Psychology Introduction

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Psychology Introduction

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
  2. 2. PSYCHOLOGY SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND MENTAL PROCESSES
  3. 3. SYSTEMATIC STUDY INVOLVES SCIENTIFIC PROCEDURES SUCH AS: DEFINE THE PROBLEM FORMULATE HYPOTHESIS PLAN AND DESIGN THE METHOD IMPLEMENT THE METHOD
  4. 4. •GATHERING OF DATA •ANALYSIS OF THE DATA GATHERED •MAKING OF A CONCLUSION •PUBLISH THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY
  5. 5. HUMAN BEHAVIORS REFERS TO THE OVERT AND COVERT BEHAVIORS OVERT BEHAVIORS – BEHAVIORS THAT CAN BE SEEN AND OBSERVABLE. COVERT – BEHAVIORS THAT ARE HIDDEN
  6. 6. MENTAL PROCESSES THINKING ANALYSIS COMPREHENSION DAYDREAMING DREAMS
  7. 7. GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY DESCRIBE-tell what occurred EXPLAIN-tells the why PREDICT-under what conditions is the behaviour/event likely to occur CONTROL- how is the principle applied or what change in condition is necessary to prevent unwanted occurrence or to bring about a desired outcome
  8. 8. DESCRIBE DESCRIBE THE DIFFERENT WAYS THAT ORGANISMS BEHAVE.
  9. 9. EXPLAIN EXPLAIN HOW ORGANISMS BEHAVE IN CERTAIN SITUATIONS.
  10. 10. PREDICT PREDICT WHY ORGANISMS BEHAVE IN CERTAIN SITUATION
  11. 11. CONTROL CONTROL UNDESIRABLE BEHAVIORS
  12. 12. SPOTLIGHT EFFECT FAMILIAR FEELING THAT THE WHOLE WORLD IS WATCHING YOU.
  13. 13. DR. KENNETH SAVITSKY PROFESSOR OF PSYCHOLOGY IN ONE OF THE UNIVERSITIES IN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
  14. 14. FIVE PIONEERING SCHOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGY 1. STRUCTURALISM THE STUDY OF THE MOST BASIC ELEMENTS, PRIMARILY SENSATIONS AND PERCEPTIONS THAT MAKE UP OUR CONSCIOUS MENTAL EXPERIENCES.
  15. 15. WILHELM WUNDT THE FATHER OF PSYCHOLOGY
  16. 16. INTROSPECTION GREATEST CONTRIBUTION OF WUNDT. THIS IS A METHOD WHICH ASKS A PERSON TO VERBALIZE HIS THOUGHTS AND FEELINGS WITHOUT ANY CENSORSHIP.
  17. 17. ACTIVITY FOR 5 MINUTES. WRITE DOWN ALL THE THINGS THAT GO THROUGH YOUR MIND NOW. REMEMBER THAT YOU ARE NOT SUPPOSED TO CENSOR ANYTHING. THEN, ANALYZE WHAT YOU HAVE WRITTEN
  18. 18. WILLIAM JAMES HE VIEWED MENTAL ACTIVITIES AS HAVING DEVELOPED THROUGH AGES OF EVOLUTION BECAUSE OF THEIR ADAPTIVE FUNCTIONS SUCH AS HELPING HUMANS SURVIVE.
  19. 19. 2. FUNCTIONALISM STUDY OF THE FUNCTION RATHER THAN THE STRUCTURE OF CONSCIOUSNESS, WAS INTERESTED IN HOW MINDS ADAPT TO OUR CHANGING ENVIRONMENT.
  20. 20. 3. GESTALT APPROACH EMPHASIZES THAT PERCEPTION IS MORE THAN THE SUM OF ITS PARTS AND STUDIED HOW SENATIONS ARE ASSEMBLED INTO MEANINGFUL PERCEPTUAL EXPERIENCES.
  21. 21. 1.MAX WERTHEIMER 2. WOLFGANG KOHLER
  22. 22. 3. KURT KOFFKA
  23. 23. For example, a set of dots outlining the shape of a star is likely to be perceived as a star, not as a set of dots. We tend to complete the figure, make it the way it “should” be, finish it. Like we somehow manage to see this as a "B"...
  24. 24. 4. BEHAVIORISM EMPHASIZED THE OBJECTIVE, SCIENTIFIC ANALYSIS OF OBSERVABLE BEHAVIORS.
  25. 25. “GIVE ME A DOZEN HEALTHY INFANTS, WELL-FORMED AND MY OWN SPECIAL WORLD TO BRING THEM UP IN AND I’LL GUARANTEE TO TAKE ONE AT RANDOM AND TRAIN HIMTO BECOME ANY TYPE OF SPECIALIST I MIGHT SELECT- DOCTOR, LAWYER, ARTIST, CRIMINAL….”.
  26. 26. JOHN B. WATSON
  27. 27. 5. PSYCHOANALYSIS • BASED ON THE BELIEF THAT CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES GREATLY INFLUENCE THE DEVELOPMENT OF LATTER PERSONALITY TRAITS AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS.
  28. 28. SIGMUND FREUD
  29. 29. 1. REFER TO “SPOTLIGHT EFFECT” AND LIST POSSIBLE BEHAVIORS EXHIBITED BY SOMEBODY WHO SUDDENLY TRIPS ON A CHAIR WHILE HE/SHE IS INSIDE THE CANTEEN. LIST AT LEAST 5. 2. CONTRAST THIS METHOD WITH THE “INTROSPECTION EXERCISE” WHICH OF THE TWO IS EASIER TO ACCOMPLISH? WHY?
  30. 30. •Angeliqueart2001 @yahoo.co.uk

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