Trickle down effect
Inspiration from Couture and
luxury fashion filters down the
triangle, this is where levels
such as high street take
inspiration for their ranges to
sell to the masses.
Bubble up effect
Street and culture create a
momentum and become a trend,
this rises through he hierarchy
were high end designers take
inspiration and create their
response. A prime example of
this is punk culture of the 70’s.
Haute Couture & Couture Began in the 19th Century. Haute Couture translates as ‘High
Sewing’- where standards and quality are above all else.
The term ‘haute couture’ is protected by
law and governed by the Chambre
Syndicale de la Haute Couture in Paris.
To be classified as a bona fine haute
couturier a fashion house must create
made to order garments for private.
An unwritten rule suggests
limiting sales of any garment of
over £100,000 to one per
continent to ensure the
exclusivity that clients expect .
Lesser priced garments are
usually confined to no more
than 3 per continent.
Some pieces taking up
to 700 hours to make
2 COLLECTIONS SHOWING
July & January
Recognised haute couture establishments :
Chanel, Dior, Jean Paul Gautier, Valentiono, Giorgio Armani, Jean-
Louis Scerrer, Ellie Saab, Dominique Sirop, Stephane Rolland and
• They must have a full-time workshop in Paris that employs no fewer
than twenty staff.
• Estimated 2,000 female customers globally
• LOSS LEADER - Used as a marketing tool - raising status and
desirability of the brand.
• Couture for Dior only accounts for 4% of over all LVMH sales.
Luxury Fashion “Luxury is not easy to define. The high-quality and creative ready-to-wear is identified as a
luxury symbol. And it is, of course, from a business and brand placement point of view,
addressed to a high consumer range.
Luxury is research, the chance to experience new routes, to find new and not predictable or
already seen solutions. Experimentations are luxury.
Craftsmanship is luxury. A product is luxe when it is handmade, tailored for few. Luxury
meaning exclusiveness. “
By Franca Sozzani
Louise Vuitton, Herems,
Gucci, Prada and Burberry
2 COLLECTIONS SHOWING
September & February
Pre Spring/Summer, -Spring /Summer & Pre Fall -Autumn / Winter
Van Cleef& Arpels
Jaeger –Les Coultre
Target Market :
• £100,000 + Earners
China has become the biggest buyer
of luxury fashion, During Gold Week
Luxury brands generate about 40%-
60% of their October Sales during
This rise has lead luxury brands to make clothes in generally
smaller sizes to fit predominantly Chinese women’s frames.
Fashion Capitals :
London, Paris, Milan, New York
Brazil, Russia, India, China
Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria, Turkey
In 2004, emerging
countries had a share of
only about 7 percent in
the luxury apparel
market; today they
account for 14 percent of
the market, and by 2025
they will have
• China is the largest
consumer of Luxury goods
• 99% of Louis Vuitton out
there is fake
• At the end of each year,
Louis Vuitton burns all
Bridge brands originated in the 70s were a gap in the market was identified.
High quality garments without the price tag associated with a glorified designer
or a designer name.
“Just as presenting a special-offer voucher at a restaurant in which you couldn't otherwise afford to dine can take the shine off
the whole experience, there was once a time when procuring a piece of your favourite designer's handiwork involved a depressing
level of compromise.
"Obviously, in a recession that becomes more relevant because even people who bought designer in the past are looking for a
realistic way to stay in touch with luxury. But it works in different directions – for designers, diffusion was originally a way to
open up their brand to a wider audience."
Curran agrees, however, that consumers nowadays are too design-savvy to accept the uninspired wares that used to pass for
diffusion lines: "I think D&G is an excellent example of the total repositioning. Until five years ago that line was under license
and it had become something that was really nothing to do with the main line.
It was heavily logo-ed, a lot of denim, streetwear almost, which is so different from the glamour and polish of the ' brand – chalk
and cheeseIn fact, so keen are designers and retailers to move away from the old categories, that most prefer to avoid the "d"
word when christening these.”
Cos, Whistles, Ted Baker, Sandro,
Reiss, Coach, Whistles and Joseph.
Rhiannon Harries, The Idenpendant
Target Market :
• Middle class
• Disposable income
For those who may not be able to afford luxury brands but • Inhabit family heritage
still wanting to purchases items that are of a high-quality
and a sense of craftsmanship. Brand themselves as
prestige to the masses as consumers with a low budget still
• Eg. Top starts from
view luxury as something they are entitled too.
(Luxury brand quality without the avant garde sensibilities)
Diffusion line are predominantly global luxury brands were they open up an secondary lines
to bring in a wider market at much more accessible prices. It allows designers to stay in the
radar with a much younger market who look up to these designers. This also allows them to
maintain high profits and keep lucrative sponsorship deals.
SEE by Chloe
RED by Valentino
DRKSHDW by Rick Owens
DKNY by Donna Karan
SIMPLY VERA by Vera Wang
VERSACE, MARNI, MAISON
MARTIN MARGIELA for H&M
In some cases, the lower prices and appeal to a younger
consumer produce a more playful aesthetic. "Designers can
be a bit more adventurous, so you get the same handwriting,
but with a few more quirks. It's fun, but with all the design
integrity and quality you'd expect from a high-end label,"
says Barr, who cites Marc by Marc Jacobs as a prime
example and arguable template for others since its launch in
At the Marc by Marc Jacobs store in London's Mount Street you can
get in on the action with only a quid to your name thanks to his cute
lipstick-shaped pens and friendship bracelets. All of which have been
phenomenally successful – not to mention lucrative – without damaging
the kudos of his other work one bit.
Example of price comparison between luxury brand and their diffusion line
MAISON MARTIN MARGIELA
MM6 MAISON MARTIN MARGIELA
Target Market :
• Regular luxury brand buyers who want to
change up their wardrobe
• Big fans of the brand and designer who want
more products for their money.
Even though at time clothing is cheaper, (sometime chicer but not
cheaper) there has been articles claiming that the quality isn’t of the
same standard like the luxury brand which taking away the
‘specialness’ away from the product’.
High street refers to a chain of brands available in high streets nation wide is most major
cities and towns, some also international such as Zara and Gap.
GAP, Warehouse, Monsoon, M&S,
Topshop, Burton, Dorothy Perkins,
Zara, H&M and River Island
High street brands such as Zara and Topshop
often pick up on the catwalk FORDs which are
usually crowd pleasing accessible trends and
water it down for them to be made at a much
cheaper price .
Eg. Such as busy embroidery is simplified into
Since the recession and economy
brands took off with a bang High
Street brands have increased
their prices. Their basics, for
example Topshop can still start
from around £4-6 however their
main collections, usually inspired
from the seasons catwalk, clothing
starts at around £25 and can
sometimes reach the hundreds.
These are brands which produce for the masses
, readily available for anyone and everyone who
is on a limited budget but still wants to keep in
“According to new figures the decline of the high street has accelerated in the first half of the year.
Traditional goods retailers such as shoe and clothes shops saw a net decline of 365 in the first half
while leisure chains - encompassing food, beverage and entertainment - grew outlets by a net 215.
It reflects the reality that shops need to become experiential destinations.”
Customers are looking for more of an experience whilst shopping however the aim
of the high street is to sell clothing, and fast rather than work on conceptual
pieces and experiences for the customers to enjoy. Customers are going to
economy retails for their basic needs, saving up for expensive luxury items or
simply shopping online leaving the high street empty.
During the recession in 2008 the economy market according to Just-style was worth
50bn Euros across Europe while the rest of the pan-Europe fashion market suffered a
decline of 5.2%.
The value market can at most times be late to big trends and hit them at their peak
which consequently makes them undesirable. With a low budget trends tend to look
cheap therefore they sell best through their volume pieces including the like of
vests, tops, leggings and jumpers; essential items that the mass audience are most
"All economical fashion is
FAST fashion, but not all
FAST fashion is economical"
Pull & Bear, Bershka, Next, F+F, George,
Primark, Peacocks, New Look and
Spanish brand Mango,
worried by the rise of
introduced a new low-cost
line in August 2009
called Think Up in the
bid to stay competitive.
Prices can start from
as little as 50p for an
accessory or £2 for a
piece of clothing.
Usually the end hits
the barrier at around
Target Market :
• Economy brands usually fulfil peoples basic needs,
customers go in knowing what they want and usually
leave with a couple more items due to the cheap
prices. Taking an example of a black top, economy
brands can simply alter the shape slightly to keep up
with the trends.
• Due to its fast turn over in clothing Economy brand
can change stock to keep up within 2 weeks.