In Chandrapur Super Thermal Power Station
Aniket . S.Naphade
Priyadarshini Coll. Of Engg., Nagpur
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
(16/12/2013- to- 30/12/2013 )
Table of Contents
OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................. 3
Chandrapur super thermal power station(CSTPS) ................................................................................ 4
Coal Handling Plant ............................................................................................................................... 7
Power Plant Component and its Operation .......................................................................................... 9
4.1 Boiler .................................................................................................................................................. 9
4.2 Turbine............................................................................................................................................. 16
4.3 Condensor ........................................................................................................................................ 23
4.4 Generator ......................................................................................................................................... 26
Exciter ................................................................................................................................................ 30
4.5 Generating Transformer ................................................................................................................. 34
WATER TREATMENT PLANT ................................................................................................................ 44
Post-treatment of Water ....................................................................................................................... 50
Condensate polishing unit .................................................................................................................... 56
Effluent Treatment plant (E.T.P)- ........................................................................................................ 57
Ash Handling Plant- ............................................................................................................................. 58
Government of Maharashtra founded Maharashtra state electricity board
(MSEB) under Indian Companies Act 1956. In 2005 MSEB is trifurcated in 3
companies as follows Mahanirmiti (
) or Mahagenco (Maharashtra State
Power Generation Company Limited (MSPGCL))
) or Mahatransco (Maharashtra State
Electricity Transmission Company Limited (MSETCL))
) or Mahadiscom (Maharashtra State
Electricity Distribution Company Limited (MSEDCL))
Mahagenco is second heighest electricity genrating company after
NTPC. Mahagenco having generation capacity of 10737 MW comprising 7480
MW thermal, 2585 MW hydel and 672 MW gas turbine.
2. Chandrapur super thermal power station(CSTPS)
Chandrapur Super Thermal Power Station (CSTPS) is a thermal power
plant located inChandrapur district in the Indian state of Maharashtra run by
the MAHAGENCO. The power plant is one of the coal based power plants
ofMAHAGENCO. The coal for the power plant is sourced from Durgapur and
Padmapur Collieries of Western Coalfields Limited & Mahanadi coalfields
limited. The plant was officially inaugurated by the then Prime Minister Indira
Gandhi on 8 October 1984. Installed capacity of CSTPS is 2340MW.Water
supplied to the plant from the Erai dam.
Installed Capacity (MW)
Date of Commissioning
Total unit 7
Genration of electricity from thermal power stationIn thermal power station, steam driven turbine is a prime mover of
electrical generator . When water is heated in boiler, turns into steam and
spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. After it passes
through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to
where it was heated; this is known as a Rankine cycle.
Following energy conversion steps are used in the thermal power stationChemical energy of coal
Heat energy of water due combustion of coal
Kinetic energy of steam in nozzle
Mechanical energy due to rotation of turbine
Electrical energy developed in generator armature due to rotation
3. Coal Handling Plant
Following is the function of the coal handling plant Unloading of the coal received from coal mines.
Carry coal to the bunker, & maintain bunker level.
Storing of the coal in case of emergency.
Coal for operation of boiler in CSTPS is provide from Durgapur and Padmapur Collieries of Western Coalfields Limited .
Mahanadi coalfields limited.
Coal is also impetrated from Indonesia.
From WCL mine, we get ‘Bituminous coal’. It is dark brown to black in
colour. It is of higher quality than lignite coal but of poorer quality
than anthracite. Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted
on lignite. It also called as soft coal. This contains high percentage of volatile
substances which burnt with yellow flame. Following table shows the
percentage of various elements in bituminous coal
Amount coal required to produce one unit of electricity is called as coal
The coal factor of the coal from WCL mines is 0.6Kg.
It is examined by the following analysis of coal Proximate analysis
Random samples are taken out from various mines and above analysis are
done on that coal sample. According to it various grades are give to the coal. In
WCL mines ‘F.’ grade coal is seen.
Unit generated in 24 Hr.1unit=Kwh
Coal required for 3, 500MW & 4, 210MW plant is 39000MT.
Transportation of coalTransportation
Coal from coal Collieries contains magnetic materials, stones, and other
impurities. Magnetic materials are removed from coal by employing magnet
above the conveyor belt, which carries coal for feeding boiler.
Coal for 210MW, plant is brought by rope way. Capacity of rope way is 300
tons per hour.
In following ways magnet are employed on conveyor belt Suspended type magnet
Rotary type magnet
To remove the non magnetic material skilled labor are stand besides the
conveyor belt, remove impurities.
4. Power Plant Component and its Operation
Boiler is a very important component of the thermal power plant. it is used
to generate steam to drive the turbine. It is a closed vessel in which liquid is
heated. This boiler is made up of steel. temperature of the boiler is in the
range of 1400-1600 degree cel.
Boilers are classified on different basis as follows
According to circulation of steam.
Following different method are used for circulation of steam
Natural circulation- In circulation, difference in density of
steam water is used to circulate steam.
Forced circulation- force circulation method is used when
operating pressure is approaches to critical pressure.
According to firing type of boiler.
In which portion of the boiler burner are place, according to which
boiler are classified as followsFront fire type
Corner fire type
The source of the heat in boiler is combustion coal. In CSTPS water tube
type boiler is used. Water tubes filled with water are arranged inside a
furnace in a number of possible configurations: often the water tubes connect
large drums, the lower ones containing water and the upper ones, steam and
water; in other cases, such as a monotube boiler, water is circulated by a
pump through a succession of coils. This type generally gives high steam
production rates, but less storage capacity than the above. Water tube boilers
can be designed to exploit any heat source and are generally preferred in high
pressure applications since the high pressure water/steam is contained
within small diameter pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner
wall. Cool water at the bottom of the steam drum returns to the feed water
drum via large-bore 'downcomer tubes', where it pre-heats the feed water
supply. To increase economy of the boiler, exhaust gases are also used to preheat the air blown into the furnace and warm the feedwater supply. Such
watertube boilers in thermal power station are also called steam generating
In CSTPS , boiler is suspended from top, it is because of when water tubes are
heated . due to heating ,water tubes expands. If bottom of the boiler is fixed then
tubes will expand in upward direction, above the boiler the boiler draft is fitted.
So due to heavy weight of boiler drum & tube expansion high stares are
developed in boiler. So it may harmful & reduces boiler & its peripheries life.
Water tube boiler are subjected to the high pressure, heat flux and
temperature so circulation of steam and water gets important.
A boiler equipped with a combustion chamber which has a strong
current of air (draft) through the fuel bed will increase the rate of combustion,
which is the efficient utilization of fuel with minimum waste of unused fuel.
The stronger movement will also increase the heat transfer rate from the flue
gases to the boiler, which improves efficiency and circulation. The
combustion rate of the flue gases and the amount of heat transfer to the boiler
are both dependent on the movement and motion of the flue gases. Hence, due
to above reasons draught system holds high significance.
The difference between atmospheric pressure and the pressure existing in the
furnace or flue gas passage of a boiler is termed as draft. The system, which
maintain the draught in boiler is called as a draught system.Draught is
produced by rising the level flue gases in stack.
Balanced draft system is employed.
-5mm of water column pressure is maintaining in boiler.
Forced draft is induces secondary air in boiler. secondary air is
required for complete combustion of pulverized coal.
Generally, negative pressure is maintained inside the boiler. And, it is in
the range of “-5mm of water column”. Negative pressure is maintain because
of, when coal is burnt, positive pressure inside boiler cause the flame to reach
to boiler wall, which causes damage to boiler wall & also reduces efficiency of
boiler .hence draught system is employed to take out the flue gases from
Following are the important periphery of boilerCoal Mill- coal mill is used to pulverized a coal.
Unburned coal is found in bottom ash if coal is not completely burned.
Unburned coal is found 2-3% in bottom ash & about0.5% in fly
ash.Major reason for incomplete combustion is size of coal.
In coal mill coal is grind to obtain a coal particles of size about 70
In CSTPS following type of coal mill is usedBall & race type.
EconomizerA feedwater economizer reduces steam boiler fuel requirements by
transferring heat from the flue gas to incoming feedwater. Boiler flue gases
are often rejected to the stack at temperatures higher than the temperature of
the generated steam.
Primary heater- Air preheater is used to heat the air which is required for
combustion inside boiler , before it enter in boiler . it helps in improving rate
of combustion of coal in boiler.
Final superheater- It is a device in which the seam from the boiler is dried. It
means that total moisture is removed from the steam.
Platen superheater- It is a plate type heater.
Electrostatic precipitator- An electrostatic precipitator (ESP),
or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate collection device that removes
particles from a flowing gas using the force of an induced electrostatic charge.
Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices that minimally
impede the flow of gases through the device, and can easily remove fine
particulate matter such as dust and smoke from the air stream.
Stack- stack is vertical pipe through which the flue gases are exhausted to
atmosphere from boiler.
Fans in boilerFollowing are the fans are used in boiler.
Primary air fan (P.A. fan)Function of primary air fan Carry the pulverized coal to boiler from coal mills.
Remove moisture from coal.
Forced Draft FanFans for boilers force ambient air into the boiler,
typically through a preheater to increase overall boiler efficiency.
Forced Draft (FD) fans purpose is to provide a positive pressure to a
Induced draft Fan (I.D. Fan)Induced Draft (ID) fans are used to create
a vacuum or negative air pressure in boiler. Boiler ID Fans are often
used in conjunction with FD fans to maintain system pressure which is
slightly lower than ambient.
Cycles of boilerFollowing air cycles are in the boiler Primary air cycle- functions of primary air is followsCarry the pulverized coal from the coal mill to the
combustion chamber of boiler.
Provide oxygen for combustion of coal particles.
Primary air cycle is shown as follows-
Primary air Fan
Air pre heater
Boiler combustion chamber
Secondary air cycle- function of secondary air is
provide oxygen for combustion of coal inside boiler.
When pulverized coal particle burn, ash is deposits
on the coal particle. Which causes incomplete
combustion of coal particle. Hence efficiency of
boiler lowered down.
If coal burn near the burner head & boiler wall. It
may damage it . this damage is avoided by forcing
secondary air inside the boiler as it causes coal burn
away from these peripheries.
Secondary air removes this deposition of ash on coal particle.
Secondary air cycle is as followsF.D.Fan
Air pre heater
Flue gas cycleFlue gases are formed after combustion of coal. Flue gases may contain
carbo dioxide(co2),water vapors, sulpher dioxide(so2),and poolution
causing gases like carbon mono-oxide(CO), particulate matter like soot,
& fly ash.
These gases are cleaned by using –
Electrostatic precipitator for removal of soot & fly ash.
Flue gas cycle is as followsBoiler
Induced draft fan
Boiler MaintenanceBlowdownsBoiler blowdown is removal of water from the boiler. It is done
in order to remove the amount of solids in the
water, and is performed as either bottom (sludge) blowdown, or continuous
(surface) blowdown. The blowdown frequency and duration is primarily
determined by the boiler water analysis. The water quality will vary greatly
based on boiler type and size, amount of condensate return, and boiler
water treatment program.
Water tube cleaningafter burning of coal two types of ash is formed, namelyFly ash.
Fly ash is light in weight, and it flue with flue gases. It may deposite on
the water tube surface inside the boiler. Due which less heat is absorbed by
the water tube & hence efficiency of the boiler is lowered downHence it is
necessary to clean the boiler water tube surface.
To remove this deposition suit blowing method is used. in this method steam
is forced to flow over water tube & boiler wall at a pressure of
150kg.following 2 type of suit blower are usedShort soot blower.
It is used to clean to boiler walls & water tube surface
near to boiler walls.
Long soot blower
Two soot blower of 10m are used from both side of boiler.
Turbine is a device which converts the kinetic energy of the steam in
the mechanical rotational energy of rotor. Steam from the boiler is
passed over the blade of the turbine, which tends to rotate the shaft of
the turbine. Turbine shaft is mechanically coupled with generator shaft
.when turbine shaft rotate generator shaft also rotate.
Basically turbine is of following type Impulse turbine.
On 5 different basis turbine is classified ,those are as follows
Type of compounding.
Type of blading.
Division of flow.
Type of steam flow.
Type of exhausting condition.
Turbine used in CSTPS has following features turbine set consist of 3 turbine defined on the basis of the
pressure inside it. These turbines with their type are as followsHigh pressure turbine - impulse turbine.
Intermediate pressure turbine – Reaction turbine.
Low pressure turbine – Reaction turbine.
Tandom compounding means both impulse
& reaction type turbine is used.
Disc & diaphragm type.
The Turbine contained one row of stationary blade & one row of
rotating blades alternatively. The fixed blades are carefully shaped to direct
the flow of steam against the moving blades at an angle and a velocity that will
maximize the conversion of the steam's heat energy into the kinetic energy of
rotary motion. Because the steam's temperature, pressure and volume change
continuously as it progresses through the turbine, each row of blades has a
slightly different length, and in certain parts of the turbine the twist of the
blade is usually varied along the length of the blade, from root to tip. One set
of stationary & rotating blade is called as stage. These no. of stages can b
varied as per requirement.
In CSTPS, no of stages for a given turbine is given in following table
Type of turbine
No of stages
The steam from the boiler is initially provided to high pressure turbine
(H.P. turbine). Steam is expanded inside H.P. turbine .H.P. gives the starting
torque & operating speed to the turbine rotor. The expanded steam from the
H.P. turbine again brought into the boiler for heating. After rising the
temperature of steam, it is fed to the intermediate pressure turbine (I.P.).then
this steam is supplied to the low pressure turbine (L.P.). The function of I.P.
turbine & L.P. turbine is to provide torque to the rotor.
As steam transferred from I.P. turbine to L.P. turbine, steam pressure goes on
the decreasing, and hence steam goes on expanding. In L.P turbine steam is
expand in huge amount hence it requirement of space.
To overcome this limitation steam is bifurcated in L.P. turbine. turbine is
design so that steam enter at the middle part of the turbine & exit from the
both end. The blades in each half face opposite ways, so that the axial forces
negate each other but the tangential forces act together. This design of rotor is
called two-flow, double-axial-flow, or double-exhaust. This arrangement is
common in low-pressure casings of a compound turbine.
This arrangement has following advantages Required space is less.
Vibration cause is less.
Steam can be expands up to require amount.
Maintain the correct rotor position and balancing, this force must
be counteracted by an opposing force.
Following are the turbine peripheries
Emergency stop valve (E.S.V) Hydraulically operated.
Operate live steam
Live steam is steam under pressure, obtained by heating water in a boiler.
Control valves ( C.V.)Control valves used to control the flow of steam in
boiler. during light load period, by controlling flow of steam we can generate
limited electricity. Control valves are mounted on casing of H.P. turbine at the
middle bearing side, it is common for H.P. & I.P turbine.
There are total 4 no. of C.V in one turbine.
Turbine rotor connection
Rotor of I.P. & L.P. turbine is connected by semi flexible rod.
3 rotors are supplied with 5 bearings.
H.P. & L.P. turbine is combined on radial bearing.
Barring gear- barring gear is structure to support the rotor during sagging &
hogging due to differential temperature between the top of the rotor shaft and
the bottom. Once the rotor is cooled toambient temperature, unless there is a
supplementary support structure for the rotor, it should be barred
periodically to avoid sagging of the rotor under its own weight.
More about turbine
Anchor point- when steam is expand in turbine,
heat is transferred from the steam to rotor & turbine casing. Due to
heating elongation is produced in rotor & casing. It is subjected to axial
thrust. To allow their controlled motion during operation and to
prevent any eventuality between rotor and casing they are required to
be anchored Rotors are anchored at Bearing no 2(between HP &IP) by
means of thrust bearing. In some Turbines they are also anchored at
free end Thrust bearing ( Anchor point) is always located near High
temperature end to minimize the differential expansion.
So anchor point is defined as casing which are connected by means of
pedestals & keys.
Anchor point is located near the high teprature
In CSTPS, anchor point is located near front of L.P. turbine.
Cycles of turbine
Cooling water cycle. Two circulating water pump (C.W. pump)are circulating water, taken
Water from the condenser water tube is cooled in cooling tower.
27000ton water per hour is cooled in one cooling tower.
14 C.T fans are employed in 210MW plant cooling tower.
Temperature in cooling tower should be 28-30degree cel.
Following dia. shows the cooling water cycle-
Regenerative feed water cycleRegenerative water is obtained from the
condensate from the condenser. When steam in condenser is passed over the
cool water tube, it condensate & collected in hot well. Hence regenerative feed
water starts from hot well & end at boiler drum. 2 condensate extraction
pumps are running & 1 pump is stand by. It is as follows
C.E.P - 1
C.E.P - 2
C.E.P - 3
Low pressure heater (L.P.)
Feed storage tank (F.S.T.)
Feed water cycleIn feed water cycle 2 boiler feed pumps (B.F.P.) are
running & 1 is stand by at a time.
Feed water cycle is as followsFeed water cycle (F.S.T)
High pressure heater (H.P.)
Condenser is used to condense the steam out from the L.P. turbine. Cooled
water is circulating inside the water tube of condenser. Heat of the steam is
transferred to cooled water inside water tube. Hence, due to this steam gets
condense. Condensate is collected in hot well, which is just below the
condenser. The heated water inside the water tube is sent to the cooling
tower in which temperature of this water is decreased to the ambient
Following are the important component of condenser
Shell- The shell is the condenser's outermost body and contains the heat
exchanger tubes. The shell is fabricated from carbon steelplates and is
stiffened as needed to provide rigidity for the shell. At the bottom of the shell,
where the condensate collects, an outlet is installed. In some designs, a
hotwell is provided. Condensate is pumped from the outlet or the hotwell for
reuse as boiler feedwater.
For most water-cooled surface condensers, the shell is under vacuum during
normal operating conditions.
Cooling water tubes- Generally the tubes are made of stainless steel, copper
alloys such as brass or bronze. Cooled water flows through it. Which extract
heat from the steam. Due to absorption of heat tube gets elongate hence some
clearance is provided for this expansion.
Condensate extraction pump (C.E.P)- condensate extraction pump (C..P) is
generally a centrifugal pump used to extract the condensate from the
In CSTPS, there are total 3 C.E. pumps are installed per condenser
unit in 210MW unit. Out of these 2 C.E. pumps are running &1 is stand by at a
More about condenserVacuum is maintained in condenser.
It is because of the steam turbine itself is a device to convert the heat in steam
to mechanical power. The difference between the heat of steam per unit mass
at the inlet to the turbine and the heat of steam per unit mass at the outlet
from the turbine represents the heat which is converted to mechanical power.
Therefore, the more the conversion of heat per pound or kilogram of steam to
mechanical power in the turbine, the better is its efficiency. By condensing the
exhaust steam of a turbine at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, the
steam pressure drop between the inlet and exhaust of the turbine is increased,
which increases the amount of heat available for conversion to mechanical
power. Most of the heat liberated due to condensation of the exhaust steam is
carried away by the cooling water.
Cooling TowerCooling towers are used to cool the water from the water tube of
condenser. Water in water tube take heat from the steam from the turbine.
Heat from water is transferred by following methodWet cooling methodIn this method evaporation phenomenon is used to transfer heat.
Dry cooling methodIn this method convention of heat phenomenon is used to transfer of heat
from water from water tube. Heat is transferred through a surface that
separates the water from ambient air, such as in a heat exchanger.
Generator is an electrical device which converts mechanical energy into
electrical energy. This Energy conversion is based on the principal of the
production of dynamically induced emf. Whenever conductor cuts magnetic
flux, dynamically induced emf is produced in it according to Faraday’s Laws of
electromagnetic induction. This emf causes a current to flow if the conductor
circuit is closed.
Synchronous generator ( Alternator) is used to generate A.C electric power at
a constant frequency 50Hz.
In A.C. generator, following are constructional important parts A stationary element called as stator, on which armature winding is
A rotating part inside the stator called as rotor. this rotor is driven by
the rotational mechanical energy from the turbine shaft at a constant
In CSTPS, 210MW unit 2 pole alternator is used which generate
electricity at 3000rpm of frequency 50Hz.
Stator is a heaviest component of the entire generator. It
contains stator winding & stator body with a stator core. it is designed to
Withstand high internal pressure, which may arise due to unlikely event of
explosion of hydrogen air mixture without any residual deformations. Stator
body is a totally enclosed gas tight fabricated structure made up of high
quality mild steel and austenitic steel.
Stator windingStator winding is made up of a hallow conducting pipe
through which water is circulated for cooling hydrogen gas. The stator
winding is placed in open rectangular slots of the stator core which are
uniformly distributed on the circumference Bus bars are connected to bring
out the three phases & six neutrals. This bus barware connected with terminal
bushings. Both are water cooled, connection is made by brazing the two lugs
properly. The insulation is highly resistant to high temperatures and
temperature changes. The composition of the insulation and synthetic resin
permits the machine to be operated continuously under conditions
corresponding to these for insulation class ‘B’ temperature.
In the end winding, the bars are arranged close to each other.
Lower as well as upper layers of bars are braced with terelyne cord with
binding ring as well as with adjacent bars. Bus bars are connected to bring out
the three phases & six neutrals. These bus bars are connected with terminal
bushings. Both are water cooled, connection is made by brazing the two lugs
TERMINAL BUSHING :
Three phases and six neutral terminals are brought
out from the stator frame through bushings, which are capable of
withstanding high voltage, and provided with gastight joints. The bushings are
bolted to the bottom plate of the terminal box, with their mounting flanges.
The terminal box that is welded underneath the stator frame at exciter end is
made of nonmagnetic
Steel to avoid admissible temperature rise. The conductor of the bushing is
made of high conductivity copper tube. A copper pipe is connected to circulate
water for cooling. The terminal bar conductor is housed in porcelain insulator
which can be mounted on the terminal box by means of ring.
The bushing is connected to terminal bus bar by means of flexible copper
leads for making the electrical connections conveniently.
In rotor construction following are the important parts
of rotor, which require very careful operation during its construction.
Rotor winding –
Rotor winding is mounted on the rotor shaft. The field winding
consists of several coils inserted into the longitudinal slots of the rotor body.
The coils are wound around the poles so that one north magnetic pole and one
south magnetic pole are obtained on shaft. Rotor winding is excited by the
excitation voltage provided by excitation system.
Rotor winding conductor are made up of hard drawn silver bearing
copper. Apart from low electrical resistance this grade exhibits high creep
resistance so that coil deformations due to thermal cycling due to start and
stop operation are minimum.
Insulation winding is made up of Layer of glass laminates insulates the
Individual turns from each other. This laminate is built by glass prepped strips
on the turn of copper and baked under pressure and temperature.
Due to rotation & flow of current in winding heat is generated. if excessive
heat is generated, it may damage the winding insulation & weaken the rotor.
Hence winding cooling is necessary. It can be done by hydrogen cooling.
Hydrogen gas can be rich up to deepest layer of winding hence efficient
cooling is done.
Rotor shaftThe rotor shaft is long forging measuring more than 9 meters in
length and slightly more than one meter in diameter. The main constituents of
the steel are chromium, molybdenum. Nickel, and vanadium. The shaft and
body are forged integral to each other by drop forging process.
On 2/3 of its circumference approximately, the rotor body is
provided with longitudinal slots to accommodate field windings. The slots
pitch is selected in such a way that two solid poles displaced by 180 are
D.C exciter is also mounted on the generator shaft.
Two single stage axial flow propeller type fans circulate the generator
cooling gas. Fitted on either sides of rotor body
BearingsThe rotor shaft is supported on pedestal type of bearings which has
spherical seating to allow self alignment. On the top of bearings pedestal a
vent pipe emerges connecting bearing chamber to the atmosphere for venting
out oil vapour or traces of Hydrogen. A current collector located just above the
rotor shaft and touching it is also mounted on the bearing body to give, shaft
voltage for rotor earth fault protection. To prevent the flow of shaft currents
slip ring and bearing and connecting pipes are insulated from earth.
Shaft Seal –
The locations where the rotor shaft passes through the stator
casing, are provided with radial seal rings. The seal ring is guided in the seal
body, which is bolted on to the end shield and insulated to prevent the flow of
shaft currents. The seal ring is lined with babbit on the shaft journal side. The
gap between the seal ring and the shaft is sealed with seal oil. The seal oil is
supplied to the sealing gap from the seal body via radial holes and an annular
groove in the seal ring. To ensure effective sealing, the seal oil pressure in the
annular gap is maintained at a higher level than the gas pressure within the
Following flow chart shows generated electricity route
CoolingIn generator heat is generated due to windage loss ,Cu losses,
friction. The rise in temperature must be controlled to protect the insulating
material. the temperature with which these insulating material can with stand
is decided by the class of insulating material to which it belongs.
For cooling generator components following cooling systems are used Hydrogen cooling.
Demineralised water (D.M.) cooling.
Hydrogen CoolingIn CSTPS, 2 pole generator runs at 3000 rpm. So the
rotor of large diameter is used. To minimize the size of generator air gap
should be as small as possible & by increasing value of current density. But
increasing in value of current density increases the losses in generator
ultimately heat developed is also increased. If excess amount of heat is
developed, it may damage the winding insulation.
In Generator hydrogen gas may be leak from the bearings & casing.
This hydrogen gas is highly explosive when it is in contact with air. This
may cause fire to the generator. To avoid this leakage “Generator seal oil
system is employed”.
In order to prevent the escape of Hydrogen from the generator casing
along the rotor shaft, shaft seals with oil under pressure are used. The shaft seals
are radial thrust type and are mounted between the end shield and the bearing
at either end of the stator.
The seal oil supply system consists of an oil injector, two seal oil
pumps, one cooler, two oil filters, differential pressure regulator, pressure oil
regulator, damper tank, hydraulic seal, visual window, oil check pipe etc.
Demineralised (D.M.) Water Cooling-
Stator conductor are made hallow .
through this hallow conductor D.M. water is circulate . which absorb the heat
from stator winding.
D.M. Cooling water is admitted to upper bar and it returns through
lower bar of next slot. The hot water then goes to expansion tank which is
maintained under a vacuum of about 300 mm of Hg. This helps to remove
gases from the water and thus corrosion is minimsed. From expansion tank,
water is pumped by primary stator water pumps through DM/DM Coolers,
filters back to stator conductors.
According to Faraday’s Laws of electromagnetic induction, “Whenever
conductor cuts magnetic flux dynamically an induced emf is produced in it”.
Due to this induced emf current is flows in closed circuit.
Need of excitation to A.C. generator-
ac generators required a large magnetic field which cannot be
provided by permanent magnets. so dc generators called auxillary
generators are used to provide constant magnetic field”.
More about exciterExcitation can be given by both A.C. & D.C. source, but the A.C. excitation have
Following limitations A.C. excitation itself produce alternating flux, thus generator will give
transformer action But it will not generate electricity as per mutual
If field is rotated by giving A.C. excitation, we will not get constant
magnetic polls. Polls will change with respect to armature winding . so,
it results in irregular waveform of generated emf.& there will be
chances of burning of stator winding.
In case of D.C. excitation , it gives constant magnetic field.
Generator are connected in parallel with another generator or infinite bus
bars.An infinite bus means a large system whose voltage and frequency
remain constant independent of the power exchange between the
synchronous generator and the bus, and independent of the excitation of the
synchronous generator. The generator excitation which is controllable
determines the flow of VARs into or out of the generator.
Generally , D.C. generator as an exciter is mounted on the generator
Objectives of excitation control :
Besides maintaining the field current and steady state operating point, the
system is required to improve the natural damping behavior and to extend the
The operating conditions to be taken into consideration are :
• Good response in Voltage and reactive power control.
• Satisfactory steady state stability i.e. sufficient damping of electromagnetic
and electromechanical transients.
• Transient stability for all stated conditions.
• Quick voltage recovery after fault clearance.
Generator ProtectionIn CSTPS, near about 30 protection are given to the
Following points shows the requirement of protection –
Faults in generator reflect back on whole system.
Generator faults may damage the generator winding which is so much
costly. Also, this may damage the stator core, due to which severe
mechanical torsion may produce.
Fault current is flows through the winding even after generator is
tripped; it is because of presence of trapped flux with in machine. There
by increasing amount of fault damage.
A fault produces high short circuit current.
Following are the major protection are given to the generator Mechanical protection.
Protection against failure against prime mover.
Failure of field.
Governing & Lubricating System
Turbine in CSTPS is equipped with hydraulic mechanical governing system,
which ensures smooth & safe operation of turbine & generator. This system is
Servomotor Operate Pump
4 control valve
Bearings of turbine & generator
4.5 Generating Transformer
Transformer is a static device which step up or step down electrical energy.
Function of transformer in power plant is to step up the voltage level to the
transmission voltage level. Following table shows the transformer component
and its function.
Provide path for magnetic lines of flux.
Receive electrical energy from energy source
& creates magnetic field.
Receive electrical energy from primary
winding & deliver to the load
Protect the above component from
Core is made up of CRGO steel which have high magnetic properties due to
which losses are reduced, &permeability is increase
Transformer bushing- transformer bushing is used to take out the terminal
of the secondary winding to connect it to the transmission lines. Electrical
power is the product of voltage and current, the insulation in a bushing must
be capable of withstanding the voltage at which it is applied, and its current
carrying conductor must be capable of carrying rated current without
overheating the adjacent insulation. The bushing must also be able to
withstand the various mechanical forces applied to it .
Transformer insulationIn power transformer ,insulation is provided on two places in
stator winding Insulation between two winding turn in same layer. It is called as
Insulation between two layer of winding .
Basic insulation need not by excessive because the voltage difference
between a winding turn and its neighboring turn is small in value and its the
voltage across one winding turn. To insulate layer of winding from the other
layer of winding paper insulation is used.
Some of the salient features of our insulating materials are listed below:
Brilliant electrical properties.
Resistant to smoke or odour.
More about power transformer
Paper insulation is used in between the two layer of winding it is
because of –
the voltage difference between a winding turn and its neighboring
winding turn one layer above or below it can be excessive and equals
the voltage drop across a large number of turns in one windings layer.
Therefore an extra insulation layer using paper strip is used between
Paper is used as a insulating material. it is because of cellulose paper
have outstanding insulating properties.
In power transformer, when transformer is loaded with load. Current is flows
through the transformer winding which causes I2R losses in transformer. Due
to I2R losses heat is produced in transformer. hence as load goes on
increasing amount of heat developed also increases.
Excess amount of heat is developed is main reason behind transformer
winding insulation breakdown.
It also adversely affects the life of the transformer.
Hence cooling system is employed in transformer
Transformer cooling system
In generating transformer, heat developed is extremely high. Natural air
cooling is not sufficient to maintain transformer temrature. Hence oil cooling
system is employed in power transformer.
Oil is used in transformer to insulate & cool the winding.
Transformer core & both winding are immersed in oil filled up in oil tank.
This transformer oil should have following propertiesTransformer oil properties
To cool this hot oil water cooling arrangement is provided. Water is
circulated through the tubes. This hot water is cooled naturally.
BreatherWhenever electrical power transformer is loaded, the temperature of the
insulating oil increases, consequently the volume of the oil is increased. As the
volume of the oil is increased, the air, above the oil level in conservator, will
come out. Again at low oil temperature the volume of the oil is decreased,
which cause, the volume of the oil to be decreased which again causes air to
enter into conservator tank. The natural air always consists of more or less
moisture in it and this moisture can be mixed up with oil if it is allowed to be
entered into the transformer. The air moisture should be resisted during
entering the air into the transformer, because moisture is very harmful for
transformer insulation. A silica gel breather is most commonly used as a
means of filtering air from moisture. Silica gel breather for transformer is
connected with conservator tank by means of breathing pipe.
It is the important periphery of transformer. Conservator is a tank
which conserves oil. When transformer is loaded, oil inside it is heated. Due to
heating oil expand. To provide extra volume conservator is employed.
When oil gets cooled it returns to transformer oil tank.
Conservator tank is partially filled with oil.
So, the vaccum space is filled up by the atmospheric air. A
filtering device, called breather is attached with the conservator to ensure that
only dry and clean air can enter into the transformer. So, a conservator
ensures the safety operation of a transformer. High temperature of oil also
leads to generate sludge, which occurs in the presence of air. If somehow the
transformer is subjected to a major fault, then the temperature rise becomes
quite high and this causes vaporization of a part of the oil. This oil vapour
forms an explosive mixture with air and can ignite and cause huge damage. So,
to prevent the contact of oil and moisture-enriched air, conservator and
breather assembly is used.
Buchholz RelayPrinciple of operation of buchholz relay is very simple. It is
a mechanical phenomenon
Whenever there will be a minor internal fault in the transformer such as
an insulation faults between turns, break down of core of transformer, core
heating, thetransformer insulating oil will be decomposed in different hydrocarbon
gases, CO2 and CO. The gases produced due to decomposition of transformer
insulating oil will accumulate in the upper part the Buchholz Container which
causes fall of oil level in it.
Fall of oil level means lowering the position of float and thereby tilting the
mercury switch. The contacts of this mercury switch are closed and an alarm
circuit energized. Sometime due to oil leakage on the main tank air bubbles
may be accumulated in the upper part the Buchholz Container which may also
cause fall of oil level in it and alarm circuit will be energized. By collecting the
accumulated gases from the gas release pockets on the top of the relay and by
analyzing them one can predict the type of fault in the transformer.
Pressure release valve (P.R.V.)It is a oil pressure relief valve. When oil is
heated in transformer tank, it expands & it exerts pressure. If this pressure
crosses certain limit then this P.R.V. is operated.
Pressure relief is very simple construction. It contain an aluminum foil of
required thickness is fitted on the opening of valve. Whenever surge
developed in oil. The aluminum foil is busted.
Circuit BreakerCircuit breaker is nothing but the switch. Circuit breaker is
enclosed in a close vessel. It is operated by external media. When relay senses
faults. Then relay sends signal and then circuit breaker breaks the circuit, Due
to high voltage arc is produced in it. To extinguish it following methods are
( sulfur hexafluoride)
IsolatorIsolator is a switch which isolates the circuit. it is very simple in
construction, & mechanically operated switch.
Circuit breaker always trip the circuit but open contacts of breaker cannot
be visible physically from outside of the breaker and that is why it is
recommended not to touch any electrical circuit just by switching off the circuit
breaker. So for better safety there must be some arrangement so that one can
see open condition of the section of the circuit before touching it. Isolator is a
mechanical switch which isolates a part of circuit from system as when
required. Electrical isolators separate a part of the system from rest for safe
Other transformer used in CSTPS
Besides generating transformer following transformer are also used.
These transformers have their own significance in power plant. Following are
Unit auxiliary transformer.
Unit auxiliary transformerUnit auxiliary transformer is employed to provide
electricity to the auxiliaries like B.F.P., C.E.P., cooling pumps, of power plant
Before starting power generation in plant, these auxiliaries must be started.
To start these auxiliaries initially power is taken from station transformer.
After generating 30MW electricity, this UAT is connected to primary side of
generating transformer. This arrangement has following advantagesElectricity can be taken from generator itself as well as from external source.
When electricity is taken from generator itself, then CSTPS does not need to
pay for electricity required for power plant auxiliaries.
Primary side voltage of UAT is equal to the generating voltage level. &
secondary voltage is equal to rated voltage of auxiliaries.
General layout of UAT is as follows
Station transformerStation transformer is also called as start-up transformer. This station
transformer provides initial power to the plant auxiliaries, when no power is
available. Following are the function of station transformerProvide electricity to auxiliaries of power plant, during start-up.
During normal operation, power to the C.H.P. auxiliaries. it is because of
working of all unit is depends upon coal supply from C.H.P. following
auxiliaries are installed in C.H.P.Motors of conveyor belts.
Motors of crusher.
Provide power to the boiler feed pump (B.F.P.). it is very important auxiliary
of thermal power plant.
If boiler drum level is not maintain, then many complications (like boiler
over heating which damage boiler tubes & many other components) are
Hence power supply to B.F.P. must be maintained. To maintain this supply
power supply is taken from station transformer.
Station transformer is connected to the grid transmission lines, hence
power supply reliability is maintained, even though generating units are
5. WATER TREATMENT PLANT
Water treatment is important component of thermal power plant.
water treatment plant working area are given belowWater treatment.
Flue gas analysis.
Out of above mentioned area water treatment has prime importance. It
is because of following reasons.
Water contains different types of impurities, when these
impurities enters inside boiler it will produce slice formation inside
boiler tube due to which heat will not transfer properly hence tubes
will melt. This impurities deposits inside the water tubes & block the
water tubes. Presence of oxygen & carbon dioxide leads to corrosion of
In CSTPS, raw water is come from “Erai Dam” through
pipelines. In Erai dam water is collected from the forest area near by it.
So chemical impurities are not in raw water, therefore contamination of
dam water is very less.but till following impurities are present in raw
waterTurbidity- It is due to mud, minerals.
Organic Matter- Organic present is due to the decomposition of dead
animals, trees, leaves.
Colour & odurColour & odur comes to water due to its organic matter
Dissolved gasesGases like carbon monoxide, oxygen are dissolves in water.
Water is goes through following processes during treatment
175000m^3 water is treated in one day in CSTPS.
Pretreatment of water- Pretreatment is used to kill disease-causing
organisms and help control taste and odor causing substances. A
pretreatment chemical could be any number of oxidants or disinfectant.
In water pre treatment plant the suspending particles are removed by
screening the water. Following flow chart shows the water treatment process
sequenceWater from Erai dam brought pipe lines
One day reserve tank
Rapid gravity filter
To post treatment plant
Function of each step is explain below
One day reserve tankOne day reserve tank is used to store sufficient water
storage, which will last long nearly one day. Sometimes water supply from
dam is interrupted due to certain interrupts. Therefore to continue plant
operation without any interrupts. Water from one day reserve is taken out.
Water is stored in this tank, due these suspended particles, heavy impurities,
silica particles settled down here.
Besides this, one day reserve tank is used as a water source during any
Alum & lime is added in water. Effect of adding alum &
lime is explain as follows
Alum not only settles certain hazardous chemicals and suspended solids
but also bacterial colonies. Alum has a negative charge and tends to disperse
in water very fast and very well .
This causes it to join up with all of the offending particles and neutralize them.
Now that the particles don't have any repelling charges, they tend to clump
together into 'flocs'.
Addition of lime
softening can be achieved by adding lime in the form
of limewater, Ca(OH)2, which, in a carbonatation reaction with CO2, forms
calcium carbonate precipitate, reacts next with multivalent cat ions to remove
carbonate hardness, then reacts with anions to replace the non-carbonate
hardness due to multivalent cations with non-carbonate hardness due to
calcium. The process requires recarbonation through the addition of carbon
dioxide to lower the pH which is raised during the initial softening process.
As lime is added to raw water, the pH is raised and the equilibrium
of carbonate species in the water is shifted. Dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) is
changed into bicarbonate (HCO3-) and then carbonate (CO32-). This action
causes calcium carbonate to precipitate due to exceeding the solubility
product. Additionally, magnesium can be precipitated as magnesium
hydroxide in a double displacement reaction.
The byproduct from the reaction of water with lime produces large
volumes of calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide sludge. This residual
stream can substantially increase costs associated with the process. The
sludge can be used as an agricultural soil amendment (it is
an alkalinity supplement) and can also be used as a filler material in certain
cementitious materials such as low strength concrete.
ClariflocculatorClariflocculator is a device in which flocculation &
clarification reaction takes place simultaneously. Clariflocculator contains two
concentric water tanks. The inner tank serves as a flocculation chamber. And
the outer tank serve as a clarifier chamber. storror are used to
During flocculation reaction flocs hydroxide is formed & then settled down.
This floc is removed as a sludge by blowdown process.
Mechanism of clariflocculator is as followsThese provide gentle agitation by slow moving paddles.
This action serves to break up the mass rotation of liquid and promote
The specially designed flocculation paddles enhance flocculation of the
Agglomeration of the destabilized colloids is achieved as a result of
particulate transport in the flocculation compartment
Increased particle contact will promote floc growth and aids faster
There are 5 no. of clariflocculators are installed in CSTPS.
Rapid gravity FilterRapid sand filters contains relatively coarse sand and
other granular media like bolder to remove particles and impurities that have
been trapped in a floc through the use of flocculation chemicals—typically
salts of aluminium or iron. Water and flocs flows through the filter
medium under gravity or under pumped pressure and the flocculated material
is trapped in the sand matrix. Mixing, flocculation
and sedimentation processes are typical treatment stages that precede
filtration. Chemical additives, such as coagulants, are often used in
conjunction with the filtration system.
Rapid sand filters must be cleaned frequently, often several times a day,
by backwashing, which involves reversing the direction of the water and
adding compressed air. During backwashing, the bed is fluidized and care
must be taken not to wash away the media.
Water sumpWater sump is a water storage tank in which pretreated water is
stored. From thank water is sent for post treatment.
Post treatment is different for bothDemineralized water (D.M. water)
Demineralized water- DM water is demineralized water .
Dissolved impurities and dissolved gases in water. Sometimes
water is hard, temporary hardness or permanent hardness and
which is badly affects the boiler which helps formation of scales in
sides the boiler.
In D.M. water plant , water is passed through activated
carbon filter for absorbing dissolved carbon dioxide. For
removing temporary hardness and permanent hardness ion
exchanging process used. By Ion - exchange process from which
the minerals have been removed and get Demineralized water.
Demineralized water have following qualities Neutral P.H (6.5-7.5).
Conductivity of water (<10µs/cm).
During pretreatment for D.M. water, following process is carried
ScreeningDuring screening process all the suspended particles are removed
in this process.
SettlingWater is stored in one day reserve tank for one day. During this
heavy particles are settled down.
Chemical Dosing- In chemical dosing alum & lime is added in water.
CoagulationCoagulation is a process is a joining small particle together to
form large particles. Due to chemical dosing, floc is produced.
Post-treatment of Water
Pretreated water send for post treatment. Post
treatment method for D.M water & soften water.
Demineralised (D.M.) water PlantDemineralisation is a process of
removing dissolved salts from water by iron exchange process. In CSTPS,
water with no chemical substances is come from Erai dam. So the better
quality D.M water is obtained. During demineralization process water is
passed through following ion beds-
Pretreated water sump
Pressure sand filter (P.S.F.)
Activated charcoal filter (A.C.F)
Strong acid cation (S.A.C)
Weak base anion (W.B.A)
Strong base anion (S.B.A)
Mixed bed (M.B)
De-mineralised (D.M) tank
Condensate storage tank (C.S.T)
Function of each of above mention beds are explain below
Pressure sand filter (P.S.F)Pressure sand filter consist of a pressure vessel. it
contain graded sand which supported by graded pebbles & silex. Distributor
nozzle installed at top distributes water throughout the cross-section of filter.
To collect water under drain system is provided.
In pressure sand filter raw water flows down wards through the filter bed and
as the suspended matter- which has usually been treated by addition of a
coagulant like alum- is retained on the sand surface ands between the sand
grains immediately below the surface.
There is steady rise in the loss of head as the filtration process continues and
the flow reduces once the pressure drop across the filter is excessive.
The filter is now taken out of service and cleaning of the filter is effected by
flow reversal. To assist in cleaning the bed, the backwash operation is often
preceded by air agitation through the under drain system. The process of air
scouring agitates the sand with a scrubbing action, which loosens the
intercepted particles. The filter is now ready to be put back into
Activated charcoal filter (A.C.F)Activated charcoal means activated
carbon. It is a form of carbon processed to be riddled with small, low-volume
pores that increase the surface area available for chemical reactions.
Activated charcoal have good carbon trapping quality. due to this property
chemical & organic impurities can be removed.
Strong Acid Cation (S.A.C) –
Porus type synthetic resin is filled in strong acid
SAC resins can neutralize strong bases and convert neutral salts into
their corresponding acids. SAC resins derive their functionality from sulfonic
acid groups (HSO3¯). When used in demineralization, SAC resins remove
nearly all raw water cations, replacing them with hydrogen ions, as shown
The exchange reaction is reversible. When its capacity is exhausted, the resin
can be regenerated with an excess of mineral acid.
Strong acid cation exchangers function well at all pH ranges. These resins
have found a wide range of applications.
Weak Base Anion (W.B.A)Weak base anion bed absorb acid from the
water . & convert it into neutral salts. When this bed absorb acid after it is
exhausted. it is need to regenerate it.
Regeneration needs only to neutralize the absorbed acid: it need not
provide hydroxide ions. Less expensive weakly basic reagents such as
ammonia (NH3) or sodium carbonate can be employed.
DegasserDegasser is a device in which dissolved gases from water is
removed. It also removes small bubbles trappeped in water layer.
Degasser tankIn this tank water from the degasser is stored. this water is
send to strong base anion bed.
Strong Base Anion (S.B.A)In this bed anionic contamination is removed from water.
Mixed Bed (M.B.)The strong acid cation and strong based anion bed are
The cation & anion is taking place over & over within resin bed.
Both anion & cation escaped from prior bed is trapped in mix bed.
By using mix bed high quality of D.M. water can be obtained.
Demineralised Water TankWater passed from above process is stored in
this tank. this water is send as make up water in boiler.
Anion & cation vessels are exhausted during the treatment. This ion bed is
regenerative. In following ways this beds are regenerated
Backwash by filtered
other than above
Before feeding D.M. water to boiler chemical conditioning is done.
D.M. water is corrosive by nature. Hence, ammonia (NH3) is added.
Hydrazine (N2H4) which is colorless is added , to remove dissolved
oxygen from D.M. water. This reaction gives water & nitrogen gas.
Phosphate (PO4) is dose directly in boiler drum. It form phosphate of
After particular period blowdown is given to the boiler. This
phosphate form is removed during this process.
Water softening is the removal
of calcium, magnesium, and certain other metal cations in hard water.
The resulting soft water is more compatible with soap and extends the
lifetime of plumbing. Water softening is usually achieved using lime
softening or ion-exchange resins.
soften water is used for cooling purpose ,drinking purpose.
In CSTPS, there are 11 no. of stream and each stream contains 3
In 210MW plant 15000(M^3) soften water is required as a makeup per
hour. flow of each softener is 250(M^3/Hr.).
Condensate polishing unit
Condensate polishing unit is used to remove the impurities from
the condensate of the condenser. Main function of condensate polishing unit is to
maintained boiler water quality.
Following are the advantages of condensate polishing unitImprovement in the quality of condensate and "cycle" clean up
Reduced blow down & make up requirements
Improvement in boiler water quality for drum type boilers
Quick start up and as a result, full load conditions are reached early giving
Orderly shutdown possible in case of condenser tube leak conditions
Improvement in quality of steam which results in enhanced turbine life
Effluent Treatment plant (E.T.P)Main function of E.T.P. is to clean gas clean
plant (G.C.P.) effluent & recycle it for further use. Sewage water is treated as
per is pollution control norms in E.T.P.
This water is used for ash handling.
6. Ash Handling PlantSystem Description
The ash handling system handles the ash by bottom ash handling system, coarse
ash handling system, fly ash handling system, ash disposal system up to the ash
disposal area and water recovery system from ash pond and Bottom ash
overflow. Description is as follows:
Bottom Ash Handling System
Bottom ash resulting from the combustion of coal in the boiler shall fall into the
over ground, refractory lined, water impounded, maintained level, double VSection type/ W type steel- fabricated bottom ash hopper having a hold up
volume to store bottom ash and economizer ash of maximum allowable condition
with the rate specified. The slurry formed shall be transported to slurry sump
Coarse Ash (Economizer Ash) handling System
Ash generated in Economizer hoppers shall be evacuated continuously through
flushing boxes. Continuous generated Economizer slurry shall be fed by gravity
into respective bottom ash hopper pipes with necessary slope.
Air Pre Heater ash handling system
Ash generated from APH hoppers shall be evacuated once in a shift by vacuum
conveying system connected with the ESP hopper vacuum conveying system.
Fly Ash Handling System
Fly ash is considered to be collected in ESP Hoppers. Fly ash from ESP hoppers
extracted by Vacuum Pumps up to Intermediate Surge Hopper cum Bag Filter for
further Dry Conveying to fly ash silo.
Under each surge hopper ash vessels shall be connected with Oil free screw
compressor for conveying the fly ash from Intermediate Surge Hopper to silo.
Total fly ash generated from each unit will be conveyed through streams
operating simultaneously and in parallel.
Ash Slurry Disposal System
Bottom Ash slurry, Fly ash slurry and the Coarse Ash slurry shall be pumped from
the common ash slurry sump up to the dyke area which is located at a distance
from Slurry pump house.