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Nonverbal Communication


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Nonverbal Communication

  1. 1. Nonverbal Communication Francesca Torres Karina Ocasio EING 4017
  2. 2. Culture <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is the way of life of a people, the sum of their learned behavior patterns , attitudes and material things . </li></ul><ul><li>We acquire and develop our cultural personality and ethnic identity without being aware of it. Children gain this knowledge at home approximately from 0 to 5 years of age. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>“ All cultures are very, very old products of man... therefore, if all cultures are old, then all cultures have many virtues as well as defects. In conclusion, “All cultures are neither superior nor inferior to others: THEY ARE SIMPLY DIFFERENT”. </li></ul><ul><li>But everybody feels that his customs, culture and traditions are the best when comparing it to others. </li></ul>
  4. 4. We are People We are people, you and I Like the people passing by, We’re alike, but different too, I am I, and you are you. We are all one family, Light or dark, as it may be, All are equal on this earth When we measure human worth. We all laugh when we feel gay, Each one laughing his own way, Some laugh low and some laugh high, Some as if they’re going to cry.
  5. 5. We all think, but separately, And we needn’t all agree, We all listen, speak, compare, All have different thoughts to share. Different, different, yet the same: When we want to play a game We must all accept the rules Though we come from different schools. We are people, you and I, Like the people passing by, Same but different, different same, My name’s _______, what’s your name?
  6. 6. <ul><li>Sometimes this is hard to acknowledge because everybody feels that his customs, culture and traditions are the best when comparing it to others. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result , people are likely to perceive a different behavior or custom as something strange, odd, even offensive and insulting. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>The process of communication through sending and receiving wordless messages. Such messages can be communicated through gesture ; body language or posture; facial expression and eye contact ; object communication such as clothing, hairstyles or even architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Speech may also contain nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, including voice quality, emotion and speaking style, as well as prosodic features such as rhythm, intonation and stress. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Types of Nonverbal Communication
  9. 9. Proxemics <ul><li>Is the study of how people use and perceive the physical space around them. Space in nonverbal communication may be divided into four main categories: intimate, social, personal, and public space. </li></ul><ul><li>The perception and use of space varies significantly across cultures and different settings within cultures. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Haptics <ul><li>Is the study of touching as nonverbal communication. Touches that can be defined as communication include handshakes, holding hands, kissing (cheek, lips, hand), back slapping, high fives, a pat on the shoulder, and brushing an arm. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Kinesics <ul><li>Is the study of body movements, facial expressions, and gestures. Kinesics behaviors include mutual gaze, smiling, facial warmth or pleasantness, childlike behaviors, direct body orientation, among others. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Monochronic <ul><li>Monochronic time schedule: Time is viewed as something that can be controlled or wasted by individuals, and people tend to do one thing at a time. The M-pattern is typically found in North America and Northern Europe. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Polychronic <ul><li>Polychronic time schedule: Personal involvement is more important than schedules; people do many things at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the usual pattern that is typically found in Latin America and the Middle East. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Monochronic –Time Person Polychronic- Time person 1. Does one thing at a time 1. Does several things at a time 2. Treats time schedules and plans very seriously; feels they may be broken only for the most serious reasons 2. Treats time schedules and plans as useful (not sacred); feels they may be broken for a variety of purposes 3. Considers the job the most important part of life; ahead of even family 3. Considers the family and interpersonal relationships more important than the job 4. Considers privacy extremely important; works independently 4. Is actively involved with others; works in the presence of and with lots of people at the same time
  15. 15. Nonverbal Communication in the ESL Classroom
  16. 16. In the ESL Classroom <ul><li>When a child enters school, he is already a person with a culture, a language, with a non verbal system; all of these are operating automatically and out of awareness. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a generalized idea that in order for a student to communicate successfully in English he or she has to speak well and understand it. This is because most people think that our communication is centrally verbal. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Research has proven that this idea is incorrect. According to the American Anthropologist Ray Birdwhistell communication is at most 35% language, thus the remaining 65% of communication is mostly made up of nonverbal activities. </li></ul>
  18. 18. What do we do with all of this information? <ul><li>Judith Curt suggests that we should develop and practice, the skill of Switching Cultural Channels in order to interact with others more effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>When teaching about NVC it’s important to state to our students that they are not learning a better way of behaving; they are learning a different way . </li></ul><ul><li>They don’t have to substitute their behaviors or cultural identity for the new one they just have to learn to adapt and change it according to the situation. </li></ul>
  19. 19. How do we teach nonverbal communication? <ul><li>Through role playing and acting out dialogues. </li></ul><ul><li>Writing dialogues to discuss and illustrate the differences between cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>Making them aware of their own nonverbal behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>She recommends that teachers begin with what is known by the students and is acceptable to them and later proceed to introduce new cultural information, the not so acceptable content, in the foreign culture and language that students are leaning. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Smiling <ul><li>Smiling is one of the most common gestures in the world; however it is also one of the most misunderstood facial expressions. </li></ul><ul><li>In the USA smiling takes place in friendly circles; rarely in serious activities. </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>On the other hand, in Puerto Rico smiling takes place: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Among friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When asking for information to strangers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between women when greeting each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban men smile less than rural men </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It can also mean embarrassment </li></ul><ul><li>It can be used as an interrupter in conversations. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Staring and eye contact <ul><li>Staring and eye contact among Americans is not permissible for either sex in public or private places; however it is a must in talking to someone. </li></ul><ul><li>In Puerto Rico is the opposite you can stare while you walk but do not establish prolonged eye contact during a conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>While you listen you must look intently at the person. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Silence vs. Noise <ul><li>Latins view Anglos as a silent, serious and as an empty space society. </li></ul><ul><li>Anglos consider Latins to noisy. There are people everywhere joking and they are too relaxed about work. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Clothes <ul><li>Latins care to much about the way they look </li></ul><ul><li>For Americans more informality in dressing is permitted. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Money matters <ul><li>The differences in money matters are based on the cultures promotion of reticence (quietness) as well as the showing of largesse (generosity, gifts) for visitors and those who are a “above you”. </li></ul><ul><li>Latins may lend money from 1 cent up to $2.00 dollars and you will not expect that money back; the same with small things like pencils, a piece of paper. Moreover, if you return it, apparently expresses something insulting. </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Nevertheless, The person who barrows always needs to return something; “le estoy obligao” “Le estoy en deuda por sus muchas atenciones”. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans must return the exact thing or amount borrowed as immediately as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Both Latinos and Americans care about the fine balance of justice and charity and what’s right. </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>When it comes to personal information concerning money, Latins may ask a “peer” how much they paid for a specific object (house, car, dress, etc.) in the US, asking this kind of questions is a sign of bad manners. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Laughter & Play <ul><li>In Anglo gat herings there is always talk, talk, talk. They see La tin parties and gatherings as immature and childish … irresponsible adults carrying on like teenagers. </li></ul><ul><li>Latinos call them “pachangas”, “relajos”, “reunioncitas”. There is always laughter, guitars, dancing and noise. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone should put much joy and kindness to all work. Latins should show understanding and regarding the American attitudes towards themselves on work and play. </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>American cultures were in the most part fashioned and culturally brought forth by Puritanism which frowns upon too much wiggling and moving of body parts. </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, Latinos inheritance is one with much movement. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Frankness vs. Reticence <ul><li>In the Anglo culture people are very direct and frank when expressing their opinion about something. </li></ul><ul><li>In Latin cultures people are more discrete or reserved when communicating with others. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Offering” and “accepting” <ul><li>In Puerto Rico if a person is offered something his or her first reaction is to say “No” and the person making the offer will insist . This pattern will be repeated up to three or four times, until the person finally says “Well, since you insist, I’ll have some”. </li></ul><ul><li>In the U.S. the first rejection is usually taken as the final “No” and the person will not insist on the offer. </li></ul>