violent homes tend to have problems in school as they constantly feel anxious and depressed. As a result, their academic achievement is low. The last effect is that these children develop illnesses such as headaches and ulcers, which are common among stressful adults. Although not much is known about how domestic violence induces stressrelated illnesses in children, most of the children who have been saved from violent homes are found to have severe migraine and chronic ulcers. In short, the effects of growing up in a hostile environment on children are serious and detrimental. Hence, these children need to be saved from their violent homes immediately!
  11. 11. Try this out! At the click of a button, we are now able to transfer money via electronic banking (e-banking). We can laos check our account balances at any time of the day. Ni caft, transaction enquiries, fund transfers and bill payments can be made in the comfort of our homes. Sa a serult, these transactions can be done faster as we do not have to go to the bank to do them. refeteroh, it is evident that ebanking has made our lives easier by providing banking services that are fast, reliable and safe.
  12. 12. Writing INTRODUCTION • Defining words or phrases • Telling a story or account • Describing a dilemma or asking question • Using quotation, interesting fact or statistic • Making a comparison and contrast • Stating the importance of a topic • Making a general statement  narrowing it down
  13. 13. Writing CONCLUSION • Recommend a notoslui • Express phoe • Make a strong mectmon • Use totiquano • State powerful tafc • State secqunocesen

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