Biological oxidation -5

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Biological oxidation -5

  1. 1. Chapter 6 Chemical Reactions and Quantities 6.3 Oxidation–Reduction Reactions General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 1
  2. 2. Everyday Oxidation-Reduction Reactions An oxidation–reduction reaction  provides us with energy from food  provides electrical energy in batteries  occurs when iron rusts 4Fe(s) + 3O2(g) 2Fe2O3(s) General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 2
  3. 3. Transfer of Electrons An oxidation–reduction reaction  transfers electrons from one reactant to another Oxidation Is a Loss of electrons Zn(s) Zn2+(aq) + 2e− (OIL) Reduction Is a Gain of electrons Cu2+(aq) + 2e− Cu(s) (RIG) General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 3
  4. 4. Oxidation and Reduction General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 4
  5. 5. Oxidized or Reduced? General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 5
  6. 6. Zn and Cu2+ oxidation Zn(s) Silvery metal Zn2+(aq) + 2ereduction Cu2+(aq) + 2e- General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Cu(s) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6
  7. 7. Electron Transfer from Zn to Cu2+ Oxidation: electron loss Reduction: electron gain General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 7
  8. 8. Learning Check Identify each of the following as: 1) oxidation or 2) reduction __A. Sn(s) Sn4+(aq) + 4e− __B. Fe3+(aq) + 1e− Fe2+(aq) __C. Cl2(g) + 2e− General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry 2Cl−(aq) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 8
  9. 9. Solution Identify each of the following as: 1) oxidation or 2) reduction 1 A. Sn(s) Sn4+(aq) + 4e− 2 B. Fe3+(aq) + 1e− Fe2+(aq) 2 C. Cl2(g) + 2e− General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry 2Cl−(aq) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 9
  10. 10. Writing Oxidation and Reduction Reactions Write the separate oxidation and reduction reactions for the following equation. 2Cs(s) + F2(g) 2CsF(s) Each cesium atom loses an electron to form a cesium ion. 2Cs(s) 2Cs+(s) + 2e− oxidation Each fluorine atom gains an electron to form a fluoride ion. F2(s) + 2e– General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry 2F−(s) reduction Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 10
  11. 11. Learning Check In light-sensitive sunglasses, UV light initiates an oxidation–reduction reaction. uv light Ag+ + Cl− Ag + Cl A. Which reactant is oxidized? B. Which reactant is reduced? General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11
  12. 12. Solution In light-sensitive sunglasses, UV light initiates an oxidation-reduction reaction. uv light Ag+ + Cl− Ag + Cl A. Which reactant is oxidized? Cl − Cl− Cl + 1e− B. Which reactant is reduced? Ag+ Ag+ + 1e− Ag General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 12
  13. 13. Learning Check Identify the substances that are oxidized and reduced in each of the following reactions: A. Mg(s) + 2H+(aq) Mg2+(aq) + H2(g) B. 2Al(s) + 3Br2(g) General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry 2AlBr3(s) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 13
  14. 14. Solution Identify the substances that are oxidized and reduced in each of the following reactions: A. Mg is oxidized Mg(s) Mg2+(aq) + 2e− H+ is reduced 2H+ + 2e− H2 B. Al is oxidized Br is reduced General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry 2Al 2Br + 2e− 2Al3+ + 6e− 2Br− Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 14
  15. 15. Oxidation–Reduction in Biological Systems In biological systems, oxidation may involve  the loss of H  the gain of O In biological systems, reduction may involve  the gain of H  the loss of O General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 15
  16. 16. Oxidation–Reduction in Biological Systems (continued) General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 16
  17. 17. Summary of Oxidation and Reduction General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 17

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