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CAPS: What's best for deploying and managing OpenStack? Chef vs. Ansible vs. Puppet vs. Salt


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What's best for deploying and managing OpenStack?

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CAPS: What's best for deploying and managing OpenStack? Chef vs. Ansible vs. Puppet vs. Salt

  1. 1. CAPS: What’s best for deploying and managing OpenStack? Chef vs. Ansible vs. Puppet vs. Salt Animesh Singh @AnimeshSingh Daniel Krook @DanielKrook Paul Czarkowski @PCzarkowski
  2. 2. Our goal is to help you make an informed decision about your configuration management tool Where to go next when adopting the tool that’s right for you How your role and organization influences the decision to adopt a particular tool To what degree each supports OpenStack deployments What the four most popular configuration management projects are Why configuration management is critical for running OpenStack 2
  3. 3. We are not affiliated with any of the projects in this presentation 3 Animesh Singh •  Senior Software Engineer, Cloud and Open Source Technologies, IBM •  @AnimeshSingh Paul Czarkowski •  Cloud Engineer at Blue Box, an IBM company •  @PCzarkowski Daniel Krook •  Senior Software Engineer, Cloud and Open Source Technologies, IBM •  @DanielKrook
  4. 4. Why is configuration management critical for running OpenStack? 4
  5. 5. Configuration management is critical for running OpenStack •  OpenStack is a large distributed cloud Infrastructure-as-a-Service systemComplexity •  OpenStack is an open source project with a rapid upgrade cycleChange •  OpenStack clusters are often duplicated into multiple environmentsConsistency •  OpenStack automation is critical for speed, reliability, complianceCompliance •  OpenStack CM tools implement cloud management best practicesQuality 5 Any tool is better than no tool!
  6. 6. Your role and organization affects the decision to adopt a particular tool 6 The OpenStack operator is interested in stability, maintainability, and availability of large deployments. The OpenStack innovator is interested in quick evaluations, standing up environments quickly, evaluating new features such as containerization. The OpenStack contributor Is looking to quickly iterate on changes to a particular project.
  7. 7. Tool overview 7
  8. 8. Configuration management tools are a core part of today’s DevOps 8
  9. 9. Configuration management is a fertile area for cloud innovation 9 2005 2008 2012 2013
  10. 10. Each tool has a strong community, clear mission, and scales well 10 Salt Ansible Puppet Chef Motivation Creators found existing solutions to be lacking, and wanted a very low latency, highly scalable remote execution and data collection framework Disappointment that existing tools required an agent and made it difficult to accomplish tasks like rolling deployments Created “… out of fear and desperation, with the goal of producing better operations tools and changing how we manage systems” Chef began as an internal tool for Opscode, to build end-to-end server/ deployment tools. Soon, its creators realized its broader use Users PayPal, Verizon, HP, Rackspace Blue Box, Red Hat Paypal NYSE, ADP, Symantec, Sony Bloomberg,, GE Capital, Digital Science, Nordstrom Enterprise offering Yes Hosting/Consulting/ Training Yes Yes License Apache License v2 GNU Public License v3 Apache License v2 Apache License v2 GitHub activity Contributors Commits Branches Releases 1,041 49,193 11 82 1,003 13,527 33 57 355 19,595 9 291 369 12,089 177 231
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  12. 12. Salt overview A configuration management system, motivated by the idea of enabling high-speed communication with large numbers of systems Capable of maintaining remote nodes in defined states (for example, ensuring that specific packages are installed and specific services are running) Written in Python, Salt offers a push method and an SSH method of communication with clients and querying data on remote nodes, Parallel execution of remote commands using AES encrypted protocol The networking layer is built with the ZeroMQ distributed messaging networking library, using msgpack for binary data serialization enabling fast and light network traffic. 12
  13. 13. Salt characteristics and features Highly Scalable; vertical and horizontal scale made easy as your needs change. Example Syndicate Feature; One Master managing multiple masters; Peer Interface allows Minions to control other Minions; advantage with query and continuous code delivery Reactor system resides on Event Bus with Master; enables ability to react to events down stream; useful in automatic code deployment 13
  14. 14. Salt architecture 14 Minion Salt Master Centralized Salt Master MinionMinionMinionMinionMinion Salt Master x
  15. 15. Salt primary components Salt Master – Controls Minions Master Daemon – Runs task for Master (authenticating minions, communicating with connected minions and 'salt' CLI.) Salt Client – Runs on the same machine as the Master; provides commands to the Master; User able to see results via the Client Minion – Receives commands from the Master, runs job and communicates results back to master Salt Modules – Collections of function (patterns) which can run from Salt CLI Halite – An optional web UI 15
  16. 16. Salt for OpenStack Salt is picking up for OpenStack deployments. No default standard formula for OpenStack deployment provided, but community has quickly spring up with various versions. Salt OpenStack Formulas: Ones which seems active recently are listed here 16
  17. 17. Salt for OpenStack – Typical installation steps Install salt-master on a machine to control the installation. Install salt-minion on all machines on host your OpenStack compute nodes Edit ‘salt-master’ OpenStack configuration file to provide information about OpenStack salt formulas and pillar Configure Salt Grains e.g ‘ROLE’: controller, ‘ROLE’: network, ‘ROLE’: dashboard etc. Configure Salt Pillars with meta-data that you would want to store on the minion e.g credentials, environment, networking etc. Configure Salt States for different roles to define end states for OpenStack controller, compute, keystone etc. 17
  18. 18. Salt for OpenStack – Typical installation steps Establish connectivity between salt-master and salt minions. Configure minions to tell about master, and provide an id. The master identifies each minion with its ID and then the minion key has to be accepted by the master. Run commands to make the OpenStack parameters available and upload all of the custom state and execution modules on the targeted minion(s). Finally run the installation e.g sudo salt -C 'I@OpenStack:Cluster:dev_cluster' state.sls OpenStack. Reference:, 18
  19. 19. Salt summary Strengths Deepest technical depth & degree of flexibility versus the other vendors Easier to start, install, deploy, and manage Agent or agentless (via SSH) Highly scalable architecture Relatively easy to debug and solve problems Python based language; this is a preference across the industry Weaknesses Documentation is challenging to understand at the introductory level. OpenStack support is not mature, and not enough community uptake. Web UI is newer and less complete than other too interfaces in this space. Not great support for non-Linux operating systems. 19
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  21. 21. Ansible overview •  A remote execution system used to orchestration the execution commands and query data for the purpose of Orchestration and Configuration Management. •  Written in Python, Ansible performs tasks from easy to read and write YAML playbooks. •  Ansible offers multiple push methods, the primary and most commonly used is SSH based. •  Ansible does not require an agent to be installed, but does expect SSH access and a Python interpreter on systems that it manages. 21
  22. 22. Ansible characteristics and features •  Highly Scalable •  Fact Sharing •  Powerful orchestration engine 22
  23. 23. Ansible architecture 23 Server Bastion Ansible Workstation ServerServerServerServerServer Bastion
  24. 24. Ansible primary components Ansible – Python CLI and libraries Playbooks – YAML files describing the series of tasks to be performed Roles – Collections of Playbooks and Variables Inventory – listing of servers and their group memberships Tower - $$$ offering from Ansible to offer Enterprise features 24
  25. 25. Ansible for OpenStack Operators •  Popular in the operations community –  Ursula - –  OSAD - –  Kolla - –  Ansible Galaxy - 25
  26. 26. Ursula Open source > 1,000 tasks to deploy and manage fully HA OpenStack cloud Defcore certified for Juno Install from source or BYO [giftwrap] packages. Opinionated and Curated with a focus on stability and operability Proven track record for in place upgrades Experimental support for Magnum and Nova-Docker 26
  27. 27. Ursula Install both Ansible and OpenStack with this one weird trick... $ cd ~/development $ git clone $ cd ursula $ pip install -r requirements.txt $ ursula --vagrant envs/example/allinone site.yml 27
  28. 28. Ansible for OpenStack Users •  OpenStack is a first class citizen in the Ansible module ecosystem •  Solid support for IAAS operations •  Uses native hooks into “fade” library •  Orchestrate your cloud, instances, and applications with the same tooling. • openstack 28
  29. 29. Ansible summary •  Strengths –  No central server –  Orchestration focus –  Very easy to get started –  Tasks are executed in the order written –  Easy to extend modules and create new ones –  Fairly easy to debug and diagnose issues. –  Python based, just like OpenStack. •  Weaknesses –  No central server –  CM features are secondary to orchestration features. (apt/yum vs. package) –  SSH based communications can be slow –  No Agent, but requires Python (Switches, CoreOS, etc.) –  Effectively have to give remote root SSH access –  Different syntax across Playbooks, Templates, and Modules. –  JINJA2 :( 29
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  31. 31. Puppet overview An open source configuration management tool capable of automating system administration tasks Deployed in a typical client/server fashion, in which clients periodically poll server for desired state, and send back status reports to the server (master) Works in a highly distributed fashion to quickly and efficiently provision, upgrade, and manage nodes all throughout their lifecycle Based on Ruby, custom DSL for writing manifests, utilizes ERB for templates. 31
  32. 32. Puppet overview Fairly easy to add and remove nodes; Each cluster may also have multiple masters for HA / Scalability reasons. Tasks are idempotent and are executed only if a node state doesn’t match required configuration. Resources are abstracted so users can ignore details such as command names, file formats and locations, etc., making manifests OS agnostic. 32
  33. 33. Puppet architecture 33 Puppet Agent Puppet Server x Puppet Agent XMLRPC over HTTPS XMLRPC over HTTPS Status Reports Status Reports
  34. 34. Puppet primary components •  Puppet Master – Received queries and status reports from the Puppet Agents; provides commands to Puppet Agents •  Puppet Agents – Queries Puppet Master; runs Master commands as needed, reports results back to master •  Reporting/Analytics – Visibility to into puppet agents including configuration logs, metrics on timing, resources, & changes. •  Puppet Forge – Community modules maintained included approved puppet modules •  Puppet DB - Holds information about every node within the infrastructure 34
  35. 35. Puppet for OpenStack 35 •  There are currently multiple Puppet modules for nearly each OpenStack component available at – – •  Can be deployed as a single node deployment or in a HA fashion •  Single node deployment is relatively simple –
  36. 36. Puppet for OpenStack – Typical installation steps •  Install puppet master on server and set up appropriate certs. •  Install/Configure puppet agent on servers to be managed by puppet •  Register the agent with the master •  Download or create manifests/modules to manage puppet agents based on role 36
  37. 37. Puppet summary Strengths: –  Automation of compliance across environment; high value to enterprise –  Native capabilities (like iptables) to work with shell-level constructs are more robust leading to greater flexibility vs competitor solutions like Puppet. –  Web UI & Reporting Tools Weaknesses: –  Steep learning curve for new users –  can be difficult to scale* –  certificate management can be difficult especially with multiple masters. 37
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  39. 39. Chef overview •  A systems and cloud infrastructure automation framework for installing software and applications to bare metal, virtual machine, and container clouds. •  Configuration is in a Ruby DSL, formed around concepts of organizations, environments, cookbooks, recipes, and resources – all driven by supplied or derived attributes. •  A logical Chef workstation is used to control the deployment of configurations from the Chef server to Chef managed nodes. Nodes are bootstrapped with agents and pull configurations from the server. •  Chef the company provides a set of value add Software-as-a-Service to handle analytics and hybrid delivery models. 39
  40. 40. Chef characteristics and features •  Developed in Erlang to provide scale to tens of thousands of servers. By default, the Chef node contacts the server for configuration updates every 30 minutes and while “converging” to the required state, and offloads processing to itself (pulling binaries, executing recipe logic). •  Designed around an infrastructure-as-code model with version control integral to the workstation configuration setup, with a simple Ruby DSL, enabling advanced configuration logic and appealing to developers. •  Key focus on being idempotent, predictable, and deterministic system configurations. That is, directives are run top to bottom, and emphasis is on writing cookbooks that can be run 1 or 100 times and achieve the same result. •  Recipes are highly dynamic, as the Ruby DSL contains logic driven by supplied attributes at 4 levels of scope, real time node information from ohai, and existing state of installed software. 40
  41. 41. Chef primary components 41 •  Workstation – Admin creates and tests cookbooks to upload to Chef Server •  Server – Hub for state, cookbooks, and configuration from workstations, controls Clients •  Client – Polls the server for state changes (run lists) from the Server, runs the job and communicates results back. •  Analytics – Visibility to into chef servers, changes and compliance. Real time visibility to action logs, can integrate with HipChat allowing collaboration and notification to stakeholders and tools. •  Supermarket – Community authored and maintained cookbooks.
  42. 42. 42 Chef architecture Chef Agent Chef Agent SSHSSH Capabilities and current state Capabilities and current state Chef Workstation Chef Server
  43. 43. Chef for OpenStack •  The main OpenStack Chef resource is the wiki: – •  The Chef cookbooks for OpenStack are stable and maintained with branches for each release, along with a separate repository for each cookbook: – •  Highly available configurations aren’t well documented, but there are options for Vagrant, All-in-one, single controller roles to provide a foundation with instructions on how to extend those to bare metal. – 43
  44. 44. Chef for OpenStack – Typical installation steps 44 •  Install and configure the open source Chef Server •  Install and configure Chef Workstation using the ChefDK (can be on the same machine as server) •  Download and install the OpenStack cookbooks from GitHub, configure environments, roles, and runlists for each target node. •  Bootstrap the nodes from the workstation by providing the IP address for SSH along with roles and/or runlists. •  Alternatively, instead of the previous two steps, use chef-provisioning to manage clusters of machines in parallel.
  45. 45. Chef summary •  Strengths –  Strong incumbent with large community of cookbooks and development tools –  Excels at management of operating systems and middleware –  Strong business partner network –  Ability to handle physical, virtual, containers infrastructure in public and private deployments –  Provides an ecosystem of hosted services, including hosted Chef server and analytics •  Weaknesses –  Most complex to set up and requires understanding Ruby –  Documentation is fragmented given the long history of versions –  Containers are supported, but still sees infrastructure more as pets than cattle –  Requires an agent to be installed and pull configuration on a specified schedule 45
  46. 46. Conclusion 46
  47. 47. Summary matrix by tool and role 47 Salt Ansible Puppet Chef Operator Not as mature as the other options for production OpenStack deployments. Ursula/OSAD are the most straightforward and consistent approach to installing the OpenStack. Oldest method to deploy OpenStack. Managed through the community process in the Big Tent. Mature support for OpenStack. Managed through the community process in the Big Tent. Innovator Salt is gaining in market share and is easy to set up, but not effective at absorbing the upstream changes. Lowest barrier to entry. Fastest growing community. Fairly difficult to set up. Skills not as transferrable to other cloud projects. Most difficult to set up, given the additional workstation components. Documentation from older versions conflicts with new Contributor Not integrated with the OpenStack development process (i.e., not a Big Tent project). In the OpenStack Big Tent. In the OpenStack Big Tent. In the OpenStack Big Tent.
  48. 48. Our goal was to help you make an informed decision about your configuration management tool The following page provides a set of other OpenStack Summit sessions to follow Your role and organization culture influences your tool selection decision However, each has a different degree of support for OpenStack deployments There are four mature, popular, and powerful configuration management options Configuration management is critical for running OpenStack 48
  49. 49. Where to go from here 49 OpenStack Summit sessions Automated OpenStack Deployment: A Comparison This won’t hurt a bit… Best practices for TDD Ansible and OpenStack deployment 10 minutes to OpenStack using SaltStack! NTT Communications - Automate Deployment & Benchmark for Your OpenStack With Chef, Cobbler and Rally What's Cooking? Deployment Using the OpenStack Chef Cookbooks Automated Installation and Configuration of Networking and Compute: A Complete OpenStack Deployment in Minutes Ansible Collaboration Day: Ansible + OpenStack — State of the Universe Other comparisons Taste Test: Puppet, Chef, SaltStack, Ansible Review: Puppet vs. Chef vs. Ansible vs. Salt Puppet vs. Chef Revisited