Analysis of Impact of East West Metro Corridor on Land Use

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Analysis of Impact of East West Metro Corridor on Land Use

  1. 1. Analysis of Impact of East West Metro Corridor on Land Use By: Anirban Mahajan Guided By: Prof. Uttam Kumar Banerjee Copyright © Wondershare Software
  2. 2. IntroductionObjectivesThe objective of this project are:  To analyze the impacts of the East West Metro corridor on the zonal land use development.Scope of WorkThe scopes and limitations of the dissertation include:  Delineation of the major influence area along the proposed East West Metro corridor, Kolkata.  Study of existing Transport Situation of the study area.  Study of existing facilities in the study areas.  Assessment of change in infrastructure development of that area due to up coming East-West metro. Land use analysis and results due to the metro corridor.Limitations  Not to Design proposed Metro Stations.  Not to Design any facilities for the Metro Stations. Copyright © Wondershare Software
  3. 3. Project JustificationIn recent years, land value capture has attracted increasing attention as a result of its potentialfor funding transport infrastructure. Location plays a key role in property choices.Accessibility is one of the most important factors about location.Transport infrastructure can improve accessibility to both employment and amenitiessuggesting that improved accessibility can add value to land. The question is ‘‘Can this addedvalue be captured to fund or partly fund transport infrastructures?’’ To answer this question itis crucial to examine the evidence as to how much value transport facilities add to land value. Copyright © Wondershare Software
  4. 4. Broad Study Domain Analyzing the changes in Existing Transport land use transformation due Available Infrastructure System of Study Area to metro rail ResultsProject Methodology Objectives Study of existing transport system, demographic, socio-economic structureInfluence Zone to be Determining the Influence Zone ofanalyzed based on Metro affecting Land UseSpatial Criteria Literature Review, Case Studies, Primary Survey, Delineating the metro station Secondary Survey influenced zone Prediction of levels of zonal land Final use development Result Copyright © Wondershare Software
  5. 5. East-West Metro ProposalIntroduction Master Plan was prepared in 1971 for  The proposed East-West metro corridor (EWC) wasthe construction of rapid transit rail lines initiated by West Bengal Government, who transferredwith a total route length of 97.5 km. the project to Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority (KMDA).  KMDA then commissioned Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. (DMRC) to undertake the feasibility study entitled ‘Detailed Project Report East-West The current status of the lines are as Corridor of Kolkata Metro’.follows: Route Length Status (km) Dum Dum - Tollygunge 16.45 Operational Tollygunge - Garia 8.70 Operational Salt Lake – Ramrajatala 17.10 Detailed Project has been prepared (East – West Metro) Dakshineswar- Barrackpore 26.70 Conceptual, No progress Dum Dum - Barrackpore 15.50 Conceptual, No progressJBIC Pilot Study on Urban Transport Development in KMA, Draft Final Report, 2007 Copyright © Wondershare Software
  6. 6. Project Rationale Project Route Wetlands prevent further expansion of  The proposed EWC alignment was conceived toKolkata to the south-east. run along the route of New Das Nagar - Haora Station - Metro Central - Sealdah - Salt Lake- New Town. The places like Rajarhat to the east and north-east of Salt Lake City are getting developed.  The DMRC Study proposes that the rail corridor should proceed to Salt Lake Sector V initially, with a Sealdah Station could not accommodate later extension to New Town.increased volumes of passenger demand fromnew development.  Haora will be the terminal station requiring crossovers and tail tracks to permit reversal of trains. The large-scale development at Rajarhat isnot within proximity of a suburban lineconnecting the city centre.Source: http://kmrc.in/home.php Copyright © Wondershare Software
  7. 7. Passenger Volume Forecast The total population:  The EWC passenger volume is 550,000 in 2011 KMC, Haora Municipal Corporation Area, rising to 675,000 in 2021. Salt Lake City and New Town - estimated to grow from 5.8 million in 2001 to 6.5  The existing N-S passenger volume is forecast to million in 2011. roughly double by 2011. About 171,000 bus passenger board along theinfluence strip of the proposed metro corridor. The number of passengers having both originand destinations along the metro corridor is51,000. The metro corridor was forecast to provide thegreatest daily passenger demand of 635,000passengers per day and 4.5 million km/day inthe year 2011. Metro Passenger Demand (without extension) The peak hour peak direction trips are Source: Data within DMRC Report, 2006calculated at 23,000 phpd for 2011 and 27,700phpd for 2021. Copyright © Wondershare Software
  8. 8. Fare Structure Fare Affordability The proposed fare structure of  Affordability much depends on income and the proportion ofthe EWC is recommended by the income that the public is prepared to spend on transport.Fare Fixation Committee of  For 1997/98, over 50% of the population is stated as having aDMRC. monthly income of under Rs.3000. Proposed E-W Metro Fare  The DMRC Report also indicates that Structure (2011)  In a sample of 48,000 households, 57% stated no income. Distance Fare (Rs.) Comparison of Fare Structures (single journey) for Public Transport Modes (km) in Kolkata 0-2 8 2-4 9 4-6 11 6-9 13 9-12 15 12-15 16 15-18 17 18-21 19Source: DMRC Report. March 2006 Copyright © Wondershare Software
  9. 9. Socio-Economic Issues A potential non-financial threat to the implementation of the EWC may arise out of the essentialrequirement of land acquisition. As the route of the proposed EWC will have to pass through long patches of high-densitysettlements, the social and financial cost of resettlement and compensation may be high. No workers union will have any reason to oppose the project. On the other hand they may welcomethe projectImplementation Timeframe The timeframe for sanctioning of the project wasstated in the DPR as beginning of 2006. The project is therefore currently 1.5 years behindschedule. Karunamoyee Metro Station Copyright © Wondershare Software
  10. 10. Case Study I: Delhi MetroTransportation Investment Impacts Research FocusDirect economic benefits  Analyse land value changes Travel Time savings, vehicle cost savings, transit  Over Time – Project Stageoption value, environmental benefits. • Project Formulation stage (year 1990-1996)Indirect • Construction stage (1996- 2000) and Increase in property values Land use • Post project (2001-2006)changes, Benefits of improved access to jobs &  Over spacecritical locations, benefits to employment wage & • City Levelproductivity. • Across different areas/localities • With in localities  Decompose land value increases to metro and non-metro effect  Comment on Value Capture Copyright © Wondershare Software
  11. 11. Delhi Mass Rapid Transit Project:An Overview  Total four phases, first phase complete.  Total length of first phase 50 km  Total cost of first phase 25550 million  Cost per Km of first phase 511 million rupees per km  Total length of full system 167 km  Total capital cost of full system : 53775 million  Return Expected from Property Development : Rs 1533 million Copyright © Wondershare Software
  12. 12. 1. Land values as a functionof distance from CBD  With Metro becoming operational,  The curve is becoming flatter  Land values in periphery is increasing  Changing Urban Structure – Alternate CBDs 2005  The effect of improved access. 2000 1996 1990 Commercial Land Values 2005 2000 1996 1990 Distance from CP Copyright © Wondershare Software
  13. 13. Inter Zonal Analysis…2. Inter Zonal Analysis Increase Land Values  Zones A, B, C, D have above average growth rate till 2000, due to location advantage.  Since 2000, only B maintained its average growth rate, as compared to A,& C, as it has residential component, whereas zones A & C have more commercial areas.  With coming of Metro, the zones in vicinity of Central Zones (A,B,C,D) also have above average growth rate in land values.  The zones which were far from theses prime zones, also attained land value increase.  Zones G,H,K, have higher growth rate as compared to the zones in vicinity of central zones Inter-zonal Analysis (16 zones) Intra-zonal Analysis  Zone E has seen significant increase in commercial growth.ZonesA: Old City E: East DelhiB: City Ext (Karol Bagh) G: West DelhiC: Civil Lines H: NW DelhiD: New Delhi K: Dwarka Copyright © Wondershare Software
  14. 14. 3. Land values and distance from metro Land value change analyzed in belts along metro line: a: <500m b: 500m-1000m c: >1000m Zone ‘A’ shows saturation in residential areas as there is no effect of distance on land values. In the peripheral zones ‘E’,’H’ and ‘K’ which are in developing stage; impact is high and clearlyvisible. There is an average increase of 8-10% and 15-18% in values as we move from belt ‘a’ to belt ‘b’ and‘c’ respectively Copyright © Wondershare Software
  15. 15. Intra-Zonal analysisLand value analysis by subzones for zones  Most properties in all zones lie betweenE,G,H & K 10,000/- to 20,000/- per sqm. Variation by time (before and after  Besides the Metro facility, there are other project completion) factors which affect the land value.  Variation by land use  Variation by distance from metro  To assess degree of impact of metro on land values, a more detailed regression analysis done using other factors like:  location, dist from metro line, yrs of metro operation, infrastructure availability, nature of development. Copyright © Wondershare Software
  16. 16. Summary1. Distance from Metro 2. Land use EffectHedonic Analysis: The variables which are The impact of metro on residential land value ishaving a significant impact on land value are: less as compared to the commercial properties.  Distance of land from Metro Line On an average land value within 500m of metro  Distance of land from CP line increased by 11.3% and 18.1% for  Location of area residential area and commercial area  Income group respectively.Among the variables ‘distance from the metro’alone explains the 22% of the variation in the Increase in land value is highly dependent on theland value. Thus, impact of Metro is a major role income of the people occupying the area. Theseon real estate prices. are also the areas which are planned.Land value decreases as one moves away fromthe metro line. 3. Number of years of Operation of MetroWithin 500 mtrs of Metro Line, change in landvalue is higher and is more or less same for both Land Value changes are more consistent andthe residential and commercial properties. higher after the operation of metro as compared to the construction and planning stage. (landBetween 500m to 1km, change in land value is value increases by 2- 4% every year.)more for commercial properties. Copyright © Wondershare Software
  17. 17. Developmental Transformations in and around metro stationsMetro station Type of structures Activity Before After Before AfterDwarka Low residential area Residential apartments coming Residential area Increased residential use. up approved by DDADwarka Mod Unapproved area covered by Single storied buildings, Low residential area Dominant land use is residential, slums unapproved colony. Development of informalNawada commercial activities. Small size shops all along the metro lineUttamnagar West Single storied buildings Lower middle class residences Residential area with very Dominant land use is residential occupied by lower middle predominantly two storied few shops. but small size shops all along theUttamnagar East class buildings metro lineTilaknagar Upper middle class High and upper middle class Residential area with few Dominant land use is Rajouri residential area residences predominantly two commercial centres garden residential.Rajouri Garden storied. located within the New categories of higher orderKirti Nagar Multi-storeyed commercial residential zone. commercial activities coming up. Buildings.Patel NagarRajendra PlaceShahdara Prior to metro slums were Single storied lower middle Lab our class residential More residential character. there class residences. area. Commercial complexes coming up.Pitampura Scarcely populated single Newly developed residential Predominantly residential Increase in commercial Rohini storied structures areas, predominantly two character activities.Rohini storied structures.New Delhi Station Combination of old and new Combination of old and new Mixed land use Commercial use is dominant structures structuresKarol Bagh High income group Apartments coming up Residential area Dominant residential residences characterConnaught Place Multi-storeyed commercial Multi-storeyed commercial Commercial hub Commercial hub of the city. buildings. buildings Copyright © Wondershare Software
  18. 18. Conclusion Impacts on urban structure is significant. Integrated land use transport planning. Metro contribution to land value rise is about 22%. A part value is captured in propertytaxes. Re-appropriation is difficult as there are 2 different agencies. Value capture is possible only if linked to additional FSI/TDR1. To reap benefits of better accessibility, redevelopment schemes for non-planned/slumareas. Right time to capture value – First Create Value and then Capture. Copyright © Wondershare Software
  19. 19. Case Study II: Naples Metro Naples case study is based upon Empirical studies. Between 2001 and 2007 several new rail The empirical research focus on land-use and lines were opened with upgrading andeconomic effects. opening of many stations both in central and Rail transit system land-use impacts involve urban peripheral areas of the city of Naples.physical transformations. Property value studies show higher impactintensities than the land-use impact studies. Naples is a Large Urban Zone (LUZ), i.e. an areawith a significant share of residents travelling to workwithin the city. Provinces Inhabitants Area Residential density (km sq) (inh/km sq) Caserta 852,872 2,639 323 Benevento 287,042 2,071 139 Naples 3,059,196 1,171 2,612 Avellino 429,178 2,792 154 Salerno 1,073,643 4,917 218 Total 5,701,931 13,590 420 Campania Campania region: Residential densitiesSource: ISTAT 2001 Copyright © Wondershare Software
  20. 20. Methodology Since the opening of new lines and stations has occurred in different years, this study considers twoseparate data sets:  one for the year 2001 when the extension of Line 1 (L1) was conceived  the other one for the year 2008, after the opening of Line 6 (L6). Line 1 Catchment and control areas Line 6 considered in this study Copyright © Wondershare Software
  21. 21. The case study considered the time frames 2001–2005 and 2005–2008.Catchment areas have been identified as areas where both land-use and economic impacts are expectedfrom the introduction of a new rail line.  The areas of 500 m radius around the stations have been adopted as catchment areas (this would approximate to about a 7 min walk).A set of control areas has been identified as  a control area should have similar characteristics to its paired catchment area.  the control area should not have benefited from other improvements or the presence of other metro stations.Percentage changes (for different types of property) have been computed with GIS techniques as theaverage change of the values in census tracts belonging to station area. Copyright © Wondershare Software
  22. 22. Results and analysis In the time frame 2001–2005, the increase of property values in the station catchment areas is highercompared to that of the control areas for all types of property. While in the time frame 2005–2008, the trend is decreasing for shops. In fact for shops, property values decrease considering the trend of the property market in theMunicipality of Naples. Therefore the introduction of a new station has a positive impact on property values of all types. In control areas the decrease of property values is higher than in catchment areas. In order to compare results between catchment and control areas, property prices (Euro/m2) have beennormalised into a 0–100 numerical range, assuming the year 2001 = 100. In the following section a detailed analysis of each group of stations is carried out. Copyright © Wondershare Software
  23. 23. Stations of Line 6: Control area - Fuorigrotta (Opening year : 2007) Average change in number of residents For areas Mostra, Lala and Augusto: 2001-2005 (0.03%) 2005-2008 (0.02%) For control area of Fuorigrotta: 2001-2005 (-2.85%) 2005-2008 (-1.90%) Property price index for housing, retail and offices in Mostra, Lala, Augusto catchment areas and Fuorigrotta control area.Analysis of the housing property price.  For catchment area Augusto and control area Fuorigrotta  For 2001-2005: Increase in price for Augusto  For 2005-2008: Decrease This is because there was no real urban renewal intervention in the station area when Augusto station opened.  For catchment areas Mostra and Lala  Increase in property price for both 2001-2005 and 2005-2008. This is because urban renewal interventions carried out in both stations’ areas.Analysis of the retail property price.  For 2001-2005: Increase  For 2005-2008: Decrease for both catchment and control areas.Analysis of the office property price.  Positive increase during the period 2001-2008. Copyright © Wondershare Software
  24. 24. Stations of Line 6: Control area - Mergellina (Opening year : 2007) Average change in number of residents 2001-2005 (2.72%) 2005-2008 (1.90%) This trend is same for the control area.Property price index for housing, retail and offices in Mergellina catchment and control area. Mergellina station is located in a central part of the town with easy access to transport rail servicesbefore the year 2007. From 2001 to 2005, positive percentage changes for all property types can be observed. They are almost equal to the values in the control area, except for retail properties. From 2001 to 2005, before the station opened, the impact of the forthcoming railway station wasstrong. From 2005 to 2008 the housing and office property price indices still show positive trends. This means that the ‘‘metro effect” was also evident after its opening. The retail property price index in contrast decreases from 2005 to 2008, like the stations for theFuorigrotta area. Copyright © Wondershare Software
  25. 25. Stations of Line 1: Control area - Quattro Giornate (Opening Year : 2001) Average change in number of residents For areas Quattro Giornate : 2001-2005 (-2.26%) 2005-2008 (-1.50%) For control area of Quattro Giornate : 2001-2005 (-2.84%) 2005-2008 (-1.90%)Property price index for housing, retail and offices in Quattro Giornate catchment and controlarea. From 2001 to 2005, the housing property prices increased less than in the control area. However from2005 to 2008, the house prices increased faster than in the control area. The same phenomenon is observed for office property price indices. For retail property prices the percentage change is higher than in control area from 2001-2005, whilstfrom 2005-2008 a decrease is observed in both catchment and control areas. The opening of the station in 2001 had its main impacts on property values in subsequent years. Copyright © Wondershare Software
  26. 26. Stations of Line 1: Control area – Materdei (2003) and Salvator (2001) Average change in number of residents For catchment areas : 2001-2005 (-1.64%) 2005-2008 (1.09%) For control areas: 2001-2005 (-2.87%) 2005-2008 (-1.91%)Property price index for housing, retail and offices in Materdei and Salvator Rosa The trend is same for Dante.catchment areas and Materdei + Salvator Rosa control area.Materdei and Salvator Rosa are two boroughs of Naples where the opening of the metro stations had avery significant impact on property prices.According to the analysis, the property prices of shops did not get benefited after opening of the metro.Stations of Line 1: Control area – Dante (2002) and Museo (2001) Average change in number of residents for Museo catchment area: 2001-2005 (2.49%) 2005-2008 (1.66%) For Museo and Dante station catchment areas an average increase of prices is observed for all property types during the period from 2001-2005.From 2005 to 2008 the same effects occurred around Materdei and Salvator Rosastations because this group of stations are located in the same part of the Copyright © Wondershare SoftwareMunicipality of Naples
  27. 27. Stations of Line 1: Control area – Piscinola (Opening year: 2003) Average change in number of residents For catchment areas : 2001-2005 (2.18%) 2005-2008 (1.46%)Property price index for housing, retail and offices in Piscinola catchment and control area.PopulationThe change in population is due to gentrification where the migration is from the city centre towardsperipheral area.Piscinola benefits from this migration because it is mainly a residential area with good accessibility to thecity centre.AnalysisAnalysis shows that all types of property prices increased faster than in the control area from 2005 to2008, after the opening of the station.In the previous period (2001–2005) the opening of the metro mainly affected prices of shops and offices. Copyright © Wondershare Software
  28. 28. Conclusions Values are shown to be higher in station catchment areas than in control areas only in specific casesdue to several factors: 1) Location 2) Local property market trend 3) Connectivity given by the new metro line to the city centreThis phenomenon is more evident in inner city stations’ catchment areas, which did not have goodaccessibility to other urban, regional and national rail services before the opening of the metro line. Gentrification is observed in the urban area of Naples. Migration from the central part of the town, where property prices are higher, toward peripheralareas, which are well served by the urban rail system, with lower property prices growing slowly. Copyright © Wondershare Software
  29. 29. Data CollectionData SourceHousehold Travel Surveys Directorate of Census Operations Households by Size West Bengal Individuals by Monthly IncomePurpose wise Distribution of Trips 1) Detailed Project Report, E-W corridor ofTransport Demand Forecast Kolkata Metro, March 2006 by DMRCL Trip Generation 2) Kolkata Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. (KMRCL) Trip DistributionLanduse Parameters Directorate of Census Operations Zone wise Population and Employment West BengalMetro Rail Passengers’ Data Kolkata Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. (KMRCL)Land Use Plan of Kolkata National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation (NATMO) Copyright © Wondershare Software
  30. 30. BibliographyDocuments/Reports Web SitesJBIC Pilot Study on Urban TransportDevelopment in KMA, Draft Final Report, 2007.Detailed Project Report, E-W corridor of http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4Kolkata Metro, March 2006 by DMRCL /41/Ew_metro.png; http://kmrc.in/home.phpImpact of Delhi Metro on real estate by Prof. http://www.iutindia.org/urban09/041209/H.M.ShivH.M. Shivanand Swamy, CEPT University. anand%20Swamy.pdfUrban rail systems investments: an analysis of http://www1.caminos.upm.es/music/files/Urban%the impacts on property values and residents’ 20rail%20systems%20investments.pdflocation, by: Francesca Pagliara, Enrica PapaThe short-term land value impacts of urban rail http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/Stransit: Quantitative 0264837706000020evidence from Sunderland, UK, by: Hongbo Du,Corinne Mulley Copyright © Wondershare Software
  31. 31. Thank You! Copyright © Wondershare Software

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