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Air pollution sources

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Air pollution sources

  1. 1. Sources & effects Air Pollution
  2. 2. Definition – Air pollution  Air pollution may be defined as the presence one or more contaminants or combinations thereof in air in such quantities and of such durations as may be or tend to be injurious to human, animal or plant life, or property, or which unreasonably interferes with the comfortable enjoyment of life or property or conduct of business.
  3. 3. Air pollutant  It is a substance or effect dwelling temporarily or permanently in the air , which adversely alters the environment by interfering with the health, the comfort, or the food chain, or by interfering with the property values of people.  A pollutant can be solid (large or sub-molecular), liquid or gas .
  4. 4. Air pollutant classification • Gases - compounds of Sulphur, nitrogen, carbon, oxygen etc. • Natural contaminants- • Pollen particles, bacteria's • Aerosols- • Dust, smoke, mist, fumes, fogs
  5. 5. Sources of Air pollution  Air Pollution may originate from a natural or anthropogenic source or from both sources.  E.g. of natural source – an erupting volcano, accidental fire etc.
  6. 6. Man made sources Man made sources Stationary sources Point sources Industry, Power plants Fuel combustio n Area sources Incineration, residential, industrial estates Rail yard, ports, Mobile sources Line sources Highways, railroads
  7. 7. Percentage of Manmade Pollution Source CO (%) SO₂ (%) HC(%) NO – Nox (%) TRANSPORTATIO N 92 4 65 42 INDUSTRIES 4 32 26 21 POWER PLANTS - 48 - 32 SPACE HEATING 3 12 3 5 COMBUSTION 1 4 6 0
  8. 8. Industrial Sources  Liquid soap factory  Sulphuric Acid factory  Plastic industry  Acid manufacturing units  Phosphate fertilized industry  Inorganic chemical plants  Metal industry  Aluminum plants
  9. 9. Effects of air pollution  Air pollutant affecting plants are – sulphur oxide, Fluoride component, Ozone, Chlorine, Ammonia, herbicides, smog etc.  Forms of damage to the leaves – 1. Necrosis 2. Chlorosis 3. Abscission 4. Epinasty
  10. 10. Dosage of air pollutant on Plants Pollutant Dose Effect 1. Sulphur oxide Mild Interveinal chloriotic bleaching of leaves Sulphur oxide Severe Necrosis in interveinal areas . 2. Ozone Mild Flakes on upper surfaces, premature aging and suppressed growth. Ozone Severe Collapse of leaf, necrosis, bleaching 3. Fluorides Cumulative effect Necrosis at leaf tip. 4. Nitrogen oxide Mild Suppressed growth , leaf bleaching 5. Ethylene Mild Epinasty, Leaf abscission
  11. 11. Economic losses -methods  Building Materials- corroded and disfigured by air pollutant by number of way.  Abrasion  Chemical reaction  Adsorption  Corrosion  Deposition and removal
  12. 12. Effects on materials Material effects Pollutant for exposure Metals Loss of luster SO₂ , NO - NOx Paints Discoloration SO₂ ,H₂S, SPM Leather Bad gloss with no shine SO₂, CO₂ Paper Increase brittleness SO₂, CO₂, H₂S Textile Decreases durability SO₂, CO₂ Dyes Bleaching action NO₂, CL₂,H₂S Rubber Cracks, fatigue O₃, CO₂, CO
  13. 13. Effects on Human body Major Air Pollutant Effect CO ( carbon Mono-oxide) Interferes the bloods ability to carry oxygen (by combining with hemoglobin) to heart, brain, tissues Fatal for heart patient and new born babies High dose – leads to Coma Mild dose – headache & tiredness O₃ (Ozone) Reacts with lung tissues, cause harmful changes in breathing passage, decreases lung working ability and cause cough & chest pain. Cause eye & throat irritation SO₂ ( Sulfur Di Oxide) It constricts air passage, creates asthma and breathing problem in children. SPM ( Suspended particulate Matter) Smaller particles are inhaled and settled in lungs leading to breathing problem and lung cancer
  14. 14. Continued……. Major Air Pollutant Effect Pb ( Lead) Damage blood, brain , nerves, kidney, reproductive organs, and immunity system No₂, NO ( oxides of Nitrogen) Respiratory Pathogens increase, Eye, throat, lung irritation PAN (Peroxy acetyl Nitrate) Eye irritation, burning, sneezing, cough and cold.
  15. 15. Health Effects of Nitrogen Oxides  Short-term exposure at concentrations greater than 3 parts per million (ppm) can measurably decrease lung function.  Concentrations less than 3 ppm can irritate lungs.  Concentrations as low as 0.1 ppm cause lung irritation and measurable decreases in lung function in asthmatics.  Long-term lower level exposures can destroy lung tissue, leading to emphysema.  Children may also be especially sensitive to the effects of nitrogen oxides
  16. 16. Sulfur Dioxide  Ninety-five percent of pollution related sulfur oxide emissions are in the form of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a heavy, colorless gas with an odor like a struck match.  Sulfur dioxide not only has a bad odor, it can irritate the respiratory system.  Exposure to high concentrations for short periods of time can constrict the bronchi and increase mucous flow, making breathing difficult.  Children, the elderly, those with chronic lung disease, and asthmatics are especially susceptible to these effects.

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