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THE SALIVARYGLANDS
WHAT IS THIS?
Saliva   complex fluid found lubricating the mucosa    and teeth of the oral cavity   secreted by the salivary glands   ...
Types of Saliva   salivary glands, their cells and ducts are    greatly responsible for the modification and    kind of s...
Serous Saliva   Content:     Amylase protein     polysaccharides   Cell: Serous Cells   “watery saliva”   Glands tha...
Viscous Saliva   Content:     Mucins(glycoproteins)     Carbohydrates   Cell: Mucous Cells   Thick and viscous   Gla...
Mixed Saliva   simply the combination of the aforementioned    types of saliva   Able to do a multitude of significant f...
Functions of Saliva   Main function: maintaining the well-being of    the mouth   Other important functions:     Protec...
Functions of Saliva                           Effect                             Active ConstituentProtection             ...
MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS
Major Salivary Glands   Functional Unit     Parenchyma     Stroma   In some books: salivon   Three pairs:     Paroti...
Parotid Glands                    In front of the ear                     behind the ramus                     of mandibl...
Parotid Glands   Nerve supply: CN V   Sympathetic control:    superior cervical    ganglion   Parasympathetic    contro...
Submandibular Glands   Inner aspect of the mandible below the floor of    the oral cavity   Mixed, 90% serous 10% mucous...
Submandibular Glands   Serous demilunes                       1: intralobular ducts/ striated ducts                      ...
Submandibular Glands   Nerve supply: CN V   Sympathetic    control: superior    cervical ganglion   Parasympathetic    ...
Sublingual Glands   Floor of the mouth,    below the tongue   Mixed, more mucous   Ducts of Rivinus   Bartholin’s duct...
Sublingual Glands   Nerve supply: CN V   Sympathetic control: superior cervical ganglion   Parasympathetic control: CN ...
MINOR SALIVARY GLANDS
MINOR SALIVARY GLANDS   Over 600 present in the oral cavity   Types     Mucous  producing minor salivary glands     Se...
Mucous Producing MinorSalivary Glands   Submucosa of the oral mucosa   1-2 mm in diameter   Not encapsulated   Number ...
Serous Fluid Producing MinorSalivary Glands   Aka. Von Ebner’s Glands   Lipid hydrolysis and perception of taste   Loca...
Labial Glands   Inner surface of lips   Mixed saliva   Cells have distinct    mucoalbuminous    character   Terminal p...
Minor Buccal Glands   Continuation of the labial glands in the cheek   Lie within the vicinity of the opening of the    ...
Glossopalatine Glands   Pure mucous glands   Continuation of the lesser sublingual glands    (posteriorly)   Ascend in ...
Palatine Glands   Pure mucous glands   Occupy the roof of the oral cavity   Divided into the glands of the:     Hard  ...
Glands of the Tongue   Anterior lingual gland     Anteriorpart- chiefly mucous     Posterior part- branching tubules li...
Glands of the Tongue
Von Ebner’s Glands
STRUCTURES OF SALIVARYGLANDS
STRUCTURES OF SALIVARYGLANDS   Parenchyma of glands consists of:     SecretoryPortions     Branching Duct Sytem       ...
SECRETORY PORTIONS
Serous Cells                  Seromucous cells                  Resemble truncated                   pyramids           ...
Apical Cytoplasm of Serous Cells containing secretory granules
Mucous Cells                  Adapted for                   production, storage,                   and secretion of      ...
Mucous Cells in tubulard secretory end pieces.
Mucous cells showing the serous demilunes.
Myoepithelial Cells                    Flattened stellate                     cells                    Desmosomes
Myoepithelial Cells
DUCTAL SYSTEM
Intercalated Ducts   Classified as    intralobular duct   Smallest branch of    the system of ducts   Prominent in    S...
Striated Ducts                    Formed by union of                     Intercalated Ducts
Terminal Excretory Ducts                   Special eosinophilic                    cells
Terminal Excretory Ducts   Interlobular excretory duct
SALIVATION REFLEXACTIVITYADDITIONAL INFORMATIONSOURCE: MASTER DENTISTRY VOL. III: ORAL BIOLOGY
Reflex Activity   Resting flow: keeps the mouth and oropharynx    moist   Food and the prospect of eating: most saliva- ...
Reflexes   Gustatory-salivary reflex     Sour>umami>salty>sweet>bitter   Masticatory-salivary reflex     Saliva   flow...
Reflexes   Visual and psychic salivary reflex     Stimuli:   thought and sight of food   Oral nociceptor-salivary refle...
DEVELOPMENT OF SALIVARYGLANDS
Development of SalivaryGlands   Derived from the oral mucosa   Arise in weeks 5-6 of embryonic life
Development of SalivaryGlands PRIMORDIA          TIME OF         EMBRYONIC      REGION                  DEVELOPME         ...
Development of Salivary GlandsBuds   Epithelial   Terminal   Form                Repeat                                   ...
AGE CHANGES
Age Changes   the aging salivary glands are known to    undergo structural changes       The  lobule structure becomes l...
Age Changes   Changes in the salivary glands    (submandibular,parotid (less) and minor    salivary glands)     Shrinkag...
CLINICALCONSIDERATIONS
Mucoceles   CAUSE: trauma to excretory ducts of the minor glands    which allows the spillage of mucus into the surroundi...
Mucocele
Ranulas    Type of mucocele    CAUSE: blocked sublingual gland ducts    PHYSIOLOGIC MANIFESTATION: Unilateral, soft-   ...
Ranula
Sialolithiasis   CAUSE: inactivity of the glands       Metabolic conditions that promote salt precipitation in the      ...
Sialolithiasis
Necrotizing Sialometaplasia   UNKNOWN CAUSE       Possible etiologic agent: smoking, trauma, vascular disease    PHYSIO...
Necrotizing Sialometaplasia
Mumps   Aka. epidemic parotitis (viral)   Occurs usually during childhood   CAUSE: paramyxovirus that infects the parot...
Mumps
Salivary Gland Neoplasm   Aka. Salivary gland cancer   CAUSE: rapid cell growth of the salivary gland   PHYSIOLOGIC MAN...
Salivary Gland Neoplasms
Irradiation Reaction(Xerostomia)   subjective complaint of dry mouth due to a lack of saliva   CAUSE: tumoricidal doses ...
Xerostomia
THE ENDTHANK YOU FOR LISTENING…
Salivary glands finals OHE
Salivary glands finals OHE
Salivary glands finals OHE
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Salivary glands finals OHE

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Salivary glands finals OHE

  1. 1. THE SALIVARYGLANDS
  2. 2. WHAT IS THIS?
  3. 3. Saliva complex fluid found lubricating the mucosa and teeth of the oral cavity secreted by the salivary glands  Major  Minor
  4. 4. Types of Saliva salivary glands, their cells and ducts are greatly responsible for the modification and kind of saliva being secreted It is of three types:  Serous Saliva  Viscous Saliva  Mixed Saliva
  5. 5. Serous Saliva Content:  Amylase protein  polysaccharides Cell: Serous Cells “watery saliva” Glands that secrete this type:  Parotid Gland  Von Ebner’s glands
  6. 6. Viscous Saliva Content:  Mucins(glycoproteins)  Carbohydrates Cell: Mucous Cells Thick and viscous Glands that secrete this type:  Sublingual Gland  Minor Salivary Glands (except Von Ebner’s glands)
  7. 7. Mixed Saliva simply the combination of the aforementioned types of saliva Able to do a multitude of significant functions Secreted by:  Submandibular Gland  Sublingual Gland Cells:  SerousCells  Mucous Cells
  8. 8. Functions of Saliva Main function: maintaining the well-being of the mouth Other important functions:  Protection  Buffering Action  Digestion  Facilitation of Taste  Defensive Action against Microbes  Ionic Exchange between Tooth Surface
  9. 9. Functions of Saliva Effect Active ConstituentProtection Lubrication, lavage, pellicle Glycoprotein formation WaterBuffering Action Regulates pH Phosphate and BicarbonateDigestion Digests starch Amylase Digests lipids Lingual Lipase Bolus formationFacilitation of Taste Taste bud growth and maturation, Gustin dissolves substances to carry to taste budsDefensive Action Against Antibodies LysozymeMicrobes Hostile Environment Lactoferrin IgAIonic Exchange Between Posteruptive Maturation of CalciumTooth Surface Enamel Phosphate
  10. 10. MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS
  11. 11. Major Salivary Glands Functional Unit  Parenchyma  Stroma In some books: salivon Three pairs:  Parotidglands  Submandibular glands  Sublingual glands
  12. 12. Parotid Glands  In front of the ear behind the ramus of mandible  Purely serous  Ptyalin and IgA  Stensen’s duct- opens opposite the upper second molar
  13. 13. Parotid Glands Nerve supply: CN V Sympathetic control: superior cervical ganglion Parasympathetic control: CN IX, otic ganglion
  14. 14. Submandibular Glands Inner aspect of the mandible below the floor of the oral cavity Mixed, 90% serous 10% mucous Secretes lysozymes Wharton’s duct: opens at each side of the sublingual folds
  15. 15. Submandibular Glands Serous demilunes 1: intralobular ducts/ striated ducts 2: mucous acinus 3: serous demilunes
  16. 16. Submandibular Glands Nerve supply: CN V Sympathetic control: superior cervical ganglion Parasympathetic control: CN VII, chorda tympani, submandibular ganglion
  17. 17. Sublingual Glands Floor of the mouth, below the tongue Mixed, more mucous Ducts of Rivinus Bartholin’s duct: opens into Wharton’s duct
  18. 18. Sublingual Glands Nerve supply: CN V Sympathetic control: superior cervical ganglion Parasympathetic control: CN VII, chorda tympani, submandibular ganglion
  19. 19. MINOR SALIVARY GLANDS
  20. 20. MINOR SALIVARY GLANDS Over 600 present in the oral cavity Types  Mucous producing minor salivary glands  Serous fluid producing minor salivary glands
  21. 21. Mucous Producing MinorSalivary Glands Submucosa of the oral mucosa 1-2 mm in diameter Not encapsulated Number of acini connected in a tiny lobule
  22. 22. Serous Fluid Producing MinorSalivary Glands Aka. Von Ebner’s Glands Lipid hydrolysis and perception of taste Located around the foliate and circumvallate papillae
  23. 23. Labial Glands Inner surface of lips Mixed saliva Cells have distinct mucoalbuminous character Terminal portions often form typical demilunes
  24. 24. Minor Buccal Glands Continuation of the labial glands in the cheek Lie within the vicinity of the opening of the parotid duct Drain into the third molar region Therefore, it is known as molar glands
  25. 25. Glossopalatine Glands Pure mucous glands Continuation of the lesser sublingual glands (posteriorly) Ascend in the mucosa of the glossopalatine fold
  26. 26. Palatine Glands Pure mucous glands Occupy the roof of the oral cavity Divided into the glands of the:  Hard palate  Soft palate and uvula
  27. 27. Glands of the Tongue Anterior lingual gland  Anteriorpart- chiefly mucous  Posterior part- branching tubules lined with mucous cells and capped with demilunes of serous cells Posterior lingual glands  Base of the tongue- purely mucous  Glands of the vallate papillae (Von Ebner’s glands)- purely serous, opens into the trough (depression) of the vallate papillae
  28. 28. Glands of the Tongue
  29. 29. Von Ebner’s Glands
  30. 30. STRUCTURES OF SALIVARYGLANDS
  31. 31. STRUCTURES OF SALIVARYGLANDS Parenchyma of glands consists of:  SecretoryPortions  Branching Duct Sytem  Lobules  Septae  Capsule
  32. 32. SECRETORY PORTIONS
  33. 33. Serous Cells  Seromucous cells  Resemble truncated pyramids  Tight junctions  Junctional complexes  Collectively, serous acini
  34. 34. Apical Cytoplasm of Serous Cells containing secretory granules
  35. 35. Mucous Cells  Adapted for production, storage, and secretion of proteinaceous material  Mucins  Collectively, mucous acini
  36. 36. Mucous Cells in tubulard secretory end pieces.
  37. 37. Mucous cells showing the serous demilunes.
  38. 38. Myoepithelial Cells  Flattened stellate cells  Desmosomes
  39. 39. Myoepithelial Cells
  40. 40. DUCTAL SYSTEM
  41. 41. Intercalated Ducts Classified as intralobular duct Smallest branch of the system of ducts Prominent in Salivary Glands Frequent in Parotid Gland
  42. 42. Striated Ducts  Formed by union of Intercalated Ducts
  43. 43. Terminal Excretory Ducts  Special eosinophilic cells
  44. 44. Terminal Excretory Ducts Interlobular excretory duct
  45. 45. SALIVATION REFLEXACTIVITYADDITIONAL INFORMATIONSOURCE: MASTER DENTISTRY VOL. III: ORAL BIOLOGY
  46. 46. Reflex Activity Resting flow: keeps the mouth and oropharynx moist Food and the prospect of eating: most saliva- inducing stimuli Whole-mouth saliva contribution when stimulated:  Parotidgland: 50%  Submandibular gland: 30%  Sublingual and minor salivary glands: 20%
  47. 47. Reflexes Gustatory-salivary reflex  Sour>umami>salty>sweet>bitter Masticatory-salivary reflex  Saliva flow is directly proportional to masticatory forces Olfactory-salivary reflex  No reflex response from the parotid gland  Increase in salivary secretion from the submandibular and sublingual glands
  48. 48. Reflexes Visual and psychic salivary reflex  Stimuli: thought and sight of food Oral nociceptor-salivary reflex  Stimulation of the trigeminal afferent nociceptive fibers  Increase in parotid saliva secretion Esophageal-salivary reflex  Waterbrash phenomenon: sudden filling of the mouth with fluids
  49. 49. DEVELOPMENT OF SALIVARYGLANDS
  50. 50. Development of SalivaryGlands Derived from the oral mucosa Arise in weeks 5-6 of embryonic life
  51. 51. Development of SalivaryGlands PRIMORDIA TIME OF EMBRYONIC REGION DEVELOPME ORIGIN NTParotid gland 5th to 6th week Ectoderm Labiogingivalprimordia sulcus(anlage)Submandibular 6th week Endoderm Hyoid archgland primordiaSublingual 7th to 8th week Endoderm Linguogingivalgland primordia sulcusIntraoral minor 3rd monthsalivary glands
  52. 52. Development of Salivary GlandsBuds Epithelial Terminal Form Repeat Branches cords bulbs clefts process
  53. 53. AGE CHANGES
  54. 54. Age Changes the aging salivary glands are known to undergo structural changes  The lobule structure becomes less ordered  The acini vary more in size and eventually atrophy  Interlobular ducts become more prominent and the percentage of fibroadipose tissue increases
  55. 55. Age Changes Changes in the salivary glands (submandibular,parotid (less) and minor salivary glands)  Shrinkage of cells  Dilation of ducts  Oncocytic transformation  Increased adiposity  Fibrosis  Focal microcalcifications with obstruction  Chronic inflammation
  56. 56. CLINICALCONSIDERATIONS
  57. 57. Mucoceles CAUSE: trauma to excretory ducts of the minor glands which allows the spillage of mucus into the surrounding connective tissue PHYSIOLOGIC MANIFESTATION: formation of painless, smooth surfaced, bluish lesions TREATMENT: self-limiting (acute) or surgery (chronic)
  58. 58. Mucocele
  59. 59. Ranulas  Type of mucocele  CAUSE: blocked sublingual gland ducts  PHYSIOLOGIC MANIFESTATION: Unilateral, soft- tissue lesions, often with a bluish appearance.  Vary in size and may cross the midline of the mouth and cause deviation of the tongue  TREATMENT: self-limiting (acute) surgery (chronic)
  60. 60. Ranula
  61. 61. Sialolithiasis CAUSE: inactivity of the glands  Metabolic conditions that promote salt precipitation in the glands  Predisposing factors: dehydration and poor oral hygiene PHYSIOLOGIC MANIFESTATION: formation of caliculi TREATMENT: massaged out by a specialist, surgery, antibiotics
  62. 62. Sialolithiasis
  63. 63. Necrotizing Sialometaplasia UNKNOWN CAUSE  Possible etiologic agent: smoking, trauma, vascular disease PHYSIOLOGIC MANIFESTATION: uncommon benign lesion and inflammatory condition that affects salivary glands, usually the minor salivary glands TREATMENT: resolves spontaneously, self-limiting
  64. 64. Necrotizing Sialometaplasia
  65. 65. Mumps Aka. epidemic parotitis (viral) Occurs usually during childhood CAUSE: paramyxovirus that infects the parotid glands PHYSIOLOGIC MANIFESTATION: inflammation of the parotid glands located on either side of the face TREATMENT: warm compress, warm, salt water rinses, antibiotics, surgery, anti-inflammatory medications
  66. 66. Mumps
  67. 67. Salivary Gland Neoplasm Aka. Salivary gland cancer CAUSE: rapid cell growth of the salivary gland PHYSIOLOGIC MANIFESTATION: present as painless, slow-growing masses TREATMENT: radiation therapy, chemotherapy
  68. 68. Salivary Gland Neoplasms
  69. 69. Irradiation Reaction(Xerostomia) subjective complaint of dry mouth due to a lack of saliva CAUSE: tumoricidal doses of ionizing radiation, excessive clearance or breathing through the mouth, hyposalivation (decreased saliva production) PHYSIOLOGIC MANIFESTATION: dry oral mucosa TREATMENT: frequent sips of water and frequent mouth care
  70. 70. Xerostomia
  71. 71. THE ENDTHANK YOU FOR LISTENING…

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