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Humane teaching methods
within veterinary and other biomedical education
ANDREW KNIGHT
DipECAWBM (AWSEL), DACAW,
PhD, MANZ...
First year cell biology labFirst year cell biology lab
““What youWhat you’’ve seen so far is only the tip of theve seen so...
Humane teaching methodsHumane teaching methods
• high quality videos/computer simulations
• ‘ethically-sourced cadavers’
•...
Computer simulations: dissectionsComputer simulations: dissections
www.cvmbs.colostate.edu/vetneuro/VCA3/vca.html
‘Face’
- Prodissector
www.DigitalFrog.com
Ethically-sourced cadaversEthically-sourced cadavers
Canine vascular cast of the liver/gall bladder
Canine tracheobroncheal cast
Computer simulations:Computer simulations: experimentsexperiments
ModelsModels
Clinical skills training mannequinsClinical skills training mannequins
‘‘AlternativeAlternative’’
veterinary surgical trainingveterinary surgical training
1. Knot-tying boards, plastic organs a...
Surgical simulators: DASIESurgical simulators: DASIE
Surgical simulatorsSurgical simulators
Alternative surgical trainingAlternative surgical training
Alternative Veterinary SurgicalAlternative Veterinary Surgical
Program, 2000Program, 2000
 External clinical experience i...
 Simulated abdominal surgeries on aSimulated abdominal surgeries on a ““DASIEDASIE”” (Dog(Dog
Abdominal Surrogate for Ins...
Outcomes:Outcomes:
Did not participate as surgeon or assistant surgeon in aDid not participate as surgeon or assistant sur...
 DepthDepth:: Jointly we sterilised 45 dogs and cats, includingJointly we sterilised 45 dogs and cats, including
21 spays...
Effectiveness of humane teaching methodsEffectiveness of humane teaching methods
www.HumaneLearning.info,
‘Published paper...
ResultsResults
 1212 papers published from 1989 to 2006 describedpapers published from 1989 to 2006 described 1111
distin...
Surgical skills assessedSurgical skills assessed
 psychomotor (all)
 ligation (Griffon et al. 2000, Olsen et al. 1996)
...
Superior learning outcome:Superior learning outcome:
fluid hemostasis modelfluid hemostasis model
 At least as effective ...
Equivalent learning outcomesEquivalent learning outcomes
5 studies demonstrated equivalent learning outcomes
using humane ...
 Greenfield et al. (1994, 1995) demonstrated a similar
result using soft tissue organ models.
 White et al. (1992) found...
Inferior learning outcome:Inferior learning outcome:
gastrotomy hollow organ modelgastrotomy hollow organ model
Two groups...
 No significant difference in overall gastrotomy closure
technique
 the students performing the procedure for a second t...
Short and long-termShort and long-term
learning outcomeslearning outcomes
 Most studies examined short-term learning outc...
 No significant difference in:
 Abilities to perform common surgical, medical and
diagnostic procedures
 attitudes towa...
Non-surgical disciplinesNon-surgical disciplines
Cardiovascular physiology
more efficient learning using interactive video...
Bovine rectal palpation
learnt more effectively using a haptic (virtual reality-
based) teaching tool (Baillie et al., 200...
Related non-veterinary facultiesRelated non-veterinary faculties
 14 studies: undergraduate biology, medical, nursing,
ph...
Comparative studiesComparative studies
of student performance: all disciplinesof student performance: all disciplines
www....
Impact of chronologyImpact of chronology
on comparative studieson comparative studies
 Of the 11 distinct studies compari...
29 studies of veterinary students29 studies of veterinary students notnot involving comparisonsinvolving comparisons
with ...
 time and cost savingstime and cost savings
 repeatability &repeatability & flexibility of useflexibility of use
 savin...
Ethical ConsiderationsEthical Considerations
 Numbers of animals used:Numbers of animals used: Close to six millionClose ...
 Biological supply companiesBiological supply companies::
 Inhumane killing practicesInhumane killing practices
 Inject...
Student experiencesStudent experiences
of harmful animal useof harmful animal use
University of Illinois veterinary studen...
“The stress of the whole ordeal was worth nothing in the end. I
studied from these books, not from my lab experience.”
“Du...
Veterinary associations
survey 2005 - 2006
 World Veterinary Association (WVA)
 American Veterinary Medical Association ...
Animal use practices
1. ‘Battery’ cages to house laying hens
2. Small crates to house ‘veal’ calves
3. Gestation crates to...
Outcomes
 Official veterinary positions lagged behind those of
the general public on important animal use issues:
 close...
A key cause:
veterinary student education
The importance of educating veterinary students
about animal welfare issues and ...
‘‘Hidden curriculumHidden curriculum’’ endorsingendorsing
harmful animal useharmful animal use
 Anatomy (dissection, ofte...
Attitudinal impactsAttitudinal impacts
Majority of veterinary students receive minimal or no
formal education in animal we...
Psychological impactsPsychological impacts
 Negative underlying message about intrinsic value of animals’
lives
 Stress ...
Veterinary student studies
 Decreasing awareness of veterinary students of animal
sentience (specifically, the hunger, pa...
Desensitisation-related phenomena
Psychological adaptations, enabling previously
caring students to withstand psychologica...
As well as directly saving substantial numbers of animal
lives within veterinary curricula, the use of humane
teaching met...
Conflict with studentsConflict with students
Legislative issues
E.g. Safia Rubaii, University of Colorado School of
Medici...
ConclusionsConclusions
Well-designed humane alternatives usually perform
at least as well as methods that rely upon harmfu...
Alternatives for various academic disciplines:
 From Guinea Pig to Computer Mouse: Alternative Methods
for a Progressive,...
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education
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The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education

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Animal use resulting in harm or death has historically played an integral role in veterinary education, in disciplines such as surgery, physiology, biochemistry, anatomy, pharmacology, and parasitology. However, the last decade has seen a rapid increase in the availability of non-harmful alternatives, such as computer simulations, high quality videos, ‘ethically-sourced cadavers’ such as those from animals euthanized for medical reasons, preserved specimens, models and surgical simulators, non-invasive self-experimentation and supervised clinical experiences. However, veterinary students seeking to use such methods often face strong opposition from faculty members, who usually cite concerns about their teaching efficacy. Consequently, this presentation reviews educational studies comparing learning outcomes of veterinary students generated by non-harmful teaching methods with those achieved by harmful animal use.

Of eleven studies published from 1989 to 2006, nine assessed surgical training—historically the discipline involving greatest harmful animal use. 45.5% (5/11) demonstrated superior learning outcomes using more humane alternatives. 45.5% (5/11) demonstrated equivalent learning outcomes, and only one study (9.1%) demonstrated inferior learning outcomes using humane alternatives. Twenty nine additional studies in which comparison with harmful animal use did not occur illustrated other benefits of humane teaching methods in veterinary education, namely; time and cost savings, increased repeatability and flexibility of use, customization of the laboratory experience, more active learning, facilitation of autonomous and life-long learning, improved attitudes towards computers and alternatives to animal use, and increased employer perception of computer literacy.

The results indicate that veterinary educators can best serve their students and animals, while minimizing financial and time burdens upon their faculties, by introducing well-designed teaching methods not reliant upon harmful animal use.

Further info: www.HumaneLearning.info.

The potential of humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education

  1. 1. Humane teaching methods within veterinary and other biomedical education ANDREW KNIGHT DipECAWBM (AWSEL), DACAW, PhD, MANZCVS, MRCVS, SFHEA
  2. 2. First year cell biology labFirst year cell biology lab ““What youWhat you’’ve seen so far is only the tip of theve seen so far is only the tip of the iceberg compared to what you will have to doiceberg compared to what you will have to do to animals later in the veterinary course.to animals later in the veterinary course. Perhaps you should re-think your choice ofPerhaps you should re-think your choice of career…career…””
  3. 3. Humane teaching methodsHumane teaching methods • high quality videos/computer simulations • ‘ethically-sourced cadavers’ • preserved specimens • non-invasive self-experimentation • clinical/surgical skills models and simulators • supervised clinical/surgical experiences
  4. 4. Computer simulations: dissectionsComputer simulations: dissections
  5. 5. www.cvmbs.colostate.edu/vetneuro/VCA3/vca.html
  6. 6. ‘Face’ - Prodissector
  7. 7. www.DigitalFrog.com
  8. 8. Ethically-sourced cadaversEthically-sourced cadavers
  9. 9. Canine vascular cast of the liver/gall bladder
  10. 10. Canine tracheobroncheal cast
  11. 11. Computer simulations:Computer simulations: experimentsexperiments
  12. 12. ModelsModels
  13. 13. Clinical skills training mannequinsClinical skills training mannequins
  14. 14. ‘‘AlternativeAlternative’’ veterinary surgical trainingveterinary surgical training 1. Knot-tying boards, plastic organs and similar models: basic manual skills such as suturing and instrument handling 2. Ethically-sourced cadavers: simulated surgery 3. Real patients: observing, assisting with, and then performing beneficial surgery under close supervision (e.g. shelter animal neutering programs)
  15. 15. Surgical simulators: DASIESurgical simulators: DASIE
  16. 16. Surgical simulatorsSurgical simulators
  17. 17. Alternative surgical trainingAlternative surgical training
  18. 18. Alternative Veterinary SurgicalAlternative Veterinary Surgical Program, 2000Program, 2000  External clinical experience in private clinics or animalExternal clinical experience in private clinics or animal shelters assisting with or participating in surgery andshelters assisting with or participating in surgery and anaesthesia.anaesthesia.  Sterilisations of real patients, e.g., from animalSterilisations of real patients, e.g., from animal shelters, at Murdoch.shelters, at Murdoch.  Attendance at all of the terminal surgical laboratoriesAttendance at all of the terminal surgical laboratories as observers.as observers.
  19. 19.  Simulated abdominal surgeries on aSimulated abdominal surgeries on a ““DASIEDASIE”” (Dog(Dog Abdominal Surrogate for Instructional Exercises).Abdominal Surrogate for Instructional Exercises).  Ethically-sourced cadaver surgery: abdominal andEthically-sourced cadaver surgery: abdominal and orthopaedic surgeries.orthopaedic surgeries.
  20. 20. Outcomes:Outcomes: Did not participate as surgeon or assistant surgeon in aDid not participate as surgeon or assistant surgeon in a total oftotal of at mostat most 1313 scheduled surgeriesscheduled surgeries But… performed or assisted with a total ofBut… performed or assisted with a total of at leastat least 6262 additional surgeriesadditional surgeries ((not including the abdominal surgeries Inot including the abdominal surgeries I performed on aperformed on a ““DASIEDASIE”” surgical simulator).surgical simulator). Surgeries performed under supervision, mostly in privateSurgeries performed under supervision, mostly in private practice.practice.
  21. 21.  DepthDepth:: Jointly we sterilised 45 dogs and cats, includingJointly we sterilised 45 dogs and cats, including 21 spays.21 spays.  BreadthBreadth:: We also participated in a range of otherWe also participated in a range of other surgeries as well, e.g., umbilical hernia repair, cruciatesurgeries as well, e.g., umbilical hernia repair, cruciate ligament repair, cutaneous polyp and lump excisions,ligament repair, cutaneous polyp and lump excisions, aural haematoma excision, abdominal surgeriesaural haematoma excision, abdominal surgeries (exploratory laparotomy, enterotomy, enterectomy,(exploratory laparotomy, enterotomy, enterectomy, partial splenectomy, spay), orthopaedic surgeriespartial splenectomy, spay), orthopaedic surgeries (trochanteric osteotomy, stifle arthrotomy).(trochanteric osteotomy, stifle arthrotomy).  Similar depth and breadth of anaesthetic experience.Similar depth and breadth of anaesthetic experience.
  22. 22. Effectiveness of humane teaching methodsEffectiveness of humane teaching methods www.HumaneLearning.info, ‘Published papers, Comparative.’
  23. 23. ResultsResults  1212 papers published from 1989 to 2006 describedpapers published from 1989 to 2006 described 1111 distinct studies of veterinary studentsdistinct studies of veterinary students::  9 assessed surgical training — historically the9 assessed surgical training — historically the discipline involving greatest harmful animal use.discipline involving greatest harmful animal use. Humane method:Humane method: SuperiorSuperior EquivalentEquivalent InferiorInferior 45.5% (5/11)45.5% (5/11) 45.5% (5/11)45.5% (5/11) 9.1% (1/11)9.1% (1/11)
  24. 24. Surgical skills assessedSurgical skills assessed  psychomotor (all)  ligation (Griffon et al. 2000, Olsen et al. 1996)  intestinal anastomoses and celiotomy closures (Carpenter et al., 1991)  gastrotomy closures (Smeak et al., 1994)  ovariohysterectomies (Griffon et al., 2000)
  25. 25. Superior learning outcome:Superior learning outcome: fluid hemostasis modelfluid hemostasis model  At least as effective as a live dog splenectomy for teaching blood vessel ligation and division.  students completed their ligatures more quickly  fewer errors  their ligatures were tighter  superior instrument grip Students' initial scepticism regarding the use of alternatives for learning these surgical skills was dramatically altered. (Olsen et al., 1996)
  26. 26. Equivalent learning outcomesEquivalent learning outcomes 5 studies demonstrated equivalent learning outcomes using humane alternatives:  Carpenter et al. (1991) and Bauer et al. (1992) demonstrated equivalent surgical skill acquisition using cadavers as the humane option.
  27. 27.  Greenfield et al. (1994, 1995) demonstrated a similar result using soft tissue organ models.  White et al. (1992) found that veterinary students from an alternative surgical laboratory program had surgical skills equivalent to those with a standard laboratory experience, after some initial hesitancy of the alternative students during their first live animal surgery.
  28. 28. Inferior learning outcome:Inferior learning outcome: gastrotomy hollow organ modelgastrotomy hollow organ model Two groups of 20 veterinary students:  one group practiced using a hollow organ model  the other practiced using a live animal Live animal gastrotomy skills later assessed (in subsequent laboratories)
  29. 29.  No significant difference in overall gastrotomy closure technique  the students performing the procedure for a second time on a live animal were significantly quicker However, the plastic model used was deficient, being more fragile and stiff than living gastric tissue, with suture pull-through occurring despite appropriate technique and tension (Smeak et al., 1994).
  30. 30. Short and long-termShort and long-term learning outcomeslearning outcomes  Most studies examined short-term learning outcomes  Pavletic et al. (1994) used employer questionnaires at the time of hiring and one year later to compare the skills of 12 new graduates from the Tufts University veterinary class of 1990, who had participated in an alternative small animal medical and surgical procedures course, with the skills of 36 of their conventionally-trained counterparts
  31. 31.  No significant difference in:  Abilities to perform common surgical, medical and diagnostic procedures  attitudes towards performing orthopedic or soft tissue surgery  confidence in performing the listed procedures  ability to perform them unassisted
  32. 32. Non-surgical disciplinesNon-surgical disciplines Cardiovascular physiology more efficient learning using interactive videodisc simulations (Fawver et al., 1990). Microbiology more active learning with greater autonomy, using interactive databases containing digital images, movies and sounds (Whithear et al., 1994).
  33. 33. Bovine rectal palpation learnt more effectively using a haptic (virtual reality- based) teaching tool (Baillie et al., 2005a, 2005b). Equine nasogastric intubation learnt more effectively (superior knowledge, practical skill and confidence) using a CD-ROM (Abutarbush et al. 2006).
  34. 34. Related non-veterinary facultiesRelated non-veterinary faculties  14 studies: undergraduate biology, medical, nursing, pharmacology, physiology and psychology students Humane method:Humane method: SuperiorSuperior EquivalentEquivalent InferiorInferior 35.7% (5/14)35.7% (5/14) 57.1% (8/14)57.1% (8/14) 7.1% (1/14)7.1% (1/14)
  35. 35. Comparative studiesComparative studies of student performance: all disciplinesof student performance: all disciplines www.HumaneLearning.info, ‘Published papers, comparative.’ At least 33 papers sourced from the biomedical andAt least 33 papers sourced from the biomedical and educational literature, covering all educational levels andeducational literature, covering all educational levels and disciplines, describe studies that have compared the abilitydisciplines, describe studies that have compared the ability of humane alternatives to impart knowledge or clinical orof humane alternatives to impart knowledge or clinical or surgical skillssurgical skills Humane method:Humane method: SuperiorSuperior EquivalentEquivalent InferiorInferior 39.4% (13/33)39.4% (13/33) 51.5% (17/33)51.5% (17/33) 9.1% (3/33)9.1% (3/33)
  36. 36. Impact of chronologyImpact of chronology on comparative studieson comparative studies  Of the 11 distinct studies comparing veterinaryOf the 11 distinct studies comparing veterinary student learning outcomes, eight were more than astudent learning outcomes, eight were more than a decade old at the time of review (published prior todecade old at the time of review (published prior to 1996)1996)  Of the 21 papers describing non-veterinary studentOf the 21 papers describing non-veterinary student learning outcomes, 18 were more than a decade oldlearning outcomes, 18 were more than a decade old
  37. 37. 29 studies of veterinary students29 studies of veterinary students notnot involving comparisonsinvolving comparisons with harmful animal usewith harmful animal use Additional advantagesAdditional advantages of humane alternativesof humane alternatives
  38. 38.  time and cost savingstime and cost savings  repeatability &repeatability & flexibility of useflexibility of use  savings of substantial numbers of animal livessavings of substantial numbers of animal lives  increased compliance with legislative and Code of Practiceincreased compliance with legislative and Code of Practice requirements about using alternatives to animalsrequirements about using alternatives to animals  decreased student exposure to toxic chemicals used todecreased student exposure to toxic chemicals used to preserve dissection specimens, with consequent risks ofpreserve dissection specimens, with consequent risks of adverse health effects and potential liabilityadverse health effects and potential liability  decreased potential for conflict with students unwilling to harmdecreased potential for conflict with students unwilling to harm animals during their educationanimals during their education Key advantagesKey advantages
  39. 39. Ethical ConsiderationsEthical Considerations  Numbers of animals used:Numbers of animals used: Close to six millionClose to six million vertebrates dissected annually in U.S. high schools alonevertebrates dissected annually in U.S. high schools alone  Sources:Sources: Biological supply companies, Class B dealersBiological supply companies, Class B dealers (licensed animal brokers) - have used animal shelters,(licensed animal brokers) - have used animal shelters, strays,strays, "free to good home""free to good home" adsads
  40. 40.  Biological supply companiesBiological supply companies::  Inhumane killing practicesInhumane killing practices  Injection of still-living animals with formaldehyde-Injection of still-living animals with formaldehyde- based preservativesbased preservatives  Numerous violations of the federal Animal WelfareNumerous violations of the federal Animal Welfare ActAct  Adverse environmental impacts:Adverse environmental impacts: E.g., frogE.g., frog populationspopulations
  41. 41. Student experiencesStudent experiences of harmful animal useof harmful animal use University of Illinois veterinary students, 1999:University of Illinois veterinary students, 1999: "It was difficult to get any great understanding of physiology because we worried most of the time about not having our dog bleed to death or die of anesthetic overdose before the experiment was over. In the end, what I learned about physiology (cardiology and respiratory physiology) I taught myself from the notes." “Most of us were too preoccupied with having to kill the dog that physiology wasn't concentrated on…” “Nothing that was covered in those labs could not have been learned from a demo, or a video. The guilt I felt for participating outweighed all beneficial aspects of the experience.”
  42. 42. “The stress of the whole ordeal was worth nothing in the end. I studied from these books, not from my lab experience.” “During one lab, my group accidentally killed our dog with anesthesia overdose because of lack of experience and the impatient ill-given advice of a professor. The experience overshadowed the benefit gained by the first lab.” Conclusions: 59 % believed the non-survival animal physiology labs were not "worth the resources used". Only 20 % felt they gained "great benefit" in their understanding of physiology from the laboratories.
  43. 43. Veterinary associations survey 2005 - 2006  World Veterinary Association (WVA)  American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA)  British Veterinary Association (BVA)  New Zealand Veterinary Association (NZVA)  Australian Veterinary Association (AVA)
  44. 44. Animal use practices 1. ‘Battery’ cages to house laying hens 2. Small crates to house ‘veal’ calves 3. Gestation crates to house pregnant sows 4. Cosmetic tail docking of dogs 5. The harmful use of animals in scientific research, toxicity testing and education
  45. 45. Outcomes  Official veterinary positions lagged behind those of the general public on important animal use issues:  close confinement of laying hens in battery cages  of veal calves in small crates  of pregnant sows in gestation crates  Only practice condemned by most people and opposed by most veterinary associations:  cosmetic tail docking of dogs (although the AVMA did not take a firm stance against this)
  46. 46. A key cause: veterinary student education The importance of educating veterinary students about animal welfare issues and of assisting their development of critical reasoning skills is increasingly recognized However, the proportion of veterinary students receiving such formal education remains small
  47. 47. ‘‘Hidden curriculumHidden curriculum’’ endorsingendorsing harmful animal useharmful animal use  Anatomy (dissection, often of purpose-killed animals or animals from ethically-debatable sources)  Physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology (‘demonstration’ experiments on living animals, with animals usually killed during or after the experiment)  ‘Terminal’ surgical and anaesthetic laboratories
  48. 48. Attitudinal impactsAttitudinal impacts Majority of veterinary students receive minimal or no formal education in animal welfare issues or critical reasoning, and are directly required to harm and kill animals during their education Unspoken messages:  Harming and killing healthy animals is not only condoned, but is required to become a veterinarian  Animal welfare concerns are subservient to human interests of debatable merit
  49. 49. Psychological impactsPsychological impacts  Negative underlying message about intrinsic value of animals’ lives  Stress may result in impairment of cognitive abilities, decreased learning, and loss of interest in the sciences  Desensitization to suffering and killing  Diminished capacity for compassion and ethical decision making
  50. 50. Veterinary student studies  Decreasing awareness of veterinary students of animal sentience (specifically, the hunger, pain, fear and boredom of dogs, cats and cows) over the duration of their veterinary courses (Paul and Podberscek 2000)  Decreased likelihood of fourth year students to provide analgesia when compared to second or third year students (Hellyer et al. 1999)  Inhibition of normal development of moral reasoning ability during the four years of veterinary school (Self et al. 1991)
  51. 51. Desensitisation-related phenomena Psychological adaptations, enabling previously caring students to withstand psychological stresses, resulting from requirements to harm and kill sentient animals in the absence of overwhelming necessity
  52. 52. As well as directly saving substantial numbers of animal lives within veterinary curricula, the use of humane teaching methods are more likely to result in veterinary graduates with higher animal welfare standards, potentially benefiting their future patients. Additionally, these veterinarians are more likely to become leaders, rather than followers, of evolving social standards on animal welfare, as expected by society Therefore…
  53. 53. Conflict with studentsConflict with students Legislative issues E.g. Safia Rubaii, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 1995 Examples of US states with student choice legislation or policies: California, Florida, Illinois, Louisiana, Maine, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island. Publicity issues
  54. 54. ConclusionsConclusions Well-designed humane alternatives usually perform at least as well as methods that rely upon harmful animal use, in some cases achieving superior learning outcomes. Educators can best serve their students and animals, and can minimize financial and time burdens, by introducing well-designed, humane teaching methodologies
  55. 55. Alternatives for various academic disciplines:  From Guinea Pig to Computer Mouse: Alternative Methods for a Progressive, Humane Education www.InterNICHE.org  www.clive.ed.ac.uk Alternatives libraries, free on-line computer simulations, comprehensive alternatives databases, academic reviews of leading alternatives, and hundreds of educational studies of alternatives organized by discipline:  www.HumaneLearning.info  www.InterNICHE.org  www.EURCA.org Further informationFurther information

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