Speech 104 Guidelines For Critical Decision Making

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Speech 104 Guidelines For Critical Decision Making

  1. 1. Guidelines For Critical Decision Making by Wade & Travis, Psychology, 7 th Edition.
  2. 2. Table of Contents <ul><li>-Ask Questions; Be Willing to Wonder. </li></ul><ul><li>-Define the Problem. </li></ul><ul><li>-What Evidence Supports or Refutes This Argument and its Opposition? </li></ul><ul><li>-Analyze Assumptions and Biases. </li></ul><ul><li>-Control Emotional Reasoning. </li></ul><ul><li>-Don’t Oversimplify. </li></ul><ul><li>-Consider Other Interpretations </li></ul><ul><li>-Tolerate Uncertainty. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ask Questions; Be Willing to Wonder… <ul><li>Being a critical thinker is all about asking questions and wondering “What’s wrong here?” or “Why is this the way it is, and how did it come to be that way?” It is important to always be on the lookout for questions that have never been answered. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Define the Problem. <ul><li>Ask questions that don’t presuppose the answer. A poor formulation of questions can lead to incomplete answers. </li></ul>
  5. 5. What Evidence Supports or Refutes This Argument and its Opposition? <ul><li>Just because many people agree with one thing, including experts, doesn’t mean it is the accurate evidence. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Analyze Assumptions and Biases <ul><li>Evaluating the assumptions and biases are both key ways to finding out what lies behind arguments, even your own. Everyone is entitled to biases, that is beliefs that prevent us from being fair. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Control Emotional Reasoning <ul><li>Being passionate about what you feel can motivate you to think boldly without fear, but by using “gut feelings” the results can be unfortunate. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Don’t Oversimplify <ul><li>Always look beyond the obvious, rest easy generalizations, and reject the either/or thinking. Don’t argue by anecdote. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Consider Other Interpretations <ul><li>Create hypotheses, or educated guesses, that offer explanations of characteristics, behavior, and events. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Tolerate Uncertainty <ul><li>Never be afraid to say “I don’t know.” Demanding the answer isn’t the best choice. Sometimes the evidence allows us to draw unsure conclusions. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Conclusion/Summary <ul><li>A Critical thinker should… </li></ul><ul><li>-Be on the lookout for questions. </li></ul><ul><li>-Ask questions that don’t presuppose answers. </li></ul><ul><li>-Find evidence and not believe just because experts believe. </li></ul><ul><li>-Analyze assumptions and biases. </li></ul><ul><li>-Be passionate about what they think. </li></ul><ul><li>-Look beyond the obvious. </li></ul><ul><li>-Make hypotheses. </li></ul><ul><li>-Never be afraid to say “I don’t know.” </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Created By: </li></ul><ul><li>Angelica Boyrazyan </li></ul>

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