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Anil Kumar
Lecturer, Dept. of Textile Design
Pt. Lakhmichand State University of
Performing & Visual Arts, Rohtak
Terms
in
Merchandising
Glossary of Terms
Accessories
A range of products that are designed to accompany items of clothing to
complete an overall look. Usually intended to be decorative. Common
examples include ties, belts, bags, scarves, hats and jewellery.
Base fabric
All fabric, woven and knitted, needs to be approved for quality before it is
used in garment construction. Fashion buyers give approval at two
different stages referred to as ‘base’ and ‘bulk’ fabric approval. Base
fabric is approved for stability and suitability for end used before the
fabric is committed for further development.
Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
Glossary of Terms
Bulk fabric
Refers to the completed fabric that is used in the make-up of garments.
The fabric is dyed to a specific colour, will often contain printed designs
and possess certain ‘finishes’ which provide it with specific benefits. As
such, the approval tests are more focused on colour fastness and the
specific benefits provided by the finishing process – e.g. wrinkle free
Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
Glossary of Terms
Bar Codes (bar coding)
❖ Bar codes or bar coding is a unique way to give each fashion product
an individual identity that can be read by laser scanner at the point
of sale.
❖ This ensures that the retailer is then aware of what line/size/color of
garment has been sold.
❖ They are found on most consumer products.
❖ On fashion products they are printed onto a cardboard swing tag
attached to the garment.
❖ They are internationally recognizable and have been developed to
ensure that retailers are able to monitor sales quickly and control
their stock levels accurately
Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
Glossary of Terms
Buyer
The job of a fashion buyer varies according to the nature and size of a
business. A boutique buyer will often also be its owner and will buy
branded or designer-label stock to sell to customers. A buyer for a fashion
retail brand will be involved in a more complex buying process involving
design, sourcing and production.
Buying Ethics
A self-imposed code that ensures that fashion buying is carried out in a
decent, moral and honorable manner. It covers such issues as buying
bribes, environmental issues and poorly paid or child workers. Many
fashion retailers will give buyers clear written guidelines on these issues.
Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
Glossary of Terms
Buying Team
The team of individuals that is responsible for planning and buying a
specific range of merchandise within a fashion company. Usually it
consists of a buyer and merchandiser, together with their individual
support staff. Normally a buying team is product- or garment-specific,
although sometimes a team may be responsible for a range for products.
Category
Sometimes called a ‘product group’, it is used to group together garments
or similar lines into one group. It ensures that a fashion retailer is able to
quickly see how one type of group of lines is performing as whole. It
helps in the monitoring of sales performance and overall stock control.
Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
Glossary of Terms
CIF – Carriage, Insurance and Freight
The term refers to the agreement on the delivery of foreign goods that is
included within the cost price. The cost price paid by the buyer includes
transport of merchandise by vessel to a country specified by the buyer. It
is up to the seller to arrange insurance and delivery of the merchandise
within the price they agree.
CMT
‘Cut, Make and Trim’. Generally used in the production of more complex
or tailored garments, where a clothing manufacturer receives fabric
owned by the retailer or another party to make up into a finished
garment. The price paid for the process is only for the cutting, making up
and provision of items used to trim the garment.
Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
Glossary of Terms
Color Way
A colour option of a product style
COO – Country of Origin
Most products have the country in which they were manufactured
recorded on a label attached to the garment. This is not however a legal
requirement in the United Kingdom and most European countries.
Cost price
The price paid for a product before a mark-up is added to achieve a
selling price. Generally the cost price of a fashion product bought for
resale by a retailer includes all tickets, hangers, protective covers and
packaging. Transport to the retailer will be included according to different
cost terms.
Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
Glossary of Terms
Couture
Derived from the French word for ‘dressmaking’, it generally refers to
extremely individual and unique hand-made garments made in the
studios and workrooms of international haute couture designers.
Delivery schedule
A timetable scheduling deliveries of products from suppliers. The
deliveries into the business occur every week and are updated
accordingly, providing a record of outstanding stock.
Department store
Large-space retailer, usually with several floors selling a wide variety of
goods including clothing and household goods in dedicated areas or
departments. Originally a French invention, they are found in most
developed countries and normally deliver high levels of customer service.
Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
Glossary of Terms
Designer
A person who is involved in a creative process turning customer needs
into value outcomes. Outcomes may range widely according to the
specific role of the designer, but could include manufactured products,
corporate logos or packaging.
Distribution centre (DC)
A facility which redistributes products to retail outlets having received
them as deliveries from suppliers.
Factory outlet
A distribution channel located at manufacturing facilities and used by
brands to sell off end-of-line products. The products are usually sold at a
significant discount to normally distributed retail goods.
Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
Glossary of Terms
Fashion
Traditionally defined as the current style of dressing or appearance that is
adopted by the majority of people. Although more commonly expressed
through clothing, hairstyles and other aspects of individuals’ appearance,
fashion is increasingly concerned with other ‘visible’ aspects of peoples’
life-styles. Home interiors, gardens, plants, cars, mobile telephones and
club memberships are all influenced by fashion trends.
Fashionability
An industry term to refer to the way in which a particular season’s fashion
is expressed in products. In garments, the fashion trends may be
reflected through the manipulation of silhouette, fabric, colour, print,
patterns and trimmings.
Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
Glossary of Terms
Fashion merchandising
In buying and merchandising terms it refers to the analytical stock control
and distribution role accompanying buying in fashion retailing. Other
definitions can refer to the presentation of stock in stores.
Fit
Refers to the suitability of the shape and size of a garment to a person.
Principally concerned with comfort and appearance, although the latter
can be very influenced by styling trends.
Fit model
A model, usually a size 12 in women's wear, who tries on fit samples in
order that garment technologists and buyers can make appropriate
adjustments to prototype garments as part of the quality control process.
Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
Glossary of Terms
Fit sample
A prototype of the garment style booked for production. Accurate in fabric
and to the design specification dimensions of the garment, fit samples are
not accurate for colour, print, pattern and trimmings. Any adjustments
made are communicated to the supplier who sends an amended version,
which is sealed once considered to be satisfactory.
FOB – Free on Board
This is a cost-price term which does not include complete delivery to the
buyer in the cost price. The cost price includes delivery onto a vessel at a
port in the country of manufacture. Subsequent insurance and
transportation of the merchandise from the port to the final destination is
the buyer’s responsibility. Many fashion retailers prefer to buy FOB as
they can control the cost and lead-times associated with shipping to their
country.
Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
Glossary of Terms
Forecast
A view of where the business will be in the future based on the best
known historic and current information. It can be applied to subjective
issues such as fashion trends, but is more usually applied to the forward
view of likely sales or stock levels. Forecasting is a regular merchandising
task that helps to ensure that the business has the right balance and level
of stock delivered in readiness for anticipated sales.
Forward buying
Relates to the process of buying ahead to meet anticipated future sales
and stock levels. The degree to which a buyer forward buys depends very
much upon the length of the manufacturing process from conception to
delivery.
Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
Glossary of Terms
Hanging stock
Most garments delivered to a fashion business arrive from the
manufacturer on hangers. This enables them to be immediately put out
on the sales floor. This eases handling when delivering into the DC and
then on to the shop. It has the advantage of reducing garment creasing
prevalent with boxed deliveries.
High street
An industry term to refer to the middle-market fashion retail sector
typically represented in main urban shopping areas. Traditionally the
centre of a town was referred to as the ‘high street’ and this was the
location for the major retailers.
Information jockey
An American term increasingly being used to describe that person
responsible for the dissemination of all types of information throughout
the company.
Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
Glossary of Terms
Inventory
A detailed list of stock or goods held. Inventory is sometimes used
instead of the word ‘stock’.
Jobber
An individual who buys faulty stock at a greatly reduced price for resale.
Stock which is ‘jobbed off’ by fashion retailers generally falls into two
categories: that stock which is rejected owing to quality control faults and
that which is returned by customers to the stores. The stock can be sold
in the domestic country or internationally, but will have identifying labels,
tickets and hangers removed.
Lab-dip
A piece of fabric dyed to a particular colour specification and submitted to
buyers for bulk fabric approval.
Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
Glossary of Terms
Lead-time
The period of time from design conception to delivery into retail stores.
The definition of a lead-time may vary according to the particular stage in
the supply chain which is being considered. For example, some buyers
may refer to a manufacturing to store delivery lead-time, while another
may refer to the shipping lead-time.
Mark-down/Mark-up
Indicates a price movement either downwards or upwards. Prices are
reduced to make slow-welling merchandise sell more quickly, while price
increases tend to reduce the rate of sale. Fashion businesses alter prices
regularly to ensure that stock sells out at the planned rate. Fashion
businesses keep an on-going record of all mark-downs/make-ups taken
throughout the course of the season/year. It is normally expressed as a
percentage.
Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
Glossary of Terms
Sample
Usually a prototype of a product or key product component such as fabric
or trim, which is submitted for approval by the buying team. Also a
finished product which is used in promoting the range.
Sealing sample
A sample which has been approved by the buying team. It will be used as
a standard reference to compare that future deliveries have achieved the
required standard.
Silhouette
The outline shape of a garment.
Trade show
A generic term to refer to a meeting place for buyers and sellers, usually
manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers.
Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
Glossary of Terms
Visual merchandising
The creative display of goods in-store and in windows. Historically, the
term was specifically associated with window display. Atmospherics and
visual marketing using sound and interactive technology have increased
the overall sophistication of visual merchandising.
Wholesaler
An individual or business that buys merchandise in bulk for resale to
smaller retailers. Usually these are smaller retailers who are able to
benefit from the economies of scale enjoyed by the wholesaler. It is
becoming less used as a result of the increasing dominance of larger
fashion chains.
Fashion Marketing & Merchandising

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Terms use in Fashion Merchandising

  • 1. Anil Kumar Lecturer, Dept. of Textile Design Pt. Lakhmichand State University of Performing & Visual Arts, Rohtak Terms in Merchandising
  • 2. Glossary of Terms Accessories A range of products that are designed to accompany items of clothing to complete an overall look. Usually intended to be decorative. Common examples include ties, belts, bags, scarves, hats and jewellery. Base fabric All fabric, woven and knitted, needs to be approved for quality before it is used in garment construction. Fashion buyers give approval at two different stages referred to as ‘base’ and ‘bulk’ fabric approval. Base fabric is approved for stability and suitability for end used before the fabric is committed for further development. Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
  • 3. Glossary of Terms Bulk fabric Refers to the completed fabric that is used in the make-up of garments. The fabric is dyed to a specific colour, will often contain printed designs and possess certain ‘finishes’ which provide it with specific benefits. As such, the approval tests are more focused on colour fastness and the specific benefits provided by the finishing process – e.g. wrinkle free Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
  • 4. Glossary of Terms Bar Codes (bar coding) ❖ Bar codes or bar coding is a unique way to give each fashion product an individual identity that can be read by laser scanner at the point of sale. ❖ This ensures that the retailer is then aware of what line/size/color of garment has been sold. ❖ They are found on most consumer products. ❖ On fashion products they are printed onto a cardboard swing tag attached to the garment. ❖ They are internationally recognizable and have been developed to ensure that retailers are able to monitor sales quickly and control their stock levels accurately Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
  • 5. Glossary of Terms Buyer The job of a fashion buyer varies according to the nature and size of a business. A boutique buyer will often also be its owner and will buy branded or designer-label stock to sell to customers. A buyer for a fashion retail brand will be involved in a more complex buying process involving design, sourcing and production. Buying Ethics A self-imposed code that ensures that fashion buying is carried out in a decent, moral and honorable manner. It covers such issues as buying bribes, environmental issues and poorly paid or child workers. Many fashion retailers will give buyers clear written guidelines on these issues. Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
  • 6. Glossary of Terms Buying Team The team of individuals that is responsible for planning and buying a specific range of merchandise within a fashion company. Usually it consists of a buyer and merchandiser, together with their individual support staff. Normally a buying team is product- or garment-specific, although sometimes a team may be responsible for a range for products. Category Sometimes called a ‘product group’, it is used to group together garments or similar lines into one group. It ensures that a fashion retailer is able to quickly see how one type of group of lines is performing as whole. It helps in the monitoring of sales performance and overall stock control. Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
  • 7. Glossary of Terms CIF – Carriage, Insurance and Freight The term refers to the agreement on the delivery of foreign goods that is included within the cost price. The cost price paid by the buyer includes transport of merchandise by vessel to a country specified by the buyer. It is up to the seller to arrange insurance and delivery of the merchandise within the price they agree. CMT ‘Cut, Make and Trim’. Generally used in the production of more complex or tailored garments, where a clothing manufacturer receives fabric owned by the retailer or another party to make up into a finished garment. The price paid for the process is only for the cutting, making up and provision of items used to trim the garment. Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
  • 8. Glossary of Terms Color Way A colour option of a product style COO – Country of Origin Most products have the country in which they were manufactured recorded on a label attached to the garment. This is not however a legal requirement in the United Kingdom and most European countries. Cost price The price paid for a product before a mark-up is added to achieve a selling price. Generally the cost price of a fashion product bought for resale by a retailer includes all tickets, hangers, protective covers and packaging. Transport to the retailer will be included according to different cost terms. Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
  • 9. Glossary of Terms Couture Derived from the French word for ‘dressmaking’, it generally refers to extremely individual and unique hand-made garments made in the studios and workrooms of international haute couture designers. Delivery schedule A timetable scheduling deliveries of products from suppliers. The deliveries into the business occur every week and are updated accordingly, providing a record of outstanding stock. Department store Large-space retailer, usually with several floors selling a wide variety of goods including clothing and household goods in dedicated areas or departments. Originally a French invention, they are found in most developed countries and normally deliver high levels of customer service. Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
  • 10. Glossary of Terms Designer A person who is involved in a creative process turning customer needs into value outcomes. Outcomes may range widely according to the specific role of the designer, but could include manufactured products, corporate logos or packaging. Distribution centre (DC) A facility which redistributes products to retail outlets having received them as deliveries from suppliers. Factory outlet A distribution channel located at manufacturing facilities and used by brands to sell off end-of-line products. The products are usually sold at a significant discount to normally distributed retail goods. Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
  • 11. Glossary of Terms Fashion Traditionally defined as the current style of dressing or appearance that is adopted by the majority of people. Although more commonly expressed through clothing, hairstyles and other aspects of individuals’ appearance, fashion is increasingly concerned with other ‘visible’ aspects of peoples’ life-styles. Home interiors, gardens, plants, cars, mobile telephones and club memberships are all influenced by fashion trends. Fashionability An industry term to refer to the way in which a particular season’s fashion is expressed in products. In garments, the fashion trends may be reflected through the manipulation of silhouette, fabric, colour, print, patterns and trimmings. Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
  • 12. Glossary of Terms Fashion merchandising In buying and merchandising terms it refers to the analytical stock control and distribution role accompanying buying in fashion retailing. Other definitions can refer to the presentation of stock in stores. Fit Refers to the suitability of the shape and size of a garment to a person. Principally concerned with comfort and appearance, although the latter can be very influenced by styling trends. Fit model A model, usually a size 12 in women's wear, who tries on fit samples in order that garment technologists and buyers can make appropriate adjustments to prototype garments as part of the quality control process. Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
  • 13. Glossary of Terms Fit sample A prototype of the garment style booked for production. Accurate in fabric and to the design specification dimensions of the garment, fit samples are not accurate for colour, print, pattern and trimmings. Any adjustments made are communicated to the supplier who sends an amended version, which is sealed once considered to be satisfactory. FOB – Free on Board This is a cost-price term which does not include complete delivery to the buyer in the cost price. The cost price includes delivery onto a vessel at a port in the country of manufacture. Subsequent insurance and transportation of the merchandise from the port to the final destination is the buyer’s responsibility. Many fashion retailers prefer to buy FOB as they can control the cost and lead-times associated with shipping to their country. Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
  • 14. Glossary of Terms Forecast A view of where the business will be in the future based on the best known historic and current information. It can be applied to subjective issues such as fashion trends, but is more usually applied to the forward view of likely sales or stock levels. Forecasting is a regular merchandising task that helps to ensure that the business has the right balance and level of stock delivered in readiness for anticipated sales. Forward buying Relates to the process of buying ahead to meet anticipated future sales and stock levels. The degree to which a buyer forward buys depends very much upon the length of the manufacturing process from conception to delivery. Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
  • 15. Glossary of Terms Hanging stock Most garments delivered to a fashion business arrive from the manufacturer on hangers. This enables them to be immediately put out on the sales floor. This eases handling when delivering into the DC and then on to the shop. It has the advantage of reducing garment creasing prevalent with boxed deliveries. High street An industry term to refer to the middle-market fashion retail sector typically represented in main urban shopping areas. Traditionally the centre of a town was referred to as the ‘high street’ and this was the location for the major retailers. Information jockey An American term increasingly being used to describe that person responsible for the dissemination of all types of information throughout the company. Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
  • 16. Glossary of Terms Inventory A detailed list of stock or goods held. Inventory is sometimes used instead of the word ‘stock’. Jobber An individual who buys faulty stock at a greatly reduced price for resale. Stock which is ‘jobbed off’ by fashion retailers generally falls into two categories: that stock which is rejected owing to quality control faults and that which is returned by customers to the stores. The stock can be sold in the domestic country or internationally, but will have identifying labels, tickets and hangers removed. Lab-dip A piece of fabric dyed to a particular colour specification and submitted to buyers for bulk fabric approval. Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
  • 17. Glossary of Terms Lead-time The period of time from design conception to delivery into retail stores. The definition of a lead-time may vary according to the particular stage in the supply chain which is being considered. For example, some buyers may refer to a manufacturing to store delivery lead-time, while another may refer to the shipping lead-time. Mark-down/Mark-up Indicates a price movement either downwards or upwards. Prices are reduced to make slow-welling merchandise sell more quickly, while price increases tend to reduce the rate of sale. Fashion businesses alter prices regularly to ensure that stock sells out at the planned rate. Fashion businesses keep an on-going record of all mark-downs/make-ups taken throughout the course of the season/year. It is normally expressed as a percentage. Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
  • 18. Glossary of Terms Sample Usually a prototype of a product or key product component such as fabric or trim, which is submitted for approval by the buying team. Also a finished product which is used in promoting the range. Sealing sample A sample which has been approved by the buying team. It will be used as a standard reference to compare that future deliveries have achieved the required standard. Silhouette The outline shape of a garment. Trade show A generic term to refer to a meeting place for buyers and sellers, usually manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers. Fashion Marketing & Merchandising
  • 19. Glossary of Terms Visual merchandising The creative display of goods in-store and in windows. Historically, the term was specifically associated with window display. Atmospherics and visual marketing using sound and interactive technology have increased the overall sophistication of visual merchandising. Wholesaler An individual or business that buys merchandise in bulk for resale to smaller retailers. Usually these are smaller retailers who are able to benefit from the economies of scale enjoyed by the wholesaler. It is becoming less used as a result of the increasing dominance of larger fashion chains. Fashion Marketing & Merchandising