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  1. 1. Argentina: Part 1<br />Jean Lowry<br />50587<br />
  2. 2. Geography…<br />Argentina is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil<br />It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aries<br />It is the eighth-largest country in the world by land area and the largest among Spanish-speaking nations<br />Argentina is about 3900 km long from north to south, and 1400 km from east to west<br />There are four major regions: fertile central plains of the pampas, source of Argentina’s agricultural wealth; the flat to rolling, oil-rich southern plateau of Patagonia including Tierra del Fuego; the subtropical northern flats of the Gran Chaco, and the rugged Andes mountain range along the western border with Chile<br />
  3. 3. Geography… Cont’d<br />The highest point above sea level is in Mendoza province at Cerro Aconcagua, also the highest point in the Southern and Western Hemisphere<br />The lowest point is Laguna del Carbon in Santa Cruz province<br />The geographic center of the country is in south-central La Pampa province<br />The major rivers are Paraná(the largest), the Pilcomayo, Paraguay, Bermejo, Colorado, Rio Negro, Salado and Uruguay<br />The Paraná and the Uruguay join to form the Rio de la Plata estuary, before reaching the Atlantic<br />Regionally important rivers are the Atuel and Mendoza in the homonymous province, the Chubut in Patagonia, the Rio Grande in Jujuy and the San Francisco River in Salta<br />
  4. 4. Geography… Cont’d<br />Several lakes include Argentino and Viedma in Santa Cruz, Nahuel Huapi between Rio Negro and Neuquén, Fagnano in Tierra del Fuego, and Colhue Huapi and Musters in Chubut<br />Lake Buenos Aries and O’Higgins/San Martin Lake are shared the Chile<br />Mar Chiquita, Cordoba, is the largest salt water lake in the country<br />Generally temperature climate ranges from subtropical in the north to sub polar in the far south<br />The north characterized by very hot, humid summers with drier winters, and is subject to periodic droughts<br />Central Argentina has hot summers with thunderstorms (western Argentina produces some of the world’s largest hail), and cool winters<br />The southern regions have warm summers and cold winters with heavy snowfall, especially in mountainous zones<br />
  5. 5. People…<br />Argentina ranks third in South America in total population and 33rd globally<br />Population density is of 15 persons per square kilometer of land area, well below the world average of 50 persons<br />The median age is approximately 30 years and life expectancy at birth is 76.7 years<br />Argentina is considered a country of immigrants<br />Most Argentines are descended from colonial-era settlers, and 19th and 20th century immigrants from Europe<br />86.4% of Argentina’s population self-identify as being of European decent<br />An estimated 8% of the population is Mestizo and 4% of Argentines are of Arab or Asian heritage<br />
  6. 6. People… Cont’d<br />The constitution guarantees freedom of religion but also requires the government to support Roman Catholicism economically<br />According to the World Christian Database Argentines are: 92.1% Christian, 3.1% agnostic, 1.9% Muslim, 1.3% Jewish, 0.9% atheist, and 0.9% Buddhist and others<br />Argentine Christians are mostly Roman Catholic with estimates for the number of Catholics varying from 70% to 90% of the population<br />Argentina has the largest Jewish population of any country in Latin America<br />The de facto official language of Argentina is Spanish, usually called castellano by Argentines<br />
  7. 7. People… cont’d<br />The most prevalent dialect is Rioplatense, whose speakers are primarily located in the Rio de la Plate basin<br />Italian and other European immigrants influenced Lunfardo, the slang spoken in the Rio de la Plata region, permeating the vernacular vocabulary of other regions as well<br />Argentina is highly urbanized<br />The population is unequally distributed amongst provinces: about 60% live in the Pampa region, including 15 million people in Buenos Aires province<br />Most European immigrants settles in the cities<br />Many small towns founded along the expanding railway system<br />Argentine cities were originally built in a colonial Spanish grid style and many still retain this general layout, which is known as a damero (checkerboard)<br />
  8. 8. History…<br />The earliest evidence of humans in Argentina dates from 11,000 BC and was found in Patagonia<br />European explorers arrived in 1516; Spain established the Viceroyalty of Peru in 1542, encompassing all its holdings in South America<br />Their first settlement in modern Argentina was the Fort of Sancti Spiritu established in 1527 next to the Paraná River<br />Buenos Aires, a permanent colony, was established in 1536 but was destroyed by natives<br />The area which encompassed much of the territory that would later become Argentina was largely a territory of Spanish immigrants and their descendants (known as criollos), mestizos, native cultures, and descendants of African slaves<br />War for independence ensued in the former Viceroyalty, its regions divided between patriots and royalists<br />
  9. 9. History… Cont’d<br />The cities of present-day Argentina would align with the independents after 1811, the other regions would follow differing paths: Paraguay secede, declaring its independence from Spain 1811 and from Argentina in 1842<br />Upper Peru was disputed with the royalists from Peru until it declared independence as Bolivia in 1824<br />Internal conflicts would cause political instability within the patriots<br />In 1813 an Assembly convened to declare independence but it could not do so due to political disputes<br />The military campaign became the responsibility of Jose de San Martin, who led an army across the Andes in 1817 and defeated the Chilean royalists<br />A new constitution was enacted in 1826, during the War with Brazil, when Bernardino Rivadavia was elected the first President of Argentina<br />This constitution was soon rejected by the provinces, due to its Centralist bias, and Rivadavia resigned shortly after; The provinces then reorganized themselves as the Argentine Confederation, a loose confederation of provinces that lacked a common head of state<br />
  10. 10. History… Cont’d<br />After 1875 a wave of foreign investment and immigration from Europe led to the strengthening of a cohesive state, the development of modern agriculture and to a near-reinvention of Argentine society and economy<br />Argentina’s economy developed from 1875 onwards with a surge of agricultural exports, as well European investment and immigration<br />This boom ended 1930, after which the economy began to slowly lose ground<br />Argentina increased in prosperity and prominence between 1880 and 1929 and emerged as one of the ten richest countries in the world, benefiting from agricultural export-led economy as well as British and French investment<br />The Argentine Constitution of 1853 mandates a separation of powers into executive, legislative, and judicial branches at the national and provincial level<br />Executive power resides in the President and the cabinet<br />
  11. 11. Sources…<br />"Argentina." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 25 July 2011. <>.<br />