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Probe sonicator


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Application of Sonication
Principle of Ultra Sonication
Sonication Methods
Probe Sonicator Assembly

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Probe sonicator

  1. 1. 1 Probe Sonicator Dr. Anil Pethe Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy & Technology Management, SVKM’S NMIMS, Mumbai
  2. 2.  Sonication  Application of Sonication  Principle of Ultra Sonication  Sonication Methods  Probe Sonicator Assembly Contents
  3. 3.  Sonication is the act of applying sound energy to agitate particles in a sample, for various purposes.  Ultrasonic frequencies (>20 kHz) are usually used, leading to the process also being known as ultrasonication or ultra-sonication.  In the laboratory, it is usually applied using an ultrasonic bath or an ultrasonic probe, colloquially known as a sonicator.  Sonication is the mechanism used in ultrasonic cleaning—loosening particles adhering to surfaces. In addition to laboratory science applications, sonicating baths have applications including cleaning objects such as spectacles and jewelry.  Sonication is commonly used in nanotechnology for evenly dispersing nanoparticles in liquids. Additionally, it is used to break up aggregates of micron-sized colloidal particles. Sonication
  4. 4. Sound frequency ranges Ultra-Sonication
  5. 5.  It is applied in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, water, food, ink, paint, coating, wood treatment, metalworking, nanocomposite, pesticide, fuel, wood product and many other industries.  Sonication can be used for the production of nanoparticles, such as nanoemulsions, nanocrystals, liposomes and wax emulsions.  For wastewater purification, degassing, extraction of plant oil, extraction of anthocyanins and antioxidants, production of biofuels, crude oil desulphurization, cell disruption, polymer and epoxy processing, adhesive thinning, and many other processes.  Sonication can be used to speed dissolution, by breaking intermolecular interactions. It is especially useful when it is not possible to stir the sample, as with tubes.  It may also be used to provide the energy for certain chemical reactions to proceed. Application of Sonication
  6. 6.  In biological applications, sonication may be sufficient to disrupt or deactivate a biological material. For example, sonication is often used to disrupt cell membranes and release cellular contents. This process is called sonoporation.  Small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) can be made by sonication of a dispersion of large multilamellar vesicles (LMVs).  Sonication is also used to fragment molecules of DNA, in which the DNA subjected to brief periods of sonication is sheared into smaller fragments.  Sonication can also be used to initiate crystallisation processes and even control polymorphic crystallisations. It is used to intervene in anti-solvent precipitations (crystallisation) to aid mixing and isolate small crystals.  Sonication can be used to remove dissolved gases from liquids (degassing) by sonicating the liquid while it is under a vacuum. This is an alternative to the freeze-pump-thaw and sparging methods Application of Sonication
  7. 7.  The desired effects from the ultrasonication of liquids – including homogenization, dispersing, deagglomeration, milling, emulsification, extraction, lysis, disintegration and sonochemical effects – are caused by cavitation.  By introducing high power ultrasound into a liquid medium, the sound waves are transmitted in the fluid and create alternating high-pressure (compression) and low- pressure (rarefaction) cycles, with rates depending on the frequency. Principle of Ultra- Sonication  During the low-pressure cycle, high-intensity ultrasonic waves create small vacuum bubbles or voids in the liquid. When the bubbles attain a volume at which they can no longer absorb energy, they collapse violently during a high-pressure cycle.  This phenomenon is termed cavitation. During the implosion very high temperatures (approx. 5,000K) and pressures (approx. 2,000atm) are reached locally. The implosion of the cavitation bubble also results in liquid jets of up to 280m/s velocity.
  8. 8. Sound propagation in a liquid showing cavitation bubble formation and collapse Principle of Ultra- Sonication
  9. 9. Sonication Methods  DIRECT Sonication Method inserting a probe directly into a sample vessel  INDIRECT Sonication Method eliminates the need for a probe to come in contact with your sample.
  10. 10.  DIRECT Sonication (inserting a probe directly into a sample vessel) is the most common way to process a sample.  Energy is transmitted from the probe directly into the sample with high intensity and the sample is processed quickly.  The diameter of the probe’s tip dictates the liquid volume that can be effectively processed.  Smaller tip diameters (Microtip probes) deliver high intensity sonication and the energy is focused within a small, concentrated area.  Larger tip diameters can process larger volumes, but offer lower intensity.  Boosters and High Gain horns can be used to increase the output of large diameter probes.  Probes are offered with either replaceable or solid tips and are made from titanium. Direct Sonication Method
  11. 11.  INDIRECT Sonication eliminates the need for a probe to come in contact with your sample.  This technique is often described as a high intensity ultrasonic bath.  The ultrasonic energy is transmitted from the horn, up through the water and into a vessel or multiple sample tubes.  Indirect sonication is most effective for very small samples because foaming and sample loss are eliminated.  Pathogenic or sterile samples are ideal for this method because cross contamination are prevented.  The Cup Horn and Microplate Horn deliver indirect sonication and are ideal for many high throughput applications. Indirect Sonication Method
  12. 12. Simplest – ultrasonic baths Ultrasonic probe system Probe Sonicator Equipment
  13. 13. A sonicator has three main components: a generator, a transducer, and a probe. The generator transforms the input electrical power to an electrical signal that drives the transducer. The transducer converts the electrical signal into a vibration. This vibration is amplified as a longitudinal vibration in the probe tip, causing the sample to cavitate. Cavitation creates the ultrasound energy, which causes the sample to disrupt and break down into smaller particles Component of Sonicator
  14. 14. Probe Sonicator Accessories  Horns (also known as probes)  Direct Horn Options  High Throughput Horns  Indirect Horn Options  Sound Enclosure  Flocells  Chillers  General Accessories
  15. 15.  Horns (also known as probes) are made from titanium and machined to specific sizes and shapes.  When driven at their resonant frequency, they expand and contract longitudinally. This mechanical vibration is amplified and transmitted down the length of the probe.  In liquid, the probe causes cavitation which constitutes the main mechanism for sample processing.  Choosing the appropriate horn is extremely important.  The sample volume to be processed is directly related to the tip diameter. Smaller tip diameters (Microtip probes) deliver high intensity sonication, but the energy is focused within a small, concentrated area.  Larger tip diameters can process larger volumes, but offer lower intensity.  Probes are offered with replaceable or solid tips.  Probe tips will pit or erode over time and require replacement.  Replaceable tip probes are used with aqueous samples only.  In addition to aqueous samples, Solid probes can be used with organic solvents, alcohols and low surface tension liquids. Direct Horn Options
  16. 16. Replacement Tips for Standard Probes  Standard ½", ¾" and 1" horns have replaceable tips.  During normal use, tips erode and become less effective over time.  These worn tips can be easily removed and replaced.
  17. 17. Microtip Probes  Microtips are thin, high intensity probes which are designed for processing small sample volumes.  Microtips screw into the threaded end of the standard ½" probe
  18. 18. Extenders  Standard probes may not be long enough to fit down into certain long necked vessels.  Extender probes attach to standard horns of the same tip diameter and extend the length of the horn assembly.  Extenders are available in 5" and 10" lengths with either solid, or replaceable tips.  Extenders offer the same processing volume and amplitude of their corresponding standard horn.
  19. 19. Booster horns  Increase the intensity of standard ¾" and 1" horns.  Boosters attach between the converter and horn to increase amplitude by the gain ratio indicated below. High gain horns  High gain horns (also known as high intensity horns) offer double the amplitude of standard ¾" and 1" horns.  High gain horns attach directly to the converter.
  20. 20. The 4 Tip Horn  The 4 Tip Horn enables 4 samples to be processed simultaneously.  This horn offers high intensity and is effective for cell disruption, mixing, homogenization and many other applications.  Tip diameter is 1/8" and the space between each tip is 1.05".  The 4 Tip Horn can process 1-15ml sample volumes and is made to fit into both 1.5ml and 15ml tubes.  When processing small volumes with high intensity, samples will heat up quickly. In addition to using the pulse mode, a CoolRack tube cooling module is highly recommended. CoolRack accessories work well with the 4 Tip Horn. High Throughput Horns
  21. 21. The 24 Tip Horn  The 24 Tip Horn processes each well of a 24 well plate simultaneously.  This horn is effective for cell disruption, mixing, dissolution and many other applications.  The 24 Tip Horn can be mounted inside the Sound Enclosure to reduce the noise level generated by sonication.  Alternatively, a Heavy Duty Stand is available which allows precise adjustment of the horn in and out of the microplate.
  22. 22. Dual Horn  The Dual Horn allows a single Sonicator unit to process two samples simultaneously.  The rectangular-shaped horn doubles the unit’s output, and enables two probes to vibrate with the same intensity as a single probe.  The distance from center to center of each probe is 4.5".  ¾" solid tip probes are included with the Dual Horn but ½" or 1" probes may also be used.  The Dual Horn is capable of withstanding the rigors and harsh chemicals of environmental testing labs.
  23. 23. A Cup Horn  A cup horns offers indirect sonication and functions as a high intensity ultrasonic water bath. Multiple samples can be processed in sealed tubes eliminating cross contamination or aerosol issues.  The horn is mounted within an acrylic cup and the cup is filled with water. Sample tubes are placed in a rack at a fixed distance above the ultrasonic horn. Cavitation is produced in the water, processing the samples within the tubes.  Sonication generates heat so ports for cooling are located on each side of the cup.  The Chiller is recommended for maintaining both the water temperature and water level within the Cup Horn. Indirect Horn Options
  24. 24. Microplate Horn  Similar to a Cup Horn, but larger, the Microplate Horn is an indirect sonication device capable of processing an entire 96 well microtiter plate or many microtubes at one time.  Simply place your samples within the water-filled reservoir and the sonic energy is transferred into each individual well or tube.  The Horn is equipped with a clear acrylic collar to contain the liquid media within the reservoir.  This allows the user to process deep well microplates or other tall vessels. Standard microtiter plates or PCR tubes require a smaller volume of liquid for sonication. For these applications, the clear acrylic collar may be removed and the lower, gray collar will allow for easier access to the samples. Indirect Horn Options
  25. 25.  Sonicators are extremely loud devices and will cause discomfort to the user and anyone nearby.  The Sound Enclosure reduces noise by approximately 20 dBa and is made to work with all accessories  In addition to reducing noise, the Sound Enclosure has an internal support rod and converter mounting system.  Any probe or horn will be held safely and securely inside the unit.  Two ports are located on either side of the enclosure for coolant tubing or a temperature monitoring probe. The interior walls are lined with acoustical foam and the door has a window so experiments can be visually monitored. Sound Enclosure
  26. 26.  Flocells offer inline or continuous, large volume, batch sample processing.  Flocells are ideal for mixing and dispersing applications. Batch volumes can be re-circulated through the system multiple times if increased sonication time is needed.  Multiple units can be used in series to reduce processing time and/or maintain an even higher flow rate.  The liquid sample is pumped into the Flocell through the inlet at the bottom of the unit. As the sample passes through the cavitation field, it is processed. The processed liquid exits the unit through an outlet port. The degree of processing can be controlled by adjusting the intensity of sonication as well as flow rate. Flowcells
  27. 27. Recirculating Chillers  Sonication generates heat which may be detrimental to some applications.  Attempting to control temperature with ice and/or repeatedly changing out water is tedious and no longer necessary.  Automating the sample cooling process with 2 chiller options are available  Quick-connect tubing and fittings (ordered separately) attach the chiller to the ports on the cup horn or microplate horn.  When used in conjunction with the pulsed sonication mode, your desired water temperature will be maintained. Chillers