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Citizen Science Phenotypes

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Presentation for iDigBio workshop on Public Participation in Digitization.

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Citizen Science Phenotypes

  1. 1. Citizen Science PhenotypesTypologies & Implications of Project DesignAndrea WigginsPostdoctoral FellowDataONE & Cornell Lab of Ornithology28 September, 2012iDigBioWorkshop on Public Participation in Digitization US NSF Grant #OCI-0830944
  2. 2. What is citizen science?Members of the public engaging in real-worldscientific research • Crowdsourcing • Collaboration • Community 2
  3. 3. By any other name... 3
  4. 4. What’s in a name?Label Research Domain Key FeaturesCivic science Science communication Public participation in decisions about sciencePeople’s science Political science Social movements for people-centered scienceCitizen science Ecology Public participation in scientific researchVolunteer/community- Natural resource Long-term monitoring and interventionbased monitoring managementParticipatory action Behavioral science Researcher & community participation & actionresearchAction science Behavioral science Participatory, emphasizes tacit theories-in-useCommunity science Psychology Participatory community-centered social scienceLiving Labs Management Public-private partnership for innovation 2
  5. 5. A few typologiesConsultative, functional & collaborative • Lawrence, 2006Contributory, collaborative, & co-created • CAISE report, 2009Action, conservation, investigation, virtual, & education • Wiggins & Crowston, 2011Typologies based on goals & tasks • Wiggins & Crowston, 2012 4
  6. 6. Participation in scientific tasks 6
  7. 7. Types of participation tasksData collection • Most common • Observations & measurementsData processing • On the rise • Entirely virtual • Image recognition & puzzle solvingData transcription • On the rise • Mostly virtual 6
  8. 8. Framing participation tasksSharing my data/experiences • Fits into daily life • People like to share their passionsWorking on their/our tasks • New, often unfamiliar tasks • Can reinforce us/them divisionsPlaying games & solving puzzles • Fits into daily life • Explicit symbolic rewards, entertaining 6
  9. 9. Other important factors 8
  10. 10. (Relative) pros & cons Contributory Collaborative Co-CreatedScalability High Varies LowTechnology High Varies LowdependencyVolunteer Low Varies HighmanagementTask complexity Low Varies HighData quality Varies Varies VariesSustainability Varies Varies Varies 9
  11. 11. Implications for design 10
  12. 12. Implications for designHonestly evaluate project resources & goals, workbackwards 11
  13. 13. Implications for designHonestly evaluate project resources & goals, workbackwardsRecognize tradeoffs and make choices accordingly 12
  14. 14. Implications for designHonestly evaluate project resources & goals, workbackwardsRecognize tradeoffs and make choices accordinglyDesign to address resource constraints 13
  15. 15. Implications for designHonestly evaluate project resources & goals, workbackwardsRecognize tradeoffs and make choices accordinglyDesign to address resource constraintsThere’s more than one right answer 14
  16. 16. Thanks!andrea.wiggins@cornell.edu@AndreaWigginsdataone.orgcitizenscience.organdreawiggins.com 15
  17. 17. Typologies• Lawrence, A. (2006). “No Personal Motive?” Volunteers, Biodiversity, and the False Dichotomies of Participation. Ethics, Place & Environment, 9(3), 279-298.• Bonney, R., Ballard, H., Jordan, R., McCallie, E., Phillips, T., Shirk, J., et al. (2009). Public Participation in Scientific Research: Defining the Field and Assessing Its Potential for Informal Science Education. A CAISE Inquiry Group Report (Tech. Rep.).• Danielsen, F., Burgess, N., Balmford, A., Donald, P., Funder, M., Jones, J., et al. (2009). Local participation in natural resource monitoring: a characterization of approaches. Conservation Biology, 23(1), 31–42.• Cooper, C. B., Dickinson, J., Phillips, T., & Bonney, R. (2007). Citizen Science as a Tool for Conservation in Residential Ecosystems. Ecology and Society, 12(2).• Wilderman, C. C. (2007). Models of community science: design lessons from the field. Proceedings of Citizen Science Toolkit Conference.• Wiggins, A. & Crowston, K. (2011). From Conservation to Crowdsourcing: A Typology of Citizen Science. Proceedings of the 44th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.• Wiggins, A. & Crowston, K. (2012). Goals and Tasks: Two Typologies of Citizen Science Projects. Proceedings of the 45th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences. 16

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