Lecture in gen psych chapter 5 learning and memory


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Lecture in gen psych chapter 5 learning and memory

  2. 2. What is Learning??? <ul><li>Defined as the relatively permanent changes in behavior that results from exposure or practice provided that the behavioural change is not caused by native response tendencies, maturation or temporary states. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Theories of Learning <ul><li>Classical Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>(Associative Learning) </li></ul><ul><li>Connectionism </li></ul><ul><li>(Trial and Error Learning) </li></ul><ul><li>Operant Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>(Instrumental Conditioning) </li></ul><ul><li>Social Learning </li></ul><ul><li>(Learning by Observation) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Classical Conditioning (Ivan Pavlov) <ul><li>An accidental discovery by Ivan Pavlov’s experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology: </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral stimulus (NS) </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned Stimulus (CS) </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned response (UR) </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned Response (CR) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Classical Conditioning (Ivan Pavlov) <ul><li>Stages of Classical Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Before conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 1: NS is the Bell ----no response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> UCS is Food ----salivation (UCR) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CS is the Bell ----UCS is food ---salivation (UCR) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CS is the Bell ------------------------- CR is salivation </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Classical Conditioning (Ivan Pavlov) <ul><li>Phenomena about Classical Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus Generalization – occurs when something similar to conditioned stimulus creates the same response </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus Discrimination – occurs when one new stimulus is too different from our original conditioned stimulus to cause the effect we want. </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction – occurs when the conditioned stimulus is presented a number of times without the unconditioned stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous Recovery – occurs when there is re-appearance of an extinguished conditioned response after a rest period. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Connectionism (Edward Thorndike) <ul><li>Law of Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement/satisfier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Law of Readiness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation, preparation and proper mind-set </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Law of Exercise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Practice makes perfect” </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Operant Conditioning Burrhus F. Skinner <ul><li>The conceptual framework of B.F. Skinner’s theory is largely based on Thorndike’s Law of Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Learning happens when organism operates on something or do something to the environment in order to produce a result </li></ul>
  9. 9. Operant Conditioning Burrhus F. Skinner <ul><li>Discriminative Stimulus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This stimulus gives the organism the option of whether to respond to it or not. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is that which increases the probability of a response to the same stimulus. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Operant Conditioning Burrhus F. Skinner <ul><li>Types of Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Reinforcement – Which when given increases the probability of a response. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Reinforcement – which when removed increases response probabaility. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Reinforcement is very important in shaping behavior </li></ul>
  11. 11. Social Learning Albert Bandura <ul><li>Derived from B.F. Skinner’s operant conditioning theory </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of observation and imitation. </li></ul><ul><li>4 Conditions that should be present for learning to occur </li></ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Retention </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul>
  12. 12. Memory <ul><li>An active system that receives, stores, organizes, alters and recovers information </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of memory: Short term memory(STM) and Long term memory (LTM) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Short term Memory <ul><li>George Miller found that short term memory is limited to only 7-bits of information (±2) </li></ul><ul><li>STM has seven slots or bins into which separate items can be placed. </li></ul><ul><li>When all slots are filled, there is no room for new data. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Process/technique to increase capacity to recall more information bits <ul><li>Recoding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grouping of information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintenance Rehearsal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STM appears to weaken and disappear very fast (18-30 seconds), but it can be prolonged by silently repeating it until it is needed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elaborative Rehearsal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technique that links new information with information already in the LTM to make information more meaningful. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. long term Memory <ul><li>Information in LTM is relatively permanent </li></ul><ul><li>As new long term memories are formed, older memories are often updated, changed, lost or revised. </li></ul>
  16. 16. long term Memory <ul><li>Classification of Long Term Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Skill memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory for doing learned tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with the lower centre of the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Declarative memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facts like names, data, address, place, dates and ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressed in symbols and words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with the higher brain centre </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Division of Declarative Memory <ul><li>Semantic Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental dictionary of basic knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Episodic Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Record of personal experiences and life events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily forgotten than semantic memory. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. forgetting <ul><li>According to Herman Ebbinghaus, forgetting happens very rapidly after learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Type of memory affect the rate of forgetting </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of Forgetting </li></ul><ul><li>Neural Decay </li></ul><ul><li>Interference </li></ul><ul><li>Forgetting is cue-dependent </li></ul>
  19. 19. Mnemonics <ul><li>Memory aids that help in remembering data accurately. </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to avoid rote learning or learning by repetition. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use mental pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make things meaningful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make information familiar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form bizarre, unusual or exaggerated mental .associations </li></ul></ul>