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Human resource planning

  1. 1. CAREER CHALLRNGETim Huggins is the different from employees disagreed concocted in the jobnew director of human responses from their and claimed that their analysis.resources of Sprowl supervisors jobs were complicated Tim was worried thatManufacturing, a about these jobs. and constrained by the job analysisdivision of The fact that limited resources.They program was gettingthe MBTI Corporation. supervisors viewed the complained ‘ that work totally out of hand. HeTim wanted to start a jobs differently from areas were hot, stuffy, had to dojob analysis program those doing the work and uncomfortable. something about it.immediately. Six fueled Tim’s desire to These disagreements Everyone was gettingweeks after he took do a job analysis. He soon E became the up in arms over aover; job analysis wanted to study and basis for some a open program Tim felt wasquestionnaires (six specifically define the hostility between necessary.pages each) were given jobs so that supervisors and Should a manager liketo employees. The misunderstandings, workers. Tim, who knows a lotresults were puzzling. arguments, and false Finally, Nick Mannis, about HRM, but whoResponses from e the expectations could be machinist, confronted was notoperating employees kept to a minimum. a supervisor, Rog trained in the specifics(machinists, lift The supervisors listed Wilkes, and threatened of job analysis,operators, job duties as simple to punch him over the undertake this kind oftechnicians, and routine. The “lies” Rog and other program?draftspeople, operating supervisors hadand mechanics) werequiteOrganizations have evolved because the overall mission and objectives of most institutions are too largefor any single person to accomplish. Consequently, the organization must have a systematic way todetermine which employees are expected to perform a particular function or task that must heaccomplished. The cornerstone of the organization is, therefore, the set of jobs performed by itsemployees. These jobs, in turn, provide the mechanism for coordinating and linking the various activitiesof the organization that are necessary for success. As a result, studying and understanding jobs throughthe process known as job analysis is a vital part of any HRM program.job analysis provides answers to questions such as these:How much time is taken to complete important tasks?Which tasks are grouped together and considered a job?How can a job be designed or structured so that the employee’s performance can he enhanced?What kinds of behaviors are needed to perform the job?What kind of person (in terms of traits and experience) is best suited for the job?How can the information acquired by a job analysis be used in thedevelopment of HRM programs? This chapter claries the contributions made by job analysis to an organization’s HRM programand specific activities. Furthermore, the careful planning needed and the various techniques of a obanalysis program are highlighted. Finally,
  2. 2. the importance of job analysis in the design of jobs is discussed. The chapter showsthat job analysis is a necessary part of HRM and in many respects is the foundationupon which all other 1-IRM activities must he constructed. As can be seen in thediagnostic model (see Exhibit 6—1), the nature of the work to be performed is oneof the fundamental inputs into all major HRM functions. This is another way ofsaying that how workers’ responsibilities and duties are segmented helps to shapeand determine virtually all other facets of organizational functioning. As such,understanding exactly what constitutes any particular job is critical to developingHRM activities that support the organization’s mission.Before considering the process and techniques involved in job analysis, on should THE VOCABULARYlearn the language of job analysis. Although many of these terms are often used OF JOP ANALYSISinterchangeably by people who are unfamiliar with job analysis, the expert will Usethem more precisely in order to avoid confusion and misinterpretation. Precision inthe use of these terms is, in fact, required by federal and state legislation. it is therefore important for the HR manager to use each of them in a way that is consistent with such legislation.
  3. 3. The following definitions are consistent with those provided by the U.S. Employment Service and the U.S. Office of Personnel Management:2 Job analysis. A purposeful, systematic process for collecting information on the important work-related aspects of a job.3 Job description. The principal product of a job analysis. It represents a written summary of the job as an identifiable organizational unit. Job specification. A written explanation of the knowledge, skills, abilities, traits, and other characteristics (KSAOs) necessary for effective performance on a given job. Tasks. Coordinated and aggregated series of work elements used to produce an output (e.g., a unit of production or service to a client). Position. Consists of the responsibilities and duties performed by an individual. There are as many positions in an organization as there are employees. Job. Group of positions that are similar in their duties, such as computer programmer or compensation specialist Job family. Group of two or more jobs that have similar duties.THE STEPS IN The 1ob analysis process involves a number of steps, which are outlined in ExhibitJOP ANALYSIS 6—2. As it appears in the exhibit, the process assumes that the job analysis is being conducted in an ongoing organization; in other words, an organization that is already in operation as opposed to a new venture. Step I provides a broad view of how each job fits into the total fabric of the organization. Organization charts and process charts (discussed later) are used to complete step I. Step 2 encourages those involved to determihe how the job analysis and job design information will be used. This step is further explained in the next section. Since it is usually too costly and time-consuming to analyze every job, a representative sample of jobs needs to be selected. In step 3, jobs that are to he analyzed are selected. Step 4 involves the use of acceptable job analysis techniques. The techniques are used to collect data on the characteristics of the job, the required behaviors, and the characteristics an employee needs to perform the job. The information collected in step 4 is then used in step 5 to develop a job description. Next, in step 6, a job specification is prepared. The knowledge and data collected in steps 1 through 6 are used as the foundation for virtually every other HRM activity. As shown in Exhibit 6—2, these include activities such as recruitment, selection, training, performance evaluation, and compensation. The information gathered during job analysis is essential to each of these. As is also shown in the exhibit, the information gathered is used in job design and redesign, which are discussed in detail later in this chapter. Job analysis provides information necessary for organizing work in ways that allow employees to he both productive and satisfied. Finally, information from job analysis can be used in an organization’s follow—up evaluations of its job design. At this step, it is important for an organization to evaluate its efforts and determine whether the goals of productivity and satisfaction are in fact being achieved.
  4. 4. THE USES OFHR managers, specialists, and managers in general know that job analysis has manyJOP ANALYSIS Tuses. Some of these individuals now believe that there is no longer even a choice A aboutwhether job analysis should be conducted. Administrative guidelines accompanyingvarious civil rights and EEO laws and judicial recommendations are clear. The questionhas become how to conduct a legally defensible job analysis rather than whether toconduct such an analysis at all.5 In terms of staffing and selection activities, job analysisplays an important role in the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures(1978), a set of policies designed to minimize or prevent workplace discriminationpractices. The UGESP emphasizes that job analysis should be used when validating orassessing the accuracy of organizational selection procedures. In addition, job analysis iscritical to assessments of discrimination under most employment-related laws, includingthe Civil Rights Act of 1991 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Jobanalysis is linked with these discrimination laws through rulings from numerous SupremeCourt decisions. The quality of job analysis conducted by an organization is frequently aprimary determinant of whether it has acted properly. On the basis of these court decisions, a good job analysis must provide thefollowing if it is to be viewed favorably: 1. It should yield a thorough, clear job description. 2. The frequency and importance of task behaviors should be assessed. 3. It must allow for an accurate assessment of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) required by the job. 4. It must yield information about the relationship between job duties and these KSAOs. That is, it must clearly determine which KSAOs are important for each job duty. In addition to helping organizations satisfy their legal requirements, job analysis is closely tied to HRM programs and activities. It is used extensively in each of the following areas:
  5. 5. 1. Recruitment and selection. job analysis information helps recruiters seek and find the right persons for the organization. And, to hire the right person, selection testing must assess the most critical skills and abilities needed to perform a jo6. This information comes from job analysis. HRMEMO 2. Training and career development. Knowing the skills necessary for jobs is essential to building effective training programs. Moreover helping people to Line managers, busy with move efficiently from one career stage to another can only be accomplished with their day-to-day information from job analysis. responsibilities, may not always be able to find 3. Compensation. Compensation is usually tied to the duties and time to conduct job responsibilities of a job. Thus, proper compensation demands accurate analyses. In cases like assessments of what various jobs entail. these, HR managers will 4. Strategic planning. More and more, managers are beginning to realize that need to convince line job analysis is another important tool in an organization’s overall strategic managers that their cooperation is critical. planning efforts. Effective job analysis can help organizations to change, eliminate, or otherwise restructure work and work flow processes to meet the changing demands of uncertain environments. It should be obvious from this list that the potential uses of job analysis cover the entire domain of HRM activities. It is, in fact, difficult to imagine how an organization could effectively hire, train, appraise, compensate, or utilize its human resources without the kinds of information derived from job analysis. But the value of job analysis doesn’t end with HRM. Managers involved in virtually all aspects of planning, organizing, controlling, and directing in the organization also benefit from job analysis information.WHO SHOULD The steps spelled out in Exhibit 6—2 suggest that care and planning are important features ofCONDUCT THE any job analysis. Part of that planning should involve carefully choosing the people who willJOP ANALYSIS? conduct the analysis. If an organization has only an occasional need for job analysis information, it may hire a temporary job analyst from outside. Other organizations will have job analysis experts employed full-time. Still other organizations will use supervisors, job incumbents, or some combination of these to collect job analysis information. Each of these choices has strengths and weaknesses. For example, job incumbents are a good source of information about what work is actually being done rather than what work is supposed to be done. In addition, involving incumbents in the job analysis process might increase their acceptance of any work changes stemming from the results of the analysis. On the other hand, job analysis should describe the work activities of a job independent of any personal attributes of a given job incumbent. Because incumbents tend to exaggerate the responsibilities and importance of their work, this objectivity might be difficult to achieve when incumbents conduct the job analysis. Thus, the choice of who should analyze a job depends on many factors, including the location and complexity of the jobs to be analyzed, how receptive incumbents might be to an external analyst, and the ultimate intended purpose of the results of the analysis.9 Regardless of who collects the information, the individuals should thoroughly understand people, jobs, aid the total organizational system. They should also have considerable knowledge about how work is expected to flow within the organization.
  6. 6. HR JOURNAL REENGINEERING: THE STRATEGIC JOB ANALYSIS CHALLENGS A 1990 Harvard Business Review article entitled, company was able to eliminate 100 “Reengineering Work: Don’t Automate, Obliterate: unnecessary field office positions. introduced managers to the concept of reengineering. Similar efforts to streamline operations According to its author, Michael Hammer, the heart of and make bureaucracy more efficient reengineering is the need for organizations to break and less cumbersome are promised by away Toyota Motor Corporation, the world’s from their traditional rules about work and from the fourth largest automobile manufacturer assumptions that underlie how that work is efficiently with 2001 sales of U.S.$ 106 billion and accomplished. This requires a complete redesign of 215,000 employees. The initiative existing work into jobs that previously didn’t exist. focuses on creating and implementing a Specifically, new global standard for manufacturing reengineering designs jobs around outcomes rather than which will attempt to realize new tasks .This means that a single individual will be synergies between the company’s IT and responsible for performing all aspects of a process rather production systems. The project will be than a limited subset of tasks. aimed at Toyota’s North Mutual Benefit Life Insurance implemented a complete American parts supply network that reengineering program several years ago. Their job includes 1,500 Lexus and Toyota dealers analyses and its 450 suppliers. In order to make indicated that the application process included 30 this project a reality, the company will separate steps that spanned five different departments. need to redesign several existing jobs to Typical support these new initiatives. Job turnaround time was between 5 and 25 days, with most analysis is likely to play an important of the time spent passing the application between role in this change process. departments. In response to this inefficiency, the company created a new job titled case manager. A case manager became responsible for the entire application Sources: Michael Hammer (November—December 2001), “The New Business Agenda Strategy & process for any given individual. The reengineering Leadership, pp. 42—43; john Teresko (January 00 I), doubled the volume work that was being completed; at “Toyota’s New Challenge,” Industry Week, pp. 71— the same time, the 74; Michael Hammer (July—August 1990),”Reen6gineering Work: Don’t Automate, Obliterate’ Harvard Business Review, pp. 04--I 12; John Thackray (June 1993), “Fads, Fixes, and Fiction,’ Management Today, pp. 40—42; David Warner (October I 993), “Bureaucracy, Heal Thyself,” Nation’s & Business, pp. 66—68.The job analyst has to select the best methods and procedures available to conduct the analysis.However, even before this selection is made, an overview of the organization and its jobs is USETHErequired. An overview provides the job analyst with an informed picture of the total arrangementOFof departments, units, and jobs. Additionally, this overview will provide the job analyst with aCHARTSbetter understanding of the flow of work through the organization.To gain these useful insights about the structure and process of the organization, two types ofcharts are especially helpful. An organization chart presents the relationships among departmentsand units of the firm. The line functions (the individuals performing the work duties) and stafffunctions (the advisers) are also spelled out. A typical organizational chart will yield informationabout the number of vertical levels in the organization, the number of different functionaldepartments, and the formal reporting relationships that exist.
  7. 7. A second type of chart, the process chart, shows how a specific set of jobs are related to each other.1° Thus, rather than simply showing the structural relationships among job titles (as iii aMETHODS OF typical organizational chart), the process chart shows the flow of activities and work necessaryDATA to produce a desired product or service.COLLECTION There are four basic methods, which can he used separately or in combination, of collecting job analysis data—observation, interview, questionnaires, and job incumbent diaries or logs. In each of these methods, the information about the job is collected and then the job is studied in terms of tasks completed by the job incumbent (person presently working on the job). This type of job analysis is referred to as job- oriented. On the other hand, a job can be analyzed in terms of behaviors or what the job incumbent does to perform the job (such as computing, coordinating, or negotiating). This is referred to as work-oriented job analysis. Both of these orientations are acceptable under the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures as long as they identify job duties and behaviors that are critical to performing the job. The four methods—or any combination of them—must focus on critical information. Since time and cost are considerations, managers need to collect comparable, valid data. Consequently, some form of core information is needed no matter what data collection method is used.12 A professional job analyst typically conducts extensive interviews with incumbents and supervisors, collects records about the job, and, if feasible, directly observes the job incumbents performing the job. A questionnaire called the job analysis information format (JAIF) can provide the basic core information for use with any job analysis method—observation, interview, questionnaire, or incumbent diary or log. It permits the job analyst to collect information that provides a thorough picture of the job, job duties, and requirements. Job incumbents are asked to complete the JAIF. These answers (of course, some questions may not be answered or can’t be answered because the job incumbent doesn’t know the answer) are then used to specifically structure the data collection technique that will eventually be implemented. Exhibit 6—3 presents a portion of one type of JAIE Differences among job incumbents should he considered during the analysis of JAIF information, in addition to the actual job analysis. The job analyst should not assume that all incumbents or their supervisors will view a job in the same way. A safeguard against developing a distorted picture of a job is for the job analyst to collect information from a variety of incumbents. The job analyst should probably try to get information from males and females, older and younger workers, and high- and low-performing incumbents (the research is mixed about whether there will he differences between them in terms of their view of the job). ‘ Finally, the job analyst should not assume that all incumbents and supervisors have the same amount of knowledge about a job. This is important because research indicates that too little knowledge about a job can lead to inaccurate job descriptions. 1-Observation Direct observation is used for jobs that require manual, standardized, and short-job cycle activities. jobs performed by an inventory stockroom employee are examples of these. The job analyst must observe a representative sample of individuals performing these
  8. 8. EXHIBIT 6-3 JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION FORMAT Your Job Title _______________________ Code _________________ Date__________________ Class Title _________________________ Department __________________________________ Your Name _________________________ Facility______________________________________ Supervisors Title _____________________ Prepared by __________________________________ superior s Name_____________________ Hours Worked _____ _________ to ________________ AM AM PM PM 1. What is the general purpose of your job? What was your last job? If it was in another organization, please name it. 3. To what job would you normally expect to be promoted? 4. II you regularly supervise others, list them by name and job title. 5. If you supervise others, please check those activities that are part of your supervisory duties:-Hiring -Developing -Directing -Disciplining-Orienting -Coaching -Measuring performance -Terminating-Training -Counseling -Promoting -Other ‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬-Scheduling -Budgeting -Compensating 6. How would you describe the successful completion and results of your work? 7. Job Duties—Please briefly describe what you do and, if possible, how you do it. Indicate those duties you consider to be most important and/or most difficult. a. Daily duties— h. Periodic duties (please indicate whether weekly, monthly, quarterly, etc.)— c. Duties performed at irregular intervals— d. How long have you been performing these duties? e. Are you now performing unnecessary duties? If yes, please describe. f. Should you be performing duties not now included in your job? If yes, please describe.
  9. 9. EXHIBIT 6-3 CONCLUDED 8. Education. Please check the blank that indicates the educational requirements for the job, not your own educational background.a. ________ No formal education required d. _______ 2-year college certificate or equivalent.b. _______ Less than high school diploma e. ______ 4-year college degree.c. High school diploma or equivalent. F. _______ Education beyond undergraduate degree and/or professional license. List advanced degrees or specific professional license or certificate required. Please indicate the education you had when you were placed on this job. 9. Experience. Please check the amount needed to perform your job. a. _______ None. e. _______ One to three years. b. ______ Less than one month. f. ______ Three to five years. c. _______ One month to less than six months. g. _______ Five to 10 years. d. ______ Six months to one year. h. ______ Over 10 years. Please indicate the experience you had when you were placed on this job. 10. Skill. Please list any skills required in the performance of your job. (For example, degree of accuracy, alertness, precision in working with described tools, methods, systems, etc.) Please list skills you possessed when you were placed on this job. 11. Equipment. Does your work require the use of any equipment? Yes _____ No _____ If yes, please list the equipment and check whether you use it rarely, occasionally, or frequently. Equipment Rarely Occasionally Frequently a. ________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ b. ________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ c. ________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ d. ________________ __________________ __________________ __________________
  10. 10. jobs. Observation is usually not appropriate where the job involves significant mental activity, such as thework of a research scientist, a lawyer, or a mathematician. The observation technique requires that the job analyst be trained to observe relevant jobbehaviors. In conducting an observation, the job analyst must remain as unobtrusive as possible. He orshe must stay out of the way so that the work can he performed.2-1lnterviews Interviewing job incumbents is often done in combination with observation. Interviews are probably thetechnique used most widely in collecting data for job analysis. They permit the job analyst to talk face toface with job incumbents. The job incumbent can ask questions of the job analyst, and this interviewserves as an opportunity for the analyst to explain how the knowledge and information gained from thejob analysis will be used.Interviews can be conducted with a single job incumbent, with a group of individuals, or with asupervisor who is knowledgeable about the job. Usually a structured set of questions will be used ininterviews so that answers from individuals or groups can be compared.Although interviews can yield useful job analysis information, an awareness of their potential limitationsis also needed. Interviews are difficult to standardize—different interviewers may ask different questionsand the same interviewer might unintentionally ask different questions of different respondents. There isalso a real possibility that the information provided by the respondent will he unintentionally distorted bythe interviewer. Finally, the costs of interviewing can he very high, especially if group interviews are notpractical.163-uestionnairesThe use of questionnaires is usually the least costly method for collecting information. It is an effectiveway to collect a large amount of information in a short period of time. The JAIF in Exhibit 6—3 is astructured questionnaire. It includes specific questions about the job, job requirements, workingconditions, and equipment. A less structured, more open-ended approach would be to ask job incumbentsto describe their job in their own terms. This open-ended format would permit job incumbents to use theirown words and ideas to describe the job. The format and degree of structure that a questionnaire should have are debatable issues. Jobanalysts have their own personal preferences on this matter. There really is no best format for aquestionnaire. However, here arc a few hints that will make the questionnaire easier to use: • Keep it as short as possible—people do not generally like to complete forms. • Explain what the questionnaire is being used for—’-people want to know why it must be completed. Tim Huggins (in this chapter’s Career Challenge) failed to explain his job analysis questionnaire. Employees wanted to know why the questions were being asked and how their responses would be used. • Keep it simple—do not try to impress people with technical language. Use the simplest language to make a point or ask ‘a question. • Test the questionnaire before using it—in order to improve the questionnaire, ask some job incumbents to complete it and to comment on its features. This test will permit the analyst to modify the format before using the questionnaire in final form.
  11. 11. 4-Job Incumbent Diary or Log The diary or log is a recording by job incumbents of job duties, frequency of the duties, and when the duties are accomplished. This technique requires the job incumbent to keep a diary or log. Unfortunately, most individuals are not disciplined enough to keep such a diary or log. If a diary or log is kept up to date, it can provide good information about the job. Comparisons on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis can be made. This permits an examination of the routineness or nonroutineness of job duties. The diary or log is useful when attempting to analyze jobs that are difficult to observe, such as those performed by engineers, scientists, and senior executives. Which Method to Use? Although any of these four basic methods can be used either alone or in combination, there is no general agreement about which methods of job analysis yield the best information. Many experts agree that, at very least, interviews should not be relied on as the sole data collection method.’7 In addition, the various methods may not be interchangeable; certain methods seem to be better suited to a given situation than other In the absence of a strong theoretical reason why one method should be superior to another, most organizations base their choice on their current needs.’9 In other words, the choice of a method is determined by circumstances such as the purpose of the analysis and time and budget constraints. Since these four basic methods seem to have different strengths and weaknesses, many organizations are turning to a multimethod job analysis approach.2° In this approach, the job analyst first conducts interviews with incumbents and supervisors in conjunction with on-site observation. Next, a task survey based on expert judgments is constructed and administered. Finally, a statistical analysis of the responses to the task survey is conducted in order to assess their consistency and to identify any systematic variation in them. There might, for example, be variation in the descriptions provided by incumbents and supervisors, by incumbents at different geographic locations, or by members of different departments. Regardless, differences in how the job has been described need to be resolved so there is general agreement about its true nature. Using a comprehensive process such as the multimethod job analysis approach will, of course, be relatively expensive and time-consuming. However, it does offer one distinct advantage over any of the basic methods used alone: the quality of information derived from a more comprehensive approach is strongly endorsed by the courts in cases that rely on job analysis information. The four methods of data collection for job analysis just described were presented in generalSPECIFIC terms. They form the basis for construction of specific techniques that have gained popularityQUANTITAVE across many types of organizations. When they arc used properly, these specific techniques canTECHNIQUES provide systematic and quantitative procedures that yield information about what job duties are being accomplished and what knowledge, skills, abilities, and other human characteristics (KSAOs) are needed to perform the job. Three of the more popular quantitative techniques are functional job analysis, the position analysis questionnaire, and the management position description questionnaire.
  12. 12. EXHIBIT 6-4025.062-010 Meteorologist (profess. & kin.) DOT DESCRIPTION OF JOBSAna1y and interprets meteorological data gathered by domestic shippers: Plans and directs flow of air andsurface and upper-air stations, satellites, and radar to surface traffic moving to overseas destinations. Supervisesprepare reports and forecasts for public and other users: workers engaged in receiving and shipping freight,Studies and interprets synoptic reports, maps, documentation, waybilling, assessing charges, andphotographs, and prognostic charts to predict long- and collecting fees for shipments. Negotiators with domesticshort-range weather conditions. Issues weather customers, as intermediary for foreign customers, toinformation to media and other users over teletype resolve problems and arrive at mutual agreements.machine or telephone. Prepares special forecasts and Negotiates with foreign shipping interests to contract forbriefings for those involved in air and sea transportation, reciprocal freight-handling agreements. May examineagriculture, fire prevention, and air-pollution control. invoices and shipping manifests for conformity to tariffIssues hurricane and severe storm warnings. May direct and customs regulations. May contact customs officials toforecasting services at weather station. May conduct basic effect release of incoming freight and resolve customsor applied research in meteorology. May establish and delays. May prepare reports of transactions to facilitatestaff observation stations. billing of shippers and foreign carriers.166.117-014 Manager, Employee Welfare (profess. & 187.167-094 Manager, Dude Ranch (amuse. & rec.)kin.) employee-service officer; manager, welfare. Directs operation of dude ranch: Formulates policy on advertising, publicity, guest rates, and credit. PlansDirects welfare activities for employees of stores, recreational and entertainment activities, such as camping,factories, and other industrial and commercial fishing, hunting, ‘horseback riding, and dancing. Directsestablishments: Arranges for physical examinations, first activities of DUDE WRANGIERS (amuse. & rec.).aid, and other medical attention. Arranges for installation Directs preparation and maintenance of financial records.and operation of libraries, lunchrooms, recreational Directs other activities, such as breeding, raising, andfacilities, and educational courses. Organizes dances, showing horses, mules, and livestock.entertainment, and outings. Ensures that lighting issufficient, sanitary facilities are adequate and in goodorder, and machinery safeguarded. May visit workers’homes to observe their housing and general living 732.684-106 Shaper, Baseball Glove (sports equip.)conditions and recommend improvements if necessary. steamer and shaper.May assist employees in the solution of personnel Forms pocket, opens fingers, and smoothes seams toproblems, such as recommending day nurseries for their shape baseball gloves, using heated forms, mallets, andchildren and counseling them on personality frictions or hammers: Pulls glove over heated hand-shaped form toemotional Maladjustments. open and stretch finger linings. Pounds fingers and palm of glove with rubber mallet and hall-shaped hammer to184.117-022 Import-Export Agent (any ind.) foreign smooth seams and bulges. and form glove pocket.agent. Removes glove from form, inserts hand into glove, andCoordinates activities of international traffic division of strikes glove pocket with fist while examining gloveimport-export agency and negotiates settlements between visually and tactually to ensure comfortable fit.foreign andFunctional job analysisFunctional job analysis (FJA) is the cumulative result of approximately 50 years of research onanalyzing and describing jobs. It was originally conceived in the late 1940s and was developed as amechanism for improving the classification of jobs contained in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles(DOT),22 which was the primary source used by the U.S. Employment Service for descriptiveinformation about jobs. Current versions of the DOT use the basic descriptive language of FJA to describe more than20,000 jobs. The DOT classifies these jobs by means of a nine-digit code. If someone is interested in ageneral description of a job, the DOT serves as a good starting point.Exhibit 6—4 shows DOT descriptions of several jobs. The first three digits of any one of these listings(for example, rneteorologist—025) specify the occupational code, title, and industry. The next three digits(062) designate the degree to which a job incumbent typically has responsibility for and judgment overdata, people, and things. The lower the numbers, the greater the responsibility and judgment. The finalthree digits (010) re used to classify the alphabetical order of the job titles within the occupational group
  13. 13. having the same degree of responsibility and judgment.2DOT descriptions help a job analyst to begin learning what is involved in a particular job. FIA can thenbe used to elaborate and more thoroughly describe.
  14. 14. EXHIBIT 6-5 Worker function scale and examples from functional job analysis ( FJA ) Organizational ExamplesPEOPLE FUNCTIONS SCALE ENTRY-LEVEL SALEPERSON COMPANY TRAINERIA: Taking instructions—helping Stays within assigned territory. Delivers requested programs. Sends product samples to Answers trainees’ questions. customers. Asks trainees for feedback.1B: Serving Asks questions to assess needs of Directs trainees to additional2: Exchanging information customers. resources.3A: Sourcing information Refers customer to production Persuades trainees of importance3B: Persuading manager. of topic.3C: Coaching Convinces customer to purchase Checks on and helps trainees3D: Directing product. Gives encouragement to posrprogram.4A: Consulting new assistant salesperson. Creates entertaining class4B: Instructing lightens mood with customer environment. Defines and4(;: Treating when appropriate. clarifies key concepts.5: Supervising Informs customer a bout product Teaches trainees new computer6: Negotiating specifications. software. n/a7: Mentoring Demonstrates how product Evaluates learning of trainees.8: Leading works. Asks for larger budget from vice n/a president of human resource Structures job of assistant department. Advises new trainer salesperson. (in how to deliver a training Bargains over price with program. customer. Sets a vision as to why Counsels assistant salesperson on development is important. career issues. Models behavior for new salespeople.
  15. 15. 4 -C H A P T E R 6 Job Analysis and Design 169 ;1EXHIBIT 6-6;0]INFORMATION INPUT PORTIONS OF ACOMPLETED PAGEINFORMATION INPUT Extent of Use (U) FROM THE POSITIONANALYSIS1.1 Soutces of Job Information NA Does not apply QUESTIONNAIRERate each of the following items in terms of 1 Normal/very infrequent the extent to which it is used by theworker 2 Occasionalas a source of information in performing his or her job. 3 Moderate4 Considerable5 Very substantial1.1.1 Visual Sources of Job Information1 4 Written materials (books, reports, office notes, articles, job instructions, signs, etc.)2 2 Quantitative materials (materials which deal with quantities or amounts, such as graphs, accounts,specifications, tables of numbers, etc.)3 1 Pictorial materials (pictures or picture like materials used as sources of information, for example, drawings,blueprints, diagrams, maps, tracings,photographic films, x-ray films, TV pictures, etc.)4 1 Patterns/related devices (templates, stencils, patterns, etc., used as sources of information when observedduring use; do not include here materials described in item 3 above)5 2 Visual displays (dials, gauges, signal lights, radarscopes, speedometers, clocks, etc.)6 5 Measuring devices (rulers, calipers, tire pressure gauges, scales, thicknessgauges, pipettes, thermometers, protractors, etc., used to obtain visualinformation about physical measurements; do not include here devices described in item S above)7 4 Mechanical devices (tools. eqöiprnent, machinery, and other mechanicaldevices which are sources of information when observed during use oroperation)8 3 Matcrials in process (parts, materials, objects, etc., which are sources ofinformation when being modified, worked on, or otherwise processed, such asbread dough being mixed, workpiece being turned in a lathe, fabric being cut,shoe being resoled, etc.)9 4 Materials not in process (parts, materials, objects, etc., not in the process of being changed or modified,which are sources of information when being inspected, handled, packaged. distributed, or selected, etc., suchas items or materials in inventory, storage, or distribution channels, items being inspected, etc.)10 3 Features of nature (landscapes, fields, geological samples, vegetation, cloudformations, and other features of nature which are observed or inspected to provide information)11 2 Man-made features of environment (structures, buildings, dams, highways,bridges, docks, railroads, and other “man-made” or altered aspects of theindoor and outdoor environment which are observed or inspected to providejob information; do not consider equipment, machines, etc.. that an individual uses in his or her work, ascovered by item 7)Noie:Th,s shows II of the “information input” questions or elements. Other PAQ pages contain questionsregarding mental processes,work output, relationships with others, job context, and other job characteristics.Source Position.
  16. 16. questionnaire requires considerable experience and a high level of reading comprehension to completeproperly, it is often filled out by a trained job analyst. The job analyst must decide whether each itemapplies to a particular job. For example, measuring devices (item 6) play a very substantial role (5) for thejob being analyzed in Exhibit 6—6.The 195 items contained on the PAQ are placed in six major sections: 1. Information input. Where and how does the job incumbent get job information? 2. Mental processes. What reasoning, decision-making, and planning processes are used to perform the job? 3. Work output. What physical activities and tools are used to perform the job? 4. Relationship with other people. What relationships with others are required to perform the job? 5. Job context. In what physical and social context is the job performed? 6. Other job characteristics. What activities, conditions, or characteristics other than those described in sections 1 through 5 are relevant?Computerized programs are available for scoring PAQ ratings on the basis of seven dimensions—( 1)decision ma king, (2) communication, (3) social responsibilities, (4) performing skilled activities, (5)being physically active, (6) operating vehicles or equipment, and (7) processing information. These scorespermit the development of profiles for jobs analyzed and the comparison of jobs. Like other job analysis techniques, the PAQ has advantages and disadvantages. One of its biggestadvantages is that it has been widely used and researched. The available evidence indicates that it can bean effective technique for a variety of intended purposes.27 It is reliable in that there is little varianceamong job analysts’ ratings of the same jobs. It seems to be an effective way of establishing differences inabilities required for jobs.25 It also seems valid in that jobs rated higher with the PAQ prove to be thosethat are compensated at higher rates. A major problem with the PAQ is its length. It requires time and patience to complete. In addition,since no specific work activities are described, behavioral activities performed in jobs may distort actualtask differences in the jobs. For example, the profiles for a typist, belly dancer, and male ballet dancermay be quite similar, since all involve fine motor movements.29 Some research suggests that the PAQ iscapable only of measuring job stereotypes.3° If this is true, then the PAQ may he providing little morethan common knowledge about a job. That is, ratings on the PAQ might represent information that makesup the job analyst’s stereotype about the work in question rather than actual differences among jobs.
  17. 17. Management Position Description QuestionnaireConducting a job analysis for managerial jobs offers a significant challenge to the analyst because of thedisparity across positions, levels in the hierarchy, and type of industry (for example, industrial, medical,government). An attempt to systematically analyze managerial jobs was conducted at Control DataCorporation. The result of the work is the management position description questionnaire (MPDQ). The MPDQ is a checklist of 208 items related to the concerns and responsibilities of managers. itis designed to he a comprehensive description of managerial work, and it is intended for use across mostindustrial settings. The latest version of the MPDQ is classified into 15 sections. Items were grouped intosections inorder to reduce the time it requires to complete, and to help with the interpretation of responses: 1. General information. 2. Decision making. 3. Planning and organizing. 4. Administering. 5. Controlling. 6. Supervising. 7. Consulting and innovating. 8. Contacts (section 8 apj5ears in Exhibit 6—7). 9. Coordinating. 10. Representing. 11. Monitoring business indicators. 12. Overall ratings. 13. Knowledge, skills, and abilities. 14. Organization chart. 15. Comments and reactions. Although the FJA, PAQ, and MPDQ are all intended for use across a large range of jobs, manyother methods of quantitative job analysis are also receiving attention. The common metricquestionnaire (CMQ),33 which is completed by an incumbent, is a job analysis instrument with severalpotential advantages over existing measures. The items are at a reading level more appropriate for manyjobs; they are more behaviorally concrete, thereby making it easier for incumbents to rate their jobs; andthe CMQ is applicable to both exempt and nonexempt positions, which may increase the number ofintrajob skill-based comparisons that may he made.
  18. 18. Considerable research on job analysis is currently being conducted in Europe, focusing onalternative quantitative methods. In Germany, for example, several techniques have the common goal ofanalyzing and describing work at the task level,independent of any particular incumbent’s perceptions. Thus, these approaches are expected to he wellsuited to situations where job content or manufacturing technology is changing. Finally, it is worth noting that the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and TrainingAdministration has undertaken a major job analysis initiative. In cooperation with several other sources offunding, the Department of Labor’s recent creation, the O*NET (Occupational Informational Network),was developed as a comprehensive system to describe occupations, worker KSAOs, and workplacerequirements in the country.35 Incorporating the last 60 years of knowledge about the nature of jobs andwork, the automated and Internet accessible O*NET is expected to replace the more cumbersomeDictionary of Occupational Titles.As previously mentioned, the job description (see Exhibit 6—2) is one of the primary Outputs providedby a systematic job analysis. Simply stated, a job description is a D written description of what the jobentails. It is, however, difficult to overemphasizeow important thorough, accurate, and current job descriptions are to an organization. Many changesoccurring in recent years have increased the need for such job
  19. 19. RATING INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CONTACTS USING THE MANAGEMENT POSITIONDESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE (MPDQ)I (I iehic . IrgaIll/atlonil goals. tattat.rrs old clIlitilta its may rcqtiircd to CoIfltotIIiaate with (Ill IS (1, .1 tit an V Ii is ‘vi th mm mIte c IP( r.i ((in a id Sv di ii Ii Ucliti a I people (mitts mdc t he orpl Ira ti iii.lie purposes (It these oiU,lCts lily ITi(II.I(IU (liii hut. t molts as:• lnhmrmuiimg• Receis mug Information• lntlueimciimg• Promoting• Selling• Directing• (‘oordiiiitimig• I iltilarati ii g• NegotiitmiigDIRECTIONS:1)ese rm 1w t he ia tim ri It I (10 nitacts iomplettmmg the harts ott the oppositeas hi IIl1)W,:For each contact checked, print a (0111- her hetsveeli I) mitd 4 ill each coitinum to Indicate Ii os’ S ugh Itie a lii a part oh VII or(sit (((It ti it P U R P( )S F is. Retiieiim her to consIder bothIts mImlfIot!aIIcc in light of all (It lie r pISttI Oh ictiv it ics and Its /reqmuucv of occu rrerice.o DcfnitcIy not a part (It the position.I -- minor part imt the position.2-A moderate part of the pIIs(tmon.3-A substantial hart ut the position.4-. crucial and most significant lilrt of the positIon.STEP .3If von have am other contacts please elaborate on them r ii a to re and i°’ rpose be 111W.226STEP IMark an X’ ii the box to the left of the k iiids (if I id is mdii a Is di at represent m (Or ni a I or contactsInternal a id external to (‘I nitro I 1) ata ( tI rp Irat 1(111.STEP 2
  20. 20. CONTINUED1 srEP2STEI ICoNTACTS I PURIOSF Influence Share infornation I )irrct and/or others re,,i rd og p.1st, to .tct or otegra te the iii n decide n a INTERNAL, p resent, or ant ci n at flCt (list s, pa ted icti VitW5. ((I’ sten t act cIt es or ni th nit object decision of others decisions yes 1’.xeciitive or senior V1CC I president and above .89 I6 I ISVice president 16)) 16fi 1S4Genera l/regii ma I ma niger, director, or I ‘6 1 7 161 169 I 85executive consultant Deparmient/district manager, or senior consnlraiit 162 I0 I ‘X 186 Secto mn/branch na nager m 0l?%LiItailt 163 171 I’9 IUnit flianager 164 I2 ISO 188 Exempt employees 168 I 181 189Nonexenipt employees 66 I 182 190 Provide. Promote the obtain. . Sell p r id Negotiate . ( ir exchange orga iii ,,at ii iict s/ contracts, EXTERNAL. iii formation i ni or . sertlements, ir its po Id ucts! services etc. ads’ice services Customers at a Ies’el equivalent to or above a ( lilt rol Data genera IJ.— regional manager 191 198 20.8 212 219Customers at a level lower than .t amtrol Data general! regional manager ,Representatives of nia)or suppliers, for 192 199 206 213 220e.iniplr. joint ventures, subcontractorsfor major contracts — Em pl o’ees of suppliers svh ii provide ( .oittrol Data with parts 193 200 207 22 I or services 215 94 2(11 208 222 Representatives of 216 195 202 209 22.) nfl urn t i a I coinniun it organhiations I id iv id ual s such as applicants, stockholders Representatives of federal or sIt te gi 224 96 20.3 211) II nero ments s tmch as detcn se contract auditors, government . inspectors. etc. I9 204 21 I 2 IX 22
  21. 21. HRMEM0. Can process changes yieldsavings? Ask Navis tarinternational Corporation, aleading transportation firm that has reengineered the way they identifr and manage projectswith high strategic fit andeconomic impact for the’s working! After completing200 projects, Navistar realized an average of $200,000 perprojectSource: Mark Frigo and Heather Kos(August 1999).Navistar’s DreamTeam Strategic Finance, pp. 38—45.descriptions. These changes include (1) the incredible number of organizational restructurings that haveoccurred (e.g., downsizing); (2) the need to implement new and creative ways to motivate and rewardemployees; (3) the accelerated rate at which technology is changing work environments; and (4) new,more stringent federal regulation of employment practices through legislation like the Americans withDisabilities Act and the Civil Rights Act of 199 1.6 Though some HR managers feel that technology andrapidly changing jobs will eventually decrease the need for job descriptions,37 it still seems unlikely thatthere are any relevant aspects of human resources that do not depend on accurate job descriptions.While there is no standard format for a job description, almost all well-written, useful descriptions willinclude information on:3i• Job title—title of the job and other identifying information such as its wage and benefits classification.• Surnmary—brief one- or two-sentence statement describing the purpose of the job and what outputs areexpected from job incumbents.• Equipment—clear statement of the tools, equipment, and informationhat required for effectively performing the job.ey• Environment—description of the working conditions of the job, the location of the job, and otherrelevant characteristics of the immediate workenvironment such as hazards and noise levels.• Activities—includes a description of the job duties, responsibilities, and behaviors performed on the job.Also describes the social interactionsassociated with the work (for example, size of work group, amount of dependency in the work).The job specification evolves from the job description. It addresses the question “What personal traits andexperience are needed to perform the job effectively?” The job specification is especially useful inoffering guidance for recruitment and selection. For example, suppose that you were looking for an HRprofessional to fill the position described in Exhibit 6—8. From the job specification, you would knowthat the successful applicant would have a college education and would already have at least six years ofexperience in HRM.Determining what skills, knowledge, or abilities are required for performing a particular job must he donesystematically. R. J. Harvey offers the following guidelines for arriving at the characteristics that shouldbe included on a job specification:391. All job tasks must be identified and rated in terms of importance using sound job analysis techniques.2. A panel of experts, incumbents, or supervisors should specify the necessary skills for performing eachof the job tasks identified.3. The importance of each skill must, he rated.4. Any other characteristics necessary for performing the job should he, identified. These include thingssuch as physical requirements and professional certification.5. Each skill that has been identified needs to he specifically linked to each job task. Any trait or skill thatis stated on the job specification should actually he re £ C i ml A .., i, F e,kltc A’t the
  22. 22. 1;ciieral description of the 1obPerforms responsible administrative work managing personnel activities of a large state agency orinstitution. Work involves responsibility for the planning and administration of an HRM program thatincludes recruitment, examination, selection, evaluation, appointment, promotion, transfer, andrecommended change of status of agency employees, and a system of communication for disseminatingnecessary information to workers. Works under general supervision, exercising initiative andindependent judgment in the performance of assigned tasks.Job activitiesParticipates in overall planning and policy making to provide effective and uniform personnel services.Communicates policy through organization levels by bulletins, meetings, and personal contact.Interviews applicants, evaluates qualifications, classifies applications.ruits and screens applicants to fill vacancies and reviews applications of qualified persons.Confers with supervisors on personnel matters, including placement problems, retention or release ofprobationary employees, transfers, demotions, and dismissals of permanent employees.Supervises administration of tests.Initiates personnel training activities and coordinates these activities with work of officials andsupervisors.Establishes effective service rating system; trains unit supervisors in making employee evaluations.Maintains employee personnel files.Supervises a group of employees directly and through subordinates.Performs related work as assigned.General qualification requirementsExperience and trainingshould have considerable experience in area of FIRM administration. Six-year minimum.EducationGraduation from a four-year college or university, with major work in human resources, businessadministration, or industrial psychology., knowledge, skills, and abilitiesConsiderable knowledge of principles and practices of HRM selection and assignment of personnel; jobevaluation.ResponsibilitySupervises a department of three HRM professionals, one clerk, and one secretary.ferentiate clearly between essential and nonessential skills.40 Essential skills are those for whichalternative ways of accomplishing the job are not possible. Nonessential skills can be accommodated bychanging the structure or work methods of the job. If disabled people could accomplish the jobsuccessfully after such accommodation, then it should be done.Job Analysis and Strategic Human Resource Managementhe HR Journal appearing earlier in this chapter suggests that process and work engineering will be thestrategic HR challenge for the coming years. There are many signs that the fundamental nature of workmay be changing. Functional areas are not as important as they once were for defining a person’s job.instead,
  23. 23. interdisciplinary or cross-functional teams comprised of pers6ns with extremely diverse backgrounds arebecoming increasingly common. Not surprisingly, therefore, one of the major complaints aboutreengineering is that once an organization’s processes have been reconstructed, new job responsibilitiesmay he poorly defined for the new environment.4’Despite these potential difficulties, organizations will have to continually adapt to rapidly changingbusiness environments. Thus, reengineering of one kind or another is likely in a majority of organizations.This inevitability creates a newproblem for the job analyst. While the job analyst has traditionally been charged with creatingdescriptions of jobs as they exist in an organization, the new job analyst will also have to describe jobsthat will exist in the future organization. As mentioned elsewhere in this text, there is a growingacknowledgment of the need to match human resource activities with an organization’s strategicplanning.42 An important part of this task vill he an ability for job analysts to write job specifications thataccurately detail the knowledge and skills that will complement the future strategic initiatives of theorganization.4 In the future, job descriptions will no longer be snapshots of a static entity called a “job.”To the contrary, strategic job analysis will have to be capable of capturing both the present and thefuture.44Compounding the potential problems that reengineering can introduce, many work environments will alsooffer employees much greater flexibility in when and how they work. Organizations such as AT&T,Hewlett-Packard, and Pfizer have all implemented flexible working environments to meet the needs of anincreasingly diverse workforce. These programs include variations on traditional work such ascompressed work schedules, telecommuting, job sharing, and flexible hours.4 Although it is currentlyunclear whether these new work arrangements will lend themselves to accurate description through thequantitative methods covered in this chapter. it is safe to assume that effective organizational functioningwill require some type of job analysis to be competently conducted.4Job Analysis and Employee CompetenciesOver the past decade, some HR departments have increasingly analyzed jobs in a way that is consistentwith the changing nature of business and management practices. Much more general than traditionalknowledge, skills, and abilities needed to perform one specific job, cwnpetencies are general attributesemployees need to do well across multiple jobs or within the organizatioll as a whole. For example,cornpetencies might include anything from “teamwork” to “leadership potential.” As jobs arereengineered, I QM programs arc implemented, and the value of teamwork is emphasized, manyorganizations are identifying, communicating, and rewarding a variety of broad-based competencies thatsuccessful employees should possess. Also termed “competency modeling,” such usage of competenciesin HR practices reflects an organization’s desire to achieve the following:• Communicate job requirements in ways that extend beyond the specific jot? itself;• I)escribe and measure the organization’s orkforce in mdre general, competency terms; and —• I)esign and implement stathng programs focused around conipetencics(rather than specific jobs) as a way of increasing staffing flexibility in job a ssign nwnts.4
  24. 24. Once a thorough job analysis has been conducted and there are high-quality job JC descriptions and jobspecifications available, an organization can USC this information for designing or redesigning jobs. Thisinformation iS very useful for structuring job elements, duties, and tasks in a manner that will help toachieve Optimal perft) rmance and satisfaction.There is, however, no one best way to design a job. 1)ifferent situations call for different arrangements ofjob characteristics. In addition, approaches to job design place different emphasis on performance andsatisfaction as desired outcomes. In other words, certain methods of job design are primari lv interested inimproving performance; others are more concerned with satisfaction. Thus, it is unlikely that any oneapproach will fully satisfy all of the goals’of a manager. This means that the choice of job design willinvolve making trade—offs based on the more critical needs of the organization.45Perspectives on the design of work can he classified into four major categories:I) the perceptual-motor approach, (2) the biological approach, (3) the mechanistic approach, and (4) themotivational approach.49 Both the perceptual-motor approach and the biological approach have theirroots in human factors engineering. Their major focus is on the integration of human and machinesystems. Thus, they emphasize equipment design and the proper match between machines aiid operators.The two remaining approaches more clearly highlight the potential trade-offs that must frequently hemade by organizations with regard to job design. They are also the two that have received the mostattention in literature. The mechanistic approach is best exemplified by Taylor’sscientific management and the motivational approach by job enrichment.Scientific Management and the Mechanistic ApproachJob design was a central issue in F. W. Taylor’s model of scientific management. His use of job design isan excellent example of the rational approach and shows how certain perspectives focus more heavily onproductivity than on satisfaction. In 1911, he stated:Perhaps the most prominent single element in modern scientific management is the task idea. The work ofevery workman is fully planned out by the management at least one day in advance, and each manreceives in most cases complete written instructions, describing in detail the task whiji he is toaccomplish. . . This task specifies not only what is to be done hut how it is to be done and the exact timeallowed for doing‘The work of Taylor and the principles of scientific management initiated a great deal of interest insystematically studying the structure of jobs. The emphasis was clearly on structuring jobs so that theywere broken down into simple, repetitive tasks. Once learned, these tasks could he done quickly andefficiently.Although the principles of scientific management were formally introduced in the early I 900s and manycurrent methods of job design criticize the use of the repetitive-task structure, many of the principles arestill relevant today. Among these•re recommendations stemming from Taylor’s scientific management, such as the‘dlowing:
  25. 25. • Employees selected for work should be matched to the demands of the job. (Job descriptions and jobspecifications used iii recruitment and selectionshould achieve this.)• Employees should be trained to perform the job.• Monetary compensation should be tied directly to performance and should be used to reward theperformance of employees.Many managers find the scientific management approach to job design appealing because these kinds ofrecommendations point toward improving organizational performance. It is assumed that thespecialization and routine nature of jobs designed according to scientific management principles will leadto higher levels of output and require minimal training before employees are able to master the work.Despite the appeal of these potential advantages, research has found that repetitive, highly specializedwork can lead to dissatisfaction among employees.S1 Thus, the gains in efficiency that scientificmanagement may offer can he offset by losses in satisfaction and higher levels of absenteeism andturnover.Early strategies for overcoming some of the problems associated with jobs designed according toscientific management focused on job enlargement.52 Job en largement attempts to increase satisfactionby giving employees a greater variety of things to do. The expansion of the work is, however, consideredhorizontal, since the employees are not given more responsibility or authority in decision making. Rather,they are merely allowed to do a greater number of tasks. Thus, an enlarged job is not as specialized orroutine as a job designed according to scientific management, but it may not be any more meaningful.
  26. 26. job Enrichment: A Motivational ApproachIn the past two decades, much work has been directed at changing jobs in more meaningful ways than jobenlargement was able to do. Rather than simply increasing the variety of tasks performed by an employee,job enrichment tries to design jobs in ways that help incumbents satisfy their needs for growth,recognition, and responsibility. Thus, enrichment differs from enlargement because the job is expandedvertically; employees are given responsibility that might have previously been part of a supervisor’s joh.The notion of satisfying employees’ needs as a way of designing jobs comes from Frederic Herzberg’stwo-factor theory of work motivation. His basic idea is that employees will be motivated by jobs thatenhance their feelings of self-worth.4Although there are many different approaches to job enrichment, the job characteristics model is one ofthe most widely publicized.55 This model is depicted in Exhibit 6—9. It shows that for a job to lead todesired outcomes it must Possess certain “core job dimensions.” These include• Skill variety—degree to which the job requires a variety of different activities in carrying out the work,which involves the use of a number of anindividual’s skills and talents.• Task identity—degree to which the job requires completion of a “whole”and identifiable piece of work—that is, doing a job from beginning bo endwith a visible outcome. —• Task significance—degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the
  27. 27. Source:Ado pied from J. Richard Hackman and R. G. Qldham (August 1976). “Motivation through the Design of Work:Test of a Theory.” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, p. 256.*Autonomy—degree to which the job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to theindividual in scheduling the work and in. determining the procedures to he used in carrying it out.• Feedback—degree to which carrying out the activities required by the job results in the individual’sobtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance.If these core dimensions are present in a job, they are expected to create three critical psychological statesin job incumbents.’ The key psychological states that are necessary for motivation and satisfaction are:1. Experienced meaningfulness—degree to which the job incumbent experiences work as important,valuable, and worthwhile.2. Experienced responsibility—extent to which the job incumbent feels personally responsible andaccountable for the results of the work performed.3. Knowledge of results—understanding that a job incumbent receives about how effectively he or she isperforming the job.The more these three states are experienced, the more internal work motivation the job incumbent willfeel. To the extent that these three states are important to the job incumbent, he or she will then hemotivated to perform well and will be satisfied with the job.
  28. 28. As presented in Exhibit 6—9, three job dimensions—skill variety, task identity, and task significance—AB contribute to a sense of meaningfulness. Autonomy is directly related to feelings of responsibility.The more control 1ob incumbents feel they have over their jobs, the more they will feel responsible.Feedback is related to knowledge of results. For job incumbents to be internally motivated, they musthave a sense of the quality of their performance. This sense comes from feedback.The job characteristics model describes the relationships that are predicted to exist among four sets offactors—( I ) core job dimensions, (2) psychological states, (3) personal and work-related outcomes, and(4) strength of needs. Since different people have different capabilities and needs, it is important to beaware of the potential for individual differences to moderate the linkages shown in Exhibit 6—9. If, forexample, a person dues not have a strong need for personal growth, then job enrichment will probablyhave less effect than it would for a person who values personal growth.Many job enrichment programs have been implemented in the United States and in other countries aroundthe world. After 20 years of research, however there are no clear answers about the effectiveness ofenrichment. Generally, studies support the expectation that jobs perceived to possess the core dimensionsof the job characteristics model are more satisfying. On the other hand, the relationships between thecritical psychological states and employees’ reactions to enrichment are not yet fully understood.’Research also suggests that increasing the scope of a job beyond certain levels can have detrimentaleffects on workers.Work-Family Balance and Job DesignOrganizations are directing more attention and resources toward helping employees balance their workand family demands. Driving this work-family tension are a number of variables related to the changingdemographics of the workforce. For example, the number of women and single parents entering theworkforce is expected to increase. Often viewed as primary caregivers, these individuals vill continue toexperience stress as they attempt to balance career and family priorities. Another example of demographicchanges includes the increase in dual-career couples. In Some cases, caregiving responsibilities may heshared, leading both working spouses to require flexible work arrangements to meet family life and careercycle needs. The aging population will he another factor that requires a response from working-agecaregivers. As the baby boom generation reaches retirement age, this issue will grow in importance.How are organizations responding to these challenges? Although nor as dramatic as originallyanticipated, a trend is emerging in which some organizations are trying to accommodate diverseemployees’ needs by offering flexible work arrangements. Examples of flexible work arrangementsinclude job sharing, flextime, and telecommuting. It is believed that by allowing employees more controlover their work lives, they will he better able to balance their work-home demands. Many have arguedthat companies that offer and encourage participation in such famil— friendly work arrangements willreap one or more of the following benefits: higher recruitment and retention rates, improved morale,lower absenteeism and tardiness, and higher levels of employee productivity.
  29. 29. “partners” who have complementary scheduling needs and skills.61 Companies such as CoreStatesFinancial, AT&T, Kraft, and Household International all have oh-sharing options available for theiremployees.Flextime is another type of flexible work arrangement in which employees can choose when to be at theofce.62 I—or example, employees may decide that instead (it working 5 days a week for 8 hours a day,they may prefer to work a 4—day!! 0— mr per day work schedule. With this schedule, the employees donot have to be at the of&e on Friday. 1o avoid peak rush hour, other employees might use their flex—time to arrive at and leave from work one hour later Monday through Friday. One research studyconcluded that flexible workweek schedules had a positive influence on employee performance, jobsatisfaction, and absenteeism. These authors also reported that flextiine programs should not be toounstructured and that they lose some of their effectiveness over time. Companies that offer fiextimeoptions include I lewlctr-Packard, Merrill Lynch, and Cigna.Telecommuting refers to the work arrangement that allows employees to work in their homes part- or full-time, maintaining their connection and communication with the office through phone, fax, andcomputer.64 Though oftentimes resisted by managers who fear loss of control and subordinateaccessibility, one company has aken a methodical approach to implementing a telecommuting program.Pfizer Inc., a large health care company, took the following steps to establish their program:I. Chose a small division to pilot the telecommuting initiative.2. Limited the number of days to work at home to two per week.3. Opened the program to all employees of the division.4. Required interested employees to satisfy a formal proposal and performance standards.S. Required demonstration that the work could be accomplished off-site and that the employee couldsustain and/or enhance performance.Although organizations like Pizer and the other faniily-friendiy firms are movmg forward to attract,motivate, and retain employees with diverse nonwork needs,) organizations need to consider threeimportant issues when developing and implementing such flexible work arrangement options. First, everyattempt should be made to open these programs to all employees. The risk here is that if only certaine,roups are offered these options, then excluded group’ may feel discriminated against. Managers need tobe aware that excluded employees can create a backlash .!ainst work-family programs!’ Second, havingthe CEO of an organization anoiince these programs is not enough to effect change. Many career-mindedemployees do not take advantage of job sharing, flextime, or telecommuting for fear of being derailedfrom their career progression.66 In order to make these programs an accepted part of the organization,managers need to he trained and rewarded for encouraging their subordinates to use them without fear ofderailing their good standing within the firm. Third, organizations need to be mindful of the laws that mayimpact how these flexible work arrangement policies are developed and managed. oine applicable lawsinclude the Fair Labor Standards Act, workers’ compensation, J the Occupational Safety and Health Act!Job Design: The Next ChallengeIn the late I 980s and early 1 990s, European and Asian competitors of American corporations wererevolutionizing job design by turning away from the basic dc1i1t of scientific management and embracingthe quality management movementMore recently. self-directed teams hav become important ingredients in the success of manufacturersworldwide! And now, because of the competitive pressures that foreign business has placed on them,American orporations—including Chevron, Coca-Cola, Federal Express, General Electric, GeneralMotors, Motorola, Procter & Gamble, and Xerox, to name a few—are also implementing self-directedwork teams.’9 Countless others are reengineering their work processes, hoping to regain their competitiveadvantage.Regardless of the specific nature of redesign, many organizations have learned the hard way thatreengineering cannot succeed unless careful attention is also paid to the effects on how employees usetheir skills. The appropriate response to these changes is exemplified by Coopers & Lybrand’scompetency alignment process (CAP). CAP involves the systematic study, analysis, and assessment of
  30. 30. jobs and the skills needed to perform them in the reengineered organization. To accomplish this goal,CAP determines current skill levels of employees in order to identify skill gaps. When a skill deficiencyexists for the reengineered organization, it can then be eliminated through a variety of programs includingtraining, redeployment, and outsourcing.7° Without these or similarly intense efforts, the reengineeringwill probably not succeed. Thus, job analysts and other HR professionals are a crucial link in thereengineering processes upon which so many corporations are staking their competitive future.This chapter has emphasized the major role that job analysis plays in HRM activities and programs. Eachpart of the diagnostic HRM model is in some way affected by job analysis. The job is the major buildingblock of anorganization. Therefore, it is essential that each characteristic of each job in an organization he clearlyunderstood.To summarize the major points covered in this chapter:. 1. There are six sequential steps in job analysis, starting with examining the total organization and the fitof jobs and concluding with the preparation of a job specification (see Exhibit 6—2).2. The uses of job analysis information seem endless. Strategic planning. recruitment, selection, training,compensation, and job design all benefit immensely from job analysis information..3. Conducting job analysis is not for amateurs. Training is required.4. Before conducting a job analysis, organization and process charts should be consulted to acquire anoverview of the organization.5. Four general job analysis techniques can be used separately or in combination observation, interviews,questionnaires, and job incumbent diaries or logs.6. The multimethod approach to job analysis uses acombination of these four general. methods. It is a comprehensive approach and is currently viewed veryfavorably from a legal respective.7. Functional job analysis (FjA) is used to describe the nature of jobs, prepare job descriptions, andprovide details on job specifications. The job is described in terms of data, people, and things.. The Dictionary of Occupational Titles is a listing of over 20,000 jobs on the basis of occupational code,title, industry.9. The position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) is a I95item structured instrument used to quantitativelyassess jobs on the basis of decision making, communication and social responsibilities, performing skilledactivities, being physically active, operating vehicles or equipment, and processing information.10. The management position description questionnaire (MPDQ) is a checklist of 208 items that assessesthe concerns and responsibilities of managers.11. Job design involves structuring job elements, duties, and tasks to achieve optimal performance andsatisfaction.12. job design was a concern of F.WTaylor, the famous industrial engineer and father of what is calledscientific management.I 3. job enrichment involves designing jobs so that employees’ needs for growth, recognition, andresponsibility are satisfied.14. Reengineering is more than job redesign. It is taking a new look at the entire flow of work through anorganization. Without adaptable job descriptions, however, it cannot succeed.
  31. 31. What do you now think about Tim Huggins’s job analysis process? Do you see why some type oftraining in job analysis is required Tim really lacked sufficient training, and this lack was clearly revealedas the process got out of hand.. Using questionnaires requires preparation andconchcareful initial steps.Atrained job analyst knowsthat distribution ofquestionnaires without an explanation is bound to set off negative feelings.Timfailed to plan thoroughlywhat he wanted to do. He was a new boss, and thisalone was threatening tomany people.A new personludedhas to establish rapport o with emp’oyees before ir changing things. tiIn the case of Sprowl ai Manufacturing,Tim’s haste a and lack of preparation have now caused thesituation to T reach a boiling point. He a needs to backtrack andslow down. Perhapsdistributing memos, holdingTERMSopen discussions withinformal leaders, and using the expertise of trained job analysts can improve the atmosphere at Sprowl.What would you advise Tim to do about job analysis at this point?autonomycommon metric questionnaire (CMQ) competency alignment process (CAP) feedbackfunctional job analysis (FJA)jobjob analysisjob analysis information format (JAIF) job characteristics modeljob descriptionjob enlargementjob enrichmentjob family specificationmanagement position description questionnaire (MPDQ) niultimethod job analysis approachOccupational Information Network (0 *NET) organization chartPOSItiOnposition analysis questionnaire (PAQ)process chartskill varietystrategic job analysistasktask identitytask significance1. What are the six steps in the job analysis process?2. Job analysis is often referred to as the “cornerstone” of HRM. Do you agree? Why?3. How might job analysis be helpful to an organization that is being sued for sex discrimination in
  32. 32. promotion? 64. As a current (or future) manager, how will you communicate the requirements of an entry-levelcustomer service representative to a candidate who just arrived at your office for an interview? Iill youdescribe the job in terms of corn-petencies? Knowledge, skills, and abilities? Both? Explain your answer.5. What core information should be included in most job descriptions and job specifications?6. What is the difference between an essential and a nonessential skill? How are these related to theAmericans with Disabilities Act?. Describe the mechanistic and motivational models of job design.What is the emphasis of each?
  33. 33. 8. Describe the major components of the job characteristics model of job enrichment.9. What is the ONET? How and when would a job analyst use the ONET? Do you think it will replace theDictionary of Occupational Titles? Why or why not?10. What challenges does the concept of reengineering pose for job analysis and human resourcesBased on Worthington v. City of New Has en, 1999 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 16104.The FactsPatricia Worthington was hired 1w the City of New Haven on December 23, 199 I, as an Account Clerk Iin its Tax Office. According to the City’s job description, the Account Clerk I position requiredbookkeeping,maintaining accounts, preparing payrolls and financial reports. checking receipts and vouchers, receivingpayments, and various other clerical duties. On February 3. 1992, Ms. Worthington. who had preexistingback, neck, and knee in)uries, fell at work. As a result of the fall, she suffered neck and lower back painwhen sitting For extended times. Following the accident, Ms. Vorthington requested threeaccommodations from the City: (1) an ergonomic chair with neck and back support, (2) replacement ofoverhead shelves with waist level shelves, and (3) modification of her job duties so that she avoidedstanding for long periods of time. Despiterecominendanons from her doctor for the ergonomic chair and letters froii ti’e Connecticut Bureau ofRehabilitative Services suggestinj a worksite evaluation, the City. repeatedly denied Ms. Worthington’s requests for accommodai ions based on a lack of funds. On May24, 1993, she filed a grievance with the City. After an investigation, the Cit agreed to provide Ms.Worthington with a more comfortable chair. On July 1 3, 1 993, she hled a grievance with the union,complaining that she was still required to stand for long periods of time. On April 13. 1994, Ms.Worthington filed a disability discrinnnation suit under the Americans with Disabilities Act in U.S.District Court for the District of Connecticut. Later in that same month, the City provided Ms.Worthington with an ergonomic chair. Following surgery for spinal problems aggravated by her fall atwork, Ms. Worthington ceased working on March 25, 1995, due to her disability.The Court’s DecisionTo recover under the ADA, a plaintiff must prove that he or she is a “qualified individual with adisability who canperform the essential functions of their job, with or without accommodations.” According to the AI)A, adisability is I) a physical or mental illpairmcilt that substantially limits one or more major life activities,(2) a record of such impairment, or (3) being regarded as having such an impairment. The court foundthat Ms.Worthington had a physical impairment of hermusculoskeletal system that substantially limited her ability to walk and stand for long periods of time.Thus, Ms. Worthington had a disability under the ADA. Further, the court found that Ms. Vorthington didindeed possess the required education, experience, and skills for the Account Clerk I position. The courtexamined the City’s job description for Account Clerk I to determine if Ms. Worthingwn could performthe essential functions of the ob either with or without accommodations. The court found that the essentialfunctions of Account Clerk I involved preparation of payrolls and financial reports, maintenance (ifaccounts and parking tag books, and checking receipts and vouchers, which could all he performed withonly occasional standing. The City claimed that filling in for an employee who collected parking fineswhich involved standing for long periods of time was also an essential function of Ms. Worthington’s job.Howevei the court disagreed and awarded Ms. Worthington $150,000 in compensatory damages, holdingthat she was a qualified individual with a disability who could perform the essential functions of theAccount Clerk I position with reasonable accommodations.