DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
MICRO- ELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEM
TOPIC: NANO -SATELLITE
SUBMITTED BY :
NAME: ANIL KUMAR YADAV
COURSE: M.TECH( ELECTRONICS)
REG. NO: 13304025
What is a satellite?
Satellite is a celestial body orbiting around larger body like planet or star. It can be artificial or
A natural satellite, is a celestial body that orbits another body, e.g. a planet, which is called its
primary. There are 164 known natural satellites orbiting planets in the Solar System, as well as
at least eight orbiting IAU-listed dwarf planets. Earth has one large natural satellite, known as
the Moon; and Mars has two tiny natural satellites, Phobos and Deimos. Mercury and Venus
have no natural satellite. Saturn has an additional six mid-sized natural satellites massive
enough to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium, and Uranus has five.
Artificial satellite is a man-made device orbiting around the earth, moon, or another planet
transmitting to earth scientific information or used for communication, navigation etc.
The first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957, and
initiating the Soviet Sputnik program, with Sergei Korolev as chief designer. Sputnik 1 helped to
identify the density of high atmospheric layers through measurement of its orbital change and
provided data on radio-signal distribution in the ionosphere.
Satellites can be classified by their functions. Satellites are launched into space to do a specific
job. The type of satellite that is launched to monitor cloud patterns for a weather station will be
different than a satellite launched to send television signals across Canada. The satellite must be
designed specifically to fulfill its function. Below are the names of nine different types of
1. Astronomy satellites - Hubble Space Telescope
2. Atmospheric Studies satellites - Polar
3. Communications satellites - Anik E
4. Navigation satellites - Navstar
5. Reconaissance satellites - Kennan, Big Bird, Lacrosse
6. Remote Sensing satellites - Radarsat
7. Search and Rescue satellites - Cospas-Sarsat
8. Space Exploration satellites - Galileo
9. Weather satellites - Meteosat
What is the reason for miniaturizing satellites?
One reason for miniaturizing satellites is to reduce the cost because heavier satellites
require larger rockets with greater thrust which also has greater cost to finance.
In retrospect, smaller and lighter satellites require smaller and cheaper launch vehicles
and can sometimes be launched in multiples. They can also be launched 'piggyback',
using excess capacity on larger launch vehicles.
Miniaturized satellites allow for cheaper designs as well as ease of mass production,
although few satellites of any size other than 'communications constellations' where
dozens of satellites are used to cover the globe, have been mass-produced in practice.
Besides the cost issue, the main rationale for the use of miniaturized satellites is the
opportunity to enable missions that a larger satellite could not accomplish, such as:
a) Constellations for low data rate communications
b) Using formations to gather data from multiple points
c) In-orbit inspection of larger satellites.
d) University Related Research
The term "minisatellite" usually refers to an artificial satellite with a "wet mass" (including fuel)
between 100 and 500 kg (220 and 1,100 lb),
though these are usually simply called "small
satellites". Examples: Demeter, Essaim, Parasol, Picard, Microscope, Taranis, Elisa, Smese,
SSOT, Smart-1, Spirale, Jason-1, Jason-2.
Microsatellite or "microsat" is usually applied to the name of an artificial satellite with a wet
mass between 10 and 100 kg (22 and 220 lb). Except the mass,the size of satellite is important
too. Examples: Astrid-1 and Astrid-2,
The term "nanosatellite" or "nanosat" is applied to an artificial satellite with a wet mass
between 1 and 10 kg (2.2 and 22 lb).
Picosatellite or "picosat" is usually applied as the name of an artificial satellite with a wet mass
between 0.1 and 1 kg (0.22 and 2.2 lb)
Femtosatellite or "femtosat" is usually applied as the name of an artificial satellite with a wet
mass between 10 and 100 g (0.35 and 3.5 oz).Like picosatellites, some designs require a larger
"mother" satellite for communication with ground controllers. KickSat Sprites "chipsats" would
be in this weight class.
What is Nanosatellite?
Nano satellites are very small satellites,which weigh less than 10kg. The nanosatellite (called F-1)
itself is an Earth observation satellite and qualification platform as we hope to demonstrate the
use of many Commercial Off .The Shelf (COTS) components to reduce development schedule
and cost. It carries 02 low-resolution cameras (0.3Mp), a high-resolution camera (1.0Mp) and
various sensors including temperature, magnetic and current sensors to take photos of the Earth
and study space environment. Toensure reliability, critical subsystems such as the power supply
unit, onboard computer and communication are double or even triple-redundant.
Designs and proposed designs of these types may be launched individually, or they may
have multiple nanosatellites working together or in formation, in which case, sometimes
the term "satellite swarm" or "fractionated spacecraft" may be applied. Some designs
require a larger "mother" satellite for communication with ground controllers or for
launching and docking with nanosatellites.
With continued advances in the miniaturization and capability increase of electronic
technology and the use of satellite constellations, nanosatellites are increasingly capable
of performing commercial missions.
For example, a 6U CubeSat standard has been proposed to enable a constellation of 35
8 kg (18 lb) Earth-imaging satellites to replace a constellation of five 156 kg (340 lb)
RapidEye Earth-imaging satellites, at the same mission cost, with significantly increased
revisit time: every area of the globe can be imaged every 3.5 hours rather than the once
per 24 hours with RapidEye constellation. More rapid revisit time is a significant
improvement for nations doing disaster response, which was the purpose of the RapidEye
constellation. Additionally, the nanosat option would allow more nations to own their
own satellite for off-peak (non-disaster) imaging data collection.
1. Existing standard(s) such as CubeSats
2. Lower cost of manufacture
3. Easiness of mass production
4. Lower overall cost of launch
5. Ability to be launched in groups or "piggyback"
6. Ideal test bed for new technologies
7. Minimal financial loss in case of failure
8. Faster building times
9. Faster Innovation
Some example : GeneSat-1 ,PharmaSat-1 , Boeing CSTB1 , Nanosail-D2 etc.
Nanosatellite launch vehicle:
With the emergence of the technological advances of miniaturization and increased
capital to support private spaceflight initiatives in the 2010s, several startups have been
formed to pursue opportunities with developing a variety of small-payload Nanosatellite
Launch Vehicle or NLV technologies.
NLVs proposed or under development include:
Virgin Galactic LauncherOne upper stage, intended to be air-launched from WhiteKnightTwo
similar to how the SpaceShipTwo spaceplane is launched.
Ventions Nanosat upper stage.
Nammo/Andøya North Star (polar orbit-capable launcher for a 10 kg (22 lb) payload).
The United States Army is developing the SWORDS launcher, aimed to deploy nanosatellites
into "precise orbits from almost any location at an ultra-low cost."[
SWORDS is an acronym for
Soldier-Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space. Design payloads could be as
large as 25 kg (55 lb). The Army expects to make the initial orbital test flight during the summer
As of April 2013, Garvey Spacecraft is evolving their Prospector 18 suborbital launch vehicle
technology into an orbital nanosat launch vehicle capable of delivering a 10 kilograms (22 lb)
payload into a 250 kilometres (160 mi) orbit.
NASA launched three satellites on April 21, 2013 based on smart phones. Two phones use the
PhoneSat 1.0 specification and third used a beta version of PhoneSat 2.0.
Nano-Satellite Launch Demand Projection: Methodology:
Two datasets were used to develop two different future projections of nano/micro satellite
launch demand (each is global in nature)
1. –Dataset A contains all currently known past and future nano/microsatellite launches from the
SpaceWorks OSD .
2. –Dataset B contains Dataset A with an inflating factor to account for the “known unknown”
Inflating factor is a percentage of known future launches in that year that are assumed missing
Dataset B differs from Dataset A by adding a percent increase to the total number of satellites in a
given year, with 2% in 2012, 10% in 2013, and 15% in 2014. It increases due to increased
likelihood of not knowing satellites that are further in the future, with such a small percentage in
2012 because most satellites that are launching within a year seem to be known.
Applications demonstrated to date:
1. Training and know how building.
2. Technology Demonstration.
3. Earth Science.
4. Space Science.
5. Biology Experiments.
Expected commercial operational applications:
1. Rapid Response systems.
2. Useful Remote Sensing.
3. Augmenting nodes to larger missions
Enabling Applications: RF (traditional market)
1. Expected growth in existing market.
2. Low data rate communication constellations.
3. High data rate repeater nodes.
4. EO-Useful EO as new market
5. Rapid Response systems
6. General-More operational payload can be suported, making the missions more cost effective
Global Market of Nanosatellite:
Nano/microsatellite launch demand was projected through 2020 using the
combination of historical launches and known future launches from the
SpaceWorks Commercial Orbital Satellite Database (OSD) :
Market projection given there that is demand based
Projection based on the publicly announced plans of small satellite operators, launch vehicle
providers, government agencies, etc.
Potentially several of these needing dedicated launch options
Potentially missing several commercial nano/microsatellite projects (harder to obtain data)
Price elasticity of demand not included here
The number of launches per year was fit to a Gompertz logistic regression :
The Gompertz logistic regression provides an accurate market growth prediction for many
industries, particularly high tech
Regression curve based upon best fit to data while still accounting for a market saturation point
Market saturation point (launch demand asymptote in 2030) set at 150 nano/micro
satellites in a year, limited by:
–Realistic number of manufacturers
–Limits imposed by requiring a shared launch with a larger satellite
–Note: others within CubeSat industry have proposed that total market just for CubeSats is over
600 CubeSats per year that will need launches
Methodology risks :
–Assumes launches will occur as planned
–Launches are often delayed
–Projects may not launch due to lack of funding
–Dependent on market saturation assumption
–Datasets contains an inflating factor based on unknown satellites that could potentially not exist