Web2.0 online activism crowdsourcing


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Web2.0 online activism crowdsourcing

  1. 1. Lecture SeriesWeb: Liberty Fraternity Equality Anirudh Agrawal PhD Fellow IKL
  2. 2. Last Week• Fundamental Rights – Shared Values, Share rights• Internet growth and the emergence of New Media – Paradigm shift• Social movements, Civil Society Organizations – Collective values state – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fgwl7YelOUY Civil society market
  3. 3. Lecture 5• Online Activism• Social Media Marketing• Co-creation• Crowdsourcing
  4. 4. 1. Online Activism
  5. 5. Online Campaign• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5LIpTKOCHY8
  6. 6. Online Activism : Wikileaks• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jzMN2c24Y1s• “We open governments”• Allows people to give – and get – raw information without relying on the traditional news media.
  7. 7. Twitter in….Iran • Al Jazeera (10 Jan 2011): “In the summer of 2009, the word on everyones lips was "Iran." As the youthful Green Movement rose up against what they perceived to be a tampered election, the world banded together in solidarity. The hashtag #iranelection trended on Twitter for weeks, while media outlets spoke of a "Twitter revolution.” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7jln9jba4c U
  8. 8. Twitter in London • Student protests last month (December 2010) against fees. • Activists used Twitter and Google Maps to avoid police, and send messages to each other about where to organize. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EJ9gnuDCv 64
  9. 9. What is Occupy Wall Street• Movement against social, economic inequality, influence of corporate money and lobbyists on government• Participants are the “99%”• Started in New York on September 17 and has moved world wide• 82 countries, 1000 cities• Presidential commission whose goal is to end the control money has over our representatives in Washington• Equal distribution of wealth• “people before profits”• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=re4CWYuxlc0
  10. 10. Online Activism• http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/news/B logs/makingwaves/social-media-can-save-the- planet/blog/11832/• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1BCA8dQfGi0
  11. 11. • http://www.ted.com/talks/clay_shirky_how_the_inte rnet_will_one_day_transform_government.html
  12. 12. Activity 1• In groups of 4/5 , Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Social Media in activism and advocacy?• Do a SWOT Analysis of social media in activism and advocacy?• You have …10 minutes Dis-advantages Advantages London Riots GreenPeace Campaign against Coke (last lecture)• Eg. Anti-Islam movie and Transparency following riots across through wikileaks the world Rumor mongering transparency
  13. 13. Strength(I) Weakness(I) S WOpportunities(x) Threats(x) O T
  14. 14. 2. Social Media Marketing
  15. 15. Viral Marketing- What is it?• Like WOM, relying on individuals to pass along a marketing message through any form of communication• Provides a message that encourages others to spread the word about the firm/product/service• Name derived from virus, the effect multiplies just life the growth rate of virus• Chain reaction
  16. 16. Who are the carriers of Viral marketing• Bloggers• First users/lead users• Journalists• Communities with strong identities
  17. 17. How to achieve viral marketing?• Bring out emotion form the customer• Do something unexpected• KISS• Don’t try to make an advertisement• Make sequels• Offer incentives• Allow sharing, downloading• Call for feedback
  18. 18. Benefits of viral marketing• Cost – effective• Quickly build brand recognition/reputation• Gain short term/long term visitors
  19. 19. WOM as a strategic factor for companiesthe importance of promoters Courtesy : Elanor Colleoni
  20. 20. The dangers of DetractorsWOM could also be Negative Courtesy : Elanor Colleoni
  21. 21. Correlation between WOM and income growth Courtesy : Elanor Colleoni
  22. 22. Online Engagement
  23. 23. Coke Online Viral Marketing• 2009 Coke spent approximately $3 billion worldwide• cost-effective way to build deeper connections with consumers, especially teens• Coke Market research Campaign – 73 percent of teens online – If teens loved a piece of digital content, they hesitated to post a link to it on their Facebook or MySpace page out of fear that their friends would not approve their choices – Share content validated by their peers
  24. 24. Coke Online Viral Marketing• Launched digital media applications focused on teens – Iphone/android based application (I million dl) – Facebook/Myspace/Orkut based applications(1 million dl) – Goodies package including wallpapers, screensavers (2 million dl) – Happiness Machine – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lqT_dPApj9U (6 million views)• Cost of the video : 50000 Dollars
  25. 25. Result on the video• Within 10 days on facebook, 1 million views• 50 percent outside US, 70 percent blogpost other than english• Positive impacts, switching from pepsi to coke• Happiness/connection/youthfulness/cool ness/emotions• Success promoted further investment in social media
  26. 26. Lessons Learnt• Online Consumer behavior – wom, past preference, evaluation, need based• Develop a social media HUB – blogs, wiki, forums, search, user ratings, Web content• Develop Great Content – cool videos, cool quotes, cool pictures, fantastic user interface, content• Facilitate action on the part of user• Measure progress, improvise, set goals
  27. 27. Follow Online Customer review to Determine whether a local business is a good business Source: The Local Consumer Review Survey 2012, the search engine land
  28. 28. No. of Online reviews one needs to read before deciding to trust a local business Source: The Local Consumer Review Survey 2012, the search engine land
  29. 29. Does online reviews impact consumer perception of the local business Source: The Local Consumer Review Survey 2012, the search engine land
  30. 30. Trust the online reviews as much as personnel recommendations Source: The Local Consumer Review Survey 2012, the search engine land
  31. 31. Case Trip Advisor• Travel website that assists travellers in gathering travel related information like reviews, opinions and issues• Third most visited travel website• Worlds larget social travel network• User-generated content User-Generated Content and Travel: A Case Study on Tripadvisor.Com
  32. 32. User-Generated Content and Travel: A CaseStudy on Tripadvisor.Com
  33. 33. Traveler as Travel Guide! User-Generated Content and Travel: A Case Study on Tripadvisor.Com
  34. 34. Tripadvisor case…Challenge of authenticity • Press reports call into question the legitimacy of the review system • Perhaps some reviews are not genuine? • No-verification process for the entries • TripAdvisor posts notices warning that fake reviews will not be tolerated and hotels attempting to manipulate the system will be penalised in their rankings and be identified as have tried to post fake reviews, blacklisting of hotels for faking the rating User-Generated Content and Travel: A Case Study on Tripadvisor.Com Track ENTER 2008 Research Slide Number 34
  35. 35. Tripadvisor case…Research Objectives • To explore how hotels are presented on TripAdvisor • To investigate if relationships existed between characteristics (such as star rating) and positioning on the system • To establish if hotels were utilising their right to reply • To search for evidence of dirty tricks User-Generated Content and Travel: A Case Study on Tripadvisor.Com Track ENTER 2008 Research Slide Number 35
  36. 36. Tripadvisor case…Research Methodology • 100 London hotels • Selected characteristics (star rating, TripAdvisor Traveller Rating, rank within the London market, average rate and number of reviews listed) recorded • Five most recent reviews analysed in detail ENTER 2008 Research Track Slide Number 36
  37. 37. Tripadvisor case…Results Star Number Average Rank Average Average Average Rating within London TripAdvisor number of Room Rate Rating reviews (US$)Unclassified 46 468 3.10 67.6 256 1 star 4 857 1.75 38.5 154 2 star 4 470 3.25 32.5 188 3 star 32 290 3.56 83.1 316 4 star 10 91 4.10 129 409 5 star 4 314 3.50 33 555 Overall 100 383 3.32 74.76 282 ENTER 2008 Research Track Slide Number 37
  38. 38. Tripadvisor case.False Reviews? Extreme scores and a solitary visit by the reviewer to join and post the reviewMeasure Sample Single Reviews Multiple ReviewsMean 3.14 2.93 ** 3.33 **Standard Deviation 1.48 1.63 1.31TripAdvisor Suspect Other Single Multiple Overall Rank Reviews Reviews Reviews sample 1 36% 21% 12% 21% 2 14% 14% 16% 15% 3 11% 7% 20% 16% 4 15% 24% 29% 24% 5 24% 34% 22% 24% User-Generated Content and Travel: A Case Study on Tripadvisor.Com Track ENTER 2008 Research Slide Number 38
  39. 39. Tripadvisor case..Conclusion• All hotels the subject of multiple reviews• “Right to reply” rarely used• Little (if any) evidence of false reviews• No hotels identified as having posted fake reviews User-Generated Content and Travel: A Case Study on Tripadvisor.Com Track ENTER 2008 Research Slide Number 39
  40. 40. Reliability of user rating on online platform (2003)
  41. 41. Discussion• Monopoly / Legitimacy/Pressures/Authenticity• How do you preserve your moral position against commercial pressures?
  42. 42. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tPgQsv2KPwc
  43. 43. Samsung GS 4• http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_emb edded&v=dIEfNaNCkKM#!
  44. 44. Activity 2Vampire is a lingerie venture which is 5 year old,. This year it accounted for 10 million dollars of annual revenue. Its revenueswere 20 percent less than that of last year. In the recent board meeting it concluded that its marketing is not producing any newcostumers. Its annual marketing budged is capped at 20 % of the annual revenues. Its marketing budget includes :-Promotions at Fashion Shows 40% of the marketing budgetMarketing and Promotion to prominent retail players 20% of the marketing budgetIts print media promotions and communications: 20% of the marketing budget including its websitePromotions through its CSR campaign and CSR activities 10% of the marketing costsEcommerce based promotions 10% of the marketing budgetIts primary costumers are low wage Americans, where 95 % of them are from California, Texas and Nevada . Its primary salesmechanism is through supermarket retail outlets like Wal-Mart.. Now, it is strategizing to expand into ecommerce domain as well.Task : Design a Social media based marketing strategy for Vampire. Costs of social media is as follows:Youtube video production: 100 000 dollarsYoutube video adwords: 100 dollars/city/monthGoogle adwords : 100 dollars/city/monthYahoo adwards: 100 dollars/city/monthFacebook adwards: 100 dollars/city/monthOptimise the budget such that the marketing produces the highest impact. Give reasons for your choice. Discuss them in theclass.Think about brandingRevenuesNew InvestmentLimited marketing budget
  45. 45. 3. Co-Creation and Crowdsourcing
  46. 46. Co-CreationCourtesy : Elanor Colleoni
  47. 47. Courtesy : Elanor Colleoni
  48. 48. Potential Actors in a Co-Creative Process Actors involved in co-creation Insiders Users Customers Vendors Citizens ….. Co-Creation not only involves customers and users, but also many other stakeholders; thus co-creation is more than user-driven innovation! Co-creation processes can “produce” customized and personalized products and services but also standardized or mass products. Co-creation contains the web 2.0 enabled concepts such as mass collaboration, open contents, crowd sourcing and open source. Courtesy Prof. Dr. Thorsten Posselt
  49. 49. The Co-Creation Principle Human Collaborative experiences process Real-Time  Value creation visualization Co- together with Dialog about creation customers and experiences stakeholders Engagement  Live meetings platforms  Websites  Open/private communities According to Ramaswamy/Gouillart (2010) Courtesy Prof. Dr. Thorsten Posselt
  50. 50. Courtesy : Elanor Colleoni
  51. 51. Courtesy : Elanor Colleoni
  52. 52. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9VKRbmnqXR4
  53. 53. Courtesy : Elanor Colleoni
  54. 54. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vV_mSNI_b8Q Courtesy : Elanor Colleoni
  55. 55. Courtesy : Elanor Colleoni
  56. 56. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=daautsKE8 tACourtesy : Elanor Colleoni
  57. 57. Courtesy : Elanor Colleoni
  58. 58. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R-z_vqGNN5w Courtesy : Elanor Colleoni
  59. 59. CrowdsourcingCrowdsourcing is a process that involvesoutsourcing tasks to a distributed group of people.This process can occur both online and offline,and the difference between crowdsourcing andordinary outsourcing is that a task or problem isoutsourced to an undefined public rather than aspecific body, such as paid employees. Courtesy : Elanor Colleoni
  60. 60. Commons-based peer production“Any one of a wide range of collaborative efforts we areseeing emerging on the Net in which a group of peopleengages in a cooperative production enterprise.”Benkler Courtesy : Elanor Colleoni
  61. 61. • Crowdsourcing is an online, distributed problem- solving and production model• Crowdsourcing is channeling the experts’ desire to solve a problem and then freely sharing the answer with everyone• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZSTurPXtDAw
  62. 62. Problem How can we organizea crowdsourcing platform? Courtesy : Elanor Colleoni
  63. 63. Social Production: FeasibilityAll the inputs necessary to effective productive activityare under control of individual users:• Inputs Need: – Human factors: Time, creativity, wisdom, knowledge and culture – Computers (for production) – Networks (for distribution) (Time as ”excess capacity available to be used for activities whose rewards are not monetary, directly or indirectly”) Courtesy : Elanor Colleoni
  64. 64. What motivates people to Produce?• Extrinsic (external forces, payoffs and social rewards) vs. Intrincic (personal satisfaction or pleasure) reasons• Social reputation (community-based motivations, eg. recognition)• Loyalty or friendship• For any given culture, there will be some acts that a person would prefer to perform not for money, but for social standing and recognition.• Social and money-oriented motivations are historically and cultural contingent Courtesy : Elanor Colleoni
  65. 65. Critical for success: Organizationalarchitectures• Contributions are diverse in quality, quantity, focus, timing…• Two main technical and organizational architectures: Modularity and granularity Modularity: Tasks can be broken down into independent modules before they are assembled Granularity: The size of the modules in terms of time and effort an individual must invest Courtesy : Elanor Colleoni
  66. 66. When crowdsourcing not Effective?• When the means of production required are expensive, or hard to get access to (eg. Large machinery)• When the raw materials are expensive, or hard to get access to (eg. Steel)• When technology or systems do not permit sharing• When people have no time to spare Courtesy : Elanor Colleoni
  67. 67. Activity 3You own a successful e-commerce venture UNMondial focused on Travel (international travel, adventure travel, culture travel, forest travel, cruise). The annualrevenues of the business are going down yearly. Last year the revenues were 30 million dollars. They were 10 percent down from the previous one. You have fired 2high profile CEOs in the last 18 months. The firm has reached a roadblock in terms of new customer acquisition, new market acquisition, technology innovation,and business model innovation.The main sources of revenue areOn-line travel and experience package deals for your oriented back-pack travelling (40 % of revenues)On –line travel and experience package deals for salaried/middle age comfort travelling (25 % of revenues)Online ticketing (15 % revenues)Tour packages, honeymoon packages, group travel packages, corporate tour packages (15 % revenues)Offline travel books, experience books (5 % revenues)The firm is facing much competition in the market.More players in the e-commerce marketProfit margins on revenue decreasingLiquidity crunch due to financial crises, less spending on leisure….…..and moreRemember:Key drivers to increase reveneus areIncreasing pressure on employees to performIncreasing the budget on marketingSqueezing margins on profit and catering to larger communityIncreasing quality of service on online media…Device an innovation strategy for this firm on e-commerce medium keeping in mind: -Social Media strategiesCo-creation activitiesCrowdsourcing activities
  68. 68. Lecture 6• Business model Analysis• Business Model Canvas• Case Kiva vs MYC4• Open Innovation
  69. 69. KIVA and MYC4 Key Value Costumer Costumer Key partners activities proposition relationships segments Text Key resources Channels Text Cost structure Revenue streams Text Text Textwww.businessmodelgeneration.com