Hybridity• Creation of transcultural forms within thecontact zone produced by colonization.• Hybridisation takes place in many form :cultural, political & linguistic (Pidgin & Creole)• Hybridity : bringing together two cultures offering the possibility of a third way/“Third Space”
• Third Space of Enunciation by Homi Bhabha is atheory of identity or community realized throughlanguage or enunciation.• It explains about uniqueness of identity as a hybrid.• Concept of Third Space Theory can be found in :Music : (“Shang Shang Typhoon (a music group)mixes Western rock, jazz and reggae withJapanese enka ballads, folk, Okinawan melodies,Bollywood films :Novels : The Satanic Verses
Salman Rushdie• Indo – Englishman novelist & essayist• Likes to combine magical realism, historical,satire, post colonialism & concerned withconnections, disruptions, migrationsbetweenEast and West.• His writing reflects on national identity.
• Argues that hybrid writing is necessary– „English is no longer an Englishlanguage‟• Represented in many ways such as theuse of South Asian words & location
The Satanic Verses• Rushdie‟s fourth & controversial novel.• Hybridity is centered through theprotagonist characters who fall out of a planean land on a beach on the south coast ofEngland.• Their dramatic arrival symbolizes recentpost colonial invasions of England andEnglishness as a unitary identity.
• it explores effects of people beingproduced by more than 1 culture• i.e people as the products ofglobalization, an ever integrating worldsystem of politics, economics, culture &identity.
• texts are rich withambivalences, contradictions, bizarrejuxtapositions of modern life (reference to western TV images &Indian literature)• Explores the different consequences ofthe hybridising process ofcontemporary society.
Into The Satanic Verses• Pagan verses which were temporarily included inthe Qu‟ran by Prophet Muhammad.• 2 protagonist Indian Muslim characters : GibreelFarishta & Saladin Chamcha.• The characters transformed into ArchangelGibreel & Devil• Farishta – real „authentic‟ Indian• Chamcha – celebrating hybridity, a real brown –Englishman.
• The novel suggests that neither alone are‘true’, that both are equally real and equallyfabrications.If The Satanic Verses is anything, it is themigrants’ view on the world. It is written fromthe very experience of uprooting, disjunctureand metamorphosis..that is the migrantcondition and from which I believe can bederived a metaphor for all humanity. (Rushdie,quoted in Bhabha, 1990:16)
1. The locations which are inEngland and South AsiaStresses the similarities between thesedistant places rather than the coherence andunity of bounded space.
2. The mentioned cultures in thenovel British history; the Norman conquest & the contemporarycharacteristics of British culture The Indian history , mythology and movie stars- Creating a sense of hybridity for the reader: sometime youbecome part of the community , sometimes you know you’ve been leftout – like the migrant both with and without.
3. The languages used Included Indian words, terms and names from Quran- The names of the characters which bring meanings in Arabic butsimply appear as exotic signifiers to a reader who does not know thelanguageExamples : “ JAHILIA ““ CHAMCHA “- A deeper sense of belonging is established- A sense of otherness, exclusion and difference evoked
4. A geography for thereadership of Rushdie’s work. Different readers achieve different interpretations and readings of thetext depending on their cultural backgrounds. Each reader being included in some references and excluded from themeanings of others.
5. The non-linear narrative whichmoves forwards and backwardsthrough hundreds of yearsThe mentioned period when Quranwas dictated to Mohamed is mixed inwith the contemporary events- Refusing to accept the secularprogressiveness of history
The combination of myth and reality between thecharacters- The existence of two main characters in which they havemetamorphosed into chimerical beasts and wander around London withthe people responding to them.
The Migrant Experience in the Satanic Verses The transformation of the character , Saladin Chamcha- have sprung horns, awful and sulphurous bad-breath, powerful and incrediblyhairy legs, feet replaced by hooves The meeting with the similarly magical beings in an institution-A man-tiger or manticore ; head of a ferocious tiger with three rows of teeth, TheMoaner Lisa, a woman who mostly water-buffalo, businessman from Nigeria withgrown sturdy tails and a group of holidaymakers from Senegal turned into slipperysnakes. The emerged question on who is to be blamed upon the mutationthat occurred-“ Who can be blamed ....”- “ They describe us ...”- “That’s all. They have the power of description, and we succumb to the picturesthey construct..”
POSTCOLONIAL MUSICIANS(world music)WhyMUSIC?Quick to respond to culturalmeetings – unlike literatureRepresents theDIASPORAICPerformed by all sorts ofpeople across the worldExpression ofthe voice of themarginalised
HYBRID MUSIC – Raï ( )Raï = opinion (Arabic) Emerged in Algeria> to express opinion and dissent> begun in early 20th century as a politicalform of expressionNorth African + European musical traditions = raïsung in local dialect of eclectic rhythms, mergingArabic, African, flamenco, disco, hip hop andreggaeEarly 20th century: shikh (men) and shikha (women)> Later: cheb or chebba> For French-Algerians in France, the lyrics is on theproblems and difficulties of being an immigrant
AMBIVALENCE ABOUT THE NATURE OFHYBRIDITYSembène Ousmane- Senegalese author- Xala - a book which later directed asfilm- published in 1974- examines the postcolonialcondition of his country in thefigure of one man, El HadjiAbdou Kader Beye
XALA – a summaryIt is the dawn of Senegals independence fromFrance, but as the citizens celebrate in the streets wesoon become aware that only the faces have changed.White money still controls the government. Oneofficial, Aboucader Beye, known by the title "El Hadji,"takes advantage of some of that money to marry histhird wife, to the sorrow and chagrin of his first twowives and the resentment of his nationalist daughter.But he discovers on his wedding night that he has beenstruck with a "xala," a curse of impotence El Hadji goesto comic lengths to find the cause and remove thexala, resulting in a scathing satirical endinghttp://www.imdb.com/title/tt0073915/plotsummary?ref_=tt_ov_pl
The remainder of the storycharts his attempts toreclaim his manhood withtrips to local healers andmarabout*marabout - Muslim dervish, esp. in N Africa, often creditedwith supernatural powers. (thefreedictionary.com)
HYBRIDITY in XALAEl Hadji’s attempts to be successful in both in his ‘westernised’life and as a Muslim man-Businessman-Wears European-style suit- Speaks French- Drinks mineralwater-A polygamousMuslim-Status measuredin ability tosupport multiplewives