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Chapter 5 & 6<br />Digestive System<br />
Functions of the Digestive System<br />Breakdown foods into a form usable by the rest of the body – chemical form<br />Abs...
Digestive System Conveyor Belt<br />Exterior to your body<br />Peristalsis<br />Nutrients taken; wastes excreted<br />
Oral Cavity<br />Food fibers are broken down by teeth, tongue and hard palate in mastication (chewing)<br />Deglutition (s...
Oral Cavity Continued<br />Saliva – secreted into food to start the process of breaking down starches. Secreted by the:<br...
Esophagus<br />Epiglottis – stops food from entering the larynx<br />Transport system to stomach<br />
Stomach<br /><ul><li>Cardiac Sphincter/lower esophageal sphincter – the “doorway” to the stomach</li></ul>Sphincter fails ...
Small Intestines<br />Duodenum<br />Jejunum<br />Ileum<br />
Duodenum<br />Finishes process of digestion<br />Starts absorption process<br />Pancreas and gallbladder secrete digestive...
Jejunum & Ileum<br />Absorption of nutrients<br />All three sections (duodenum, jejunum & ileum) have villi which increase...
Large Intestines<br />Water absorption<br />Constipation vs. diarrhea<br />
TERMS TO KNOW<br />ETIOLOGY<br />The process of studying the cause<br />IDIOPATHIC<br />Pertaining to unknown disease<br />
TERMS TO KNOW<br />ANOREXIA<br />Lack of appetite in an ill patient<br />ASCITES<br />Accumulation of fluid in abdomen<br ...
TERMS TO KNOW<br />BORBORYGMUS<br />Growling stomach<br />Movement of gas, fluid or both in GI tract<br />DYSPHAGIA<br />T...
TERMS TO KNOW<br />CONSTIPATION<br />Fecal material stays in intestines too long becoming hard and compressed from excessi...
TERMS TO KNOW<br />FLATUS<br />Gas expelled through anus<br />ERUCTATION<br />Gas expelled through mouth<br />
TERMS TO KNOW<br />HEMATOCHEZIA<br />Bright red blood on outside of stool<br />Sign of bleeding on the lower end of digest...
TERMS TO KNOW<br />NAUSEA<br />Upset stomach feeling<br />JAUNDICE<br />Yellow-orange color of skin when high bilirubin is...
TERMS TO KNOW<br />STEATORRHEA<br />Fat in stool<br />May be indication of pancreatic disease<br />HEMORRHOIDS<br />Varico...
TERMS TO KNOW<br />APHTHOUS STOMATITIS<br />Cancer sores<br />Inflammation of the mouth with small ulcers <br />HERPETIC S...
TERMS TO KNOW – Please review in book!<br />Dental caries<br />Colonic polyposis<br />Colorectal cancer<br />Dysentery<br ...
TERMS TO KNOW<br />ORAL LEUKOPLAKIA<br />White plaques/patch on mouth<br />Precancerous lesion<br />Chewing tobacco<br />P...
TERMS TO KNOW<br />ACHALASIA<br />Lower esophagus/cardiac sphincter does not relax enough to allow food into stomach<br />...
TERMS TO KNOW<br />ANAL FISTULA<br />Abnormal passageway from rectum to outside of body<br />ANAL FISSURE<br />Crack  or s...
TERMS TO KNOW<br />DIVERTICULA<br />Out pocketing of intestine<br />Irritation and inflammation which can result in divert...
TERMS TO KNOW<br />GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE<br />GERD or heartburn<br />Contents of stomach return up into the esop...
Hernia<br />Hiatal hernia – stomach through diaphragm<br />Ventral hernia – intestine through muscle and peritoneum in fro...
TERMS TO KNOW<br />INTUSSUSCEPTION<br />Telescoping of intestines; one piece inside the other<br />Serious , painful and o...
TERMS TO KNOW<br />CHOLELITHIASIS<br />Gallstones in gallbladder<br />CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS<br />Gallstones in gallbladder a...
VIRAL HEPATITIS<br />Hepatitis A: transmitted via oral/fecal route<br />Hepatitis B: transmitted through blood route<br />...
TERMS TO KNOW<br />Laboratory tests in text<br />Clinical procedures in text<br />Abbreviations <br />
ROOT OPERATIONS<br />
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Digestive system presentation BUS 116

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Digestive system presentation BUS 116

  1. 1. Chapter 5 & 6<br />Digestive System<br />
  2. 2. Functions of the Digestive System<br />Breakdown foods into a form usable by the rest of the body – chemical form<br />Absorb broken down nutrients and get them into the circulatory system for transportation to cells<br />Eliminate any waste products that cannot be absorbed into the blood stream<br />
  3. 3. Digestive System Conveyor Belt<br />Exterior to your body<br />Peristalsis<br />Nutrients taken; wastes excreted<br />
  4. 4. Oral Cavity<br />Food fibers are broken down by teeth, tongue and hard palate in mastication (chewing)<br />Deglutition (swallowing)<br />Rugae – located on hard palate to help grind up the food in preparation for digestion<br />32 Teeth<br />Incisors: front teeth<br />Molars: back teeth<br />Mesial surface – toward midline of body<br />Buccal surface – toward cheek<br />Labial surface – touch the lip<br />Distal surface – toward back or throat<br />Incisal surface – part that comes together when you bite down (incisors)<br />Occlusal surface – part that comes together when you bite down (molars)<br />
  5. 5. Oral Cavity Continued<br />Saliva – secreted into food to start the process of breaking down starches. Secreted by the:<br />Parotid gland – just in front of ear<br />Sublingual gland – under the tongue<br />Submandibular gland – area of the lower jaw<br />
  6. 6. Esophagus<br />Epiglottis – stops food from entering the larynx<br />Transport system to stomach<br />
  7. 7. Stomach<br /><ul><li>Cardiac Sphincter/lower esophageal sphincter – the “doorway” to the stomach</li></ul>Sphincter fails = heartburn<br />Gastric juices: hydrochloric acid & pepsin <br />food + gastric juices = chyme<br />
  8. 8. Small Intestines<br />Duodenum<br />Jejunum<br />Ileum<br />
  9. 9. Duodenum<br />Finishes process of digestion<br />Starts absorption process<br />Pancreas and gallbladder secrete digestive juices<br />Nutrients further metabolized<br />
  10. 10. Jejunum & Ileum<br />Absorption of nutrients<br />All three sections (duodenum, jejunum & ileum) have villi which increase the absorption surface of intestines and quickly absorb nutrients<br />
  11. 11. Large Intestines<br />Water absorption<br />Constipation vs. diarrhea<br />
  12. 12. TERMS TO KNOW<br />ETIOLOGY<br />The process of studying the cause<br />IDIOPATHIC<br />Pertaining to unknown disease<br />
  13. 13. TERMS TO KNOW<br />ANOREXIA<br />Lack of appetite in an ill patient<br />ASCITES<br />Accumulation of fluid in abdomen<br />Characteristic of CHF<br />
  14. 14. TERMS TO KNOW<br />BORBORYGMUS<br />Growling stomach<br />Movement of gas, fluid or both in GI tract<br />DYSPHAGIA<br />Trouble swallowing<br />Often occurs after person has a stroke<br />
  15. 15. TERMS TO KNOW<br />CONSTIPATION<br />Fecal material stays in intestines too long becoming hard and compressed from excessive removal of water from stool<br />DIARRHEA<br />Stool passes too quickly through intestines resulting in no water loss from stool<br />
  16. 16. TERMS TO KNOW<br />FLATUS<br />Gas expelled through anus<br />ERUCTATION<br />Gas expelled through mouth<br />
  17. 17. TERMS TO KNOW<br />HEMATOCHEZIA<br />Bright red blood on outside of stool<br />Sign of bleeding on the lower end of digestive tract<br />Sign of hemorrhoids<br />MELENA<br />Black tarry stools<br />Blood digested in stool – GI hemorrhage has taken place in the beginning to middle of the digestive system; most likely stomach or duodenum<br />
  18. 18. TERMS TO KNOW<br />NAUSEA<br />Upset stomach feeling<br />JAUNDICE<br />Yellow-orange color of skin when high bilirubin is present in blood<br />Icterus – color of the whites of the eyes<br />
  19. 19. TERMS TO KNOW<br />STEATORRHEA<br />Fat in stool<br />May be indication of pancreatic disease<br />HEMORRHOIDS<br />Varicose veins in the rectum<br />Caused by increased pressure on rectum from constipation or pregnancy<br />
  20. 20. TERMS TO KNOW<br />APHTHOUS STOMATITIS<br />Cancer sores<br />Inflammation of the mouth with small ulcers <br />HERPETIC STOMATITIS<br />Blisters/cold sores<br />Infection of herpes virus<br />
  21. 21. TERMS TO KNOW – Please review in book!<br />Dental caries<br />Colonic polyposis<br />Colorectal cancer<br />Dysentery<br />Gastric Carcinoma<br />Ileus<br />Irritable bowel syndrome<br />Ulcerative colitis<br />Cirrhosis<br />Pancreatitis<br />
  22. 22. TERMS TO KNOW<br />ORAL LEUKOPLAKIA<br />White plaques/patch on mouth<br />Precancerous lesion<br />Chewing tobacco<br />PERIODONTAL DISEASE<br />AKA pyorrhea<br />Bacteria cause inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth and surrounding tissue<br />
  23. 23. TERMS TO KNOW<br />ACHALASIA<br />Lower esophagus/cardiac sphincter does not relax enough to allow food into stomach<br />CROHN’S DISEASE<br />Autoimmune disease<br />Severe inflammation and destruction of tissue in colon<br />Diarrhea, cramping, fever<br />Chronic condition for which there is no cure<br />
  24. 24. TERMS TO KNOW<br />ANAL FISTULA<br />Abnormal passageway from rectum to outside of body<br />ANAL FISSURE<br />Crack or slit in the mucous membrane of the anus<br />
  25. 25. TERMS TO KNOW<br />DIVERTICULA<br />Out pocketing of intestine<br />Irritation and inflammation which can result in diverticulitis<br />ESOPHAGEAL VARICES<br />Associated with cirrhosis of liver<br />Liver becomes fibrotic and blood cannot pass through; blood backs up in hepatic portal vascular system into the vessels around esophagus; vessels become clotted and twisted<br />
  26. 26. TERMS TO KNOW<br />GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE<br />GERD or heartburn<br />Contents of stomach return up into the esophagus<br />ULCER<br />Open sore anywhere along digestive tract <br />Most common is gastric and duodenal<br />Caused by Helicobacter pylori<br />
  27. 27. Hernia<br />Hiatal hernia – stomach through diaphragm<br />Ventral hernia – intestine through muscle and peritoneum in front abdomen<br />Incisional hernia – intestine through location of a previous incision<br />Inguinal hernia – intestine through inguinal ring<br />Hernias can be:<br />Reducible: can be pushed back into position within the abdomen<br />Incarcerated: cannot be reduced and is held in position by the abdominal muscles<br />Strangulated: incarcerated with a piece of stool lodged in that section causing swelling and blood supply being cut off<br />
  28. 28. TERMS TO KNOW<br />INTUSSUSCEPTION<br />Telescoping of intestines; one piece inside the other<br />Serious , painful and occurs often in children and young adults<br />VULVULUS<br />Twisting of intestines upon themselves<br />More serious than intussusceptions and occurs in newborns and small children<br />Requires immediate surgery<br />
  29. 29. TERMS TO KNOW<br />CHOLELITHIASIS<br />Gallstones in gallbladder<br />CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS<br />Gallstones in gallbladder and duodenum<br />
  30. 30. VIRAL HEPATITIS<br />Hepatitis A: transmitted via oral/fecal route<br />Hepatitis B: transmitted through blood route<br />Hepatitis C: transmitted through blood route – worst of all because there is no cure<br />
  31. 31. TERMS TO KNOW<br />Laboratory tests in text<br />Clinical procedures in text<br />Abbreviations <br />
  32. 32. ROOT OPERATIONS<br />

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