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P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
ASSESSMENT OF THE STUDY SKILLS OF 1ST
YEAR AND 2...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Chapter 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introdu...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
It takes a good study skills, patience and persi...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Through the mission and vision of PUP, the resea...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
The theoretical framework that used in the study...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
processed and provide a certain output. The IPO ...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Statement of the Problem
This study sought asses...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Scope and Limitations
The study seeks to determi...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
performance. The result of the study will make t...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Operationally
Factors. These refer to anything t...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
for students especially those who are not consis...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
That means he/she should eliminate all external ...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
to straighten things up. A desk and straight-bac...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
In accordance, Kelly (2000) explains that learni...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
material as several hours a few days later. Stud...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
information, or dealing with assessments. They i...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
In support, Salcedo, Lumantas, and Masunong (200...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
the best guarantee of attaining a desired learni...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
from watching television most especially during ...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
suggests that it is only when students imbibe or...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
According to Chambers (2009), student days are c...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
is a proactive approach to making best use of al...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Students who have difficulty in college frequent...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Local Studies
According to Muega (2003), student...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
the researchers were able to discover and identi...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
In the 2010 professional licensure examinations ...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Synthesis and Relevance of Related Literature an...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
The type of research method that is used by the ...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Technology. The number of respondent each level ...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
1st
Year Level
CET 1-1 26 students 24 respondent...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
preparation, and reading. The test questionnaire...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
The respondents have poor study skills in terms ...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Frequency and Percentage. This is used to determ...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Chapter 4
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETAT...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
clearly shows that majority of them are male wit...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Figure 2.1. According to Concentration
Figure 2....
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Figure 2.2. According to Time Management
Figure ...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Figure 2.3. According to Note Taking
Figure 2.3 ...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Figure 2.4. According to Test Preparation
Figure...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Figure 2.5. According to Reading
Figure 2.3 pres...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Figure 3.1.1. Level of Study Skills in Terms of ...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
In Figure 3.1.2, illustrates that the percentage...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Figure 3.1.4. Level of Study Skills According to...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
3.2 The Depicts of the Level of Study Skills of ...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Year Level
Figure 3.2.2 illustrates that 1st yea...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Figure 3.2.4. Level of Study Skills According to...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Figure 3.2.5. Level of Study Skills According to...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
Majority of the respondents are male with freque...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
47% of the respondents have mean range of 1.76 t...
P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S
1. The researchers recommend that students shoul...
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A THESIS - Assessment of the Levels of Study Skills of Computer Engineering Students at the Polytechnic University of the Phillippines

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A THESIS - Assessment of the Levels of Study Skills of Computer Engineering Students at the Polytechnic University of the Phillippines

  1. 1. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S ASSESSMENT OF THE STUDY SKILLS OF 1ST YEAR AND 2ND YEAR COMPUTER ENGINEERING STUDENTS OF POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Presented to the Faculty of the Institute of Technology Polytechnic University of the Philippines Sta. Mesa, Manila In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Diploma in Computer Engineering Management Technology by ANGELICA MAE V. ALCANTARA ALLEN NICOLE P. ANGAT RALPH ANTHONY I. ANGELES ELIJAH PHILIPPE D. BARRO WELJEM A. DANIEL JAYMALIN P. JAMOLIN ELMERTO M. MARTINEZ II ANNA JANE E. SALVADICO ABIGAIL B. TAYLAN LUDI JANE G. TERANA March 2014
  2. 2. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction People say “Education is a greatest treasure that can achieve”. Education is all around us. Education is everywhere. It is not just about the lesson that can get in schools and textbooks; it’s also about the lessons of life. It gives us knowledge and changes into something better. It builds the character of a person. Excellent education leads to the success of life. The learners cannot learn simply by being told what to do or by watching others, they have to practice and practice frequently. Successful students employ time management systems to create study patterns that work and use active learning methods to add meaning and interest to their study time and maintaining their motivation by connecting reasons for study to their life goals and values. Learners must develop and established good study habits in doing school work, which can raised their academic performance. It is a common knowledge that many students fail in studying; even those who work hard often study in ways considered unproductive. Several others are just contented with barely passing grades, never developing their skills and abilities to the highest level attainable. What to study, where to study and how to study are indispensable to every student in class. In fact, proper study habits are the tool for acquiring deeper understanding in different subjects.
  3. 3. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S It takes a good study skills, patience and persistence to attain good grades. Learning is never easy. Learning is acquiring new, or modifying existing, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information and a continuous process. Today, a lot of college students dropping and failing their subjects. These may be occurring due of lack of study skills. Study skills play a major role to get and maintain a high grades. Moreover, it is a key to cope up easily with the discussions, sharpens your mind and improve your time management. There are many factors which may affect study skills. Study skills can be affected by the environment in which the student studies. The amount of time used for studying is another affecting factor. Good study skills minimize failure and enable students to take advantage of learning oppurtunities. The researchers believe to achieve a good study skills, one must have a desire to learn and to improve. Motivation and persistence is very essential in learning because the researchers know that learning is a continuous process. Background of the Study One of the goals of PUP is the provision of undergraduate and graduate education which will meet the international standards of quality and excellence. It continues to provide highly qualified, competent and multi-skilled faculty members to produce progressive leadership, integrity in governance and globally competitive students.
  4. 4. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S Through the mission and vision of PUP, the researchers aims to helps the students for enable to explore topics in a deeper and more expansive way, incorporating creative and expressive modes into their learning, and developing deeper insights into the complex connections between the subjects they are studying and as a result Students have a vital personal model for intellectual inquiry and growth and the faculty enjoys a continuously challenging and changing teaching environment, and the rewards of playing a primary role in student development. Institute of Technology (Itech), formerly known as College of Technology, is one of the colleges of PUP that offers diploma programs with ladderized curriculum. Itech focuses merely in the integration of technology and skills development to its students. It intends to develop knowledge, skills, values and attitudes that will prepare the students for entry into world of work. Itech provides six different ladderized diploma programs to its students which lead to Bachelor Science degree. This study aims to assess levels of the study skills of 1st year and 2nd year Computer Engineering students of Institute of Technology at the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Sta. Mesa, Manila. Theoretical Framework
  5. 5. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S The theoretical framework that used in the study is the Input-Process-Output Model. In the IPO model, a process is viewed as a series of boxes (processing elements) connected by inputs and outputs. Information or material objects flow through a series of task or activities based on a set of rules or description points. Flow charts and process diagrams are often used to represent the process. What goes in is the input; what causes the change is the process; what comes out is the output. Figure 1 illustrates the basic IPO model: Figure 1. Input-Process-Output Model The components of the IPO model are defined as:  Input - The information, ideas, and resources used  Process - Actions taken upon/using input or stored material  Output - Results of the processing that then exit the system Conceptual Framework The conceptual framework is a set of coherent ideas or concepts organized in a manner that makes it easy for them to communicate with each other. It uses an IPO model that shows how the data is bringing together in order to be Input Process Output
  6. 6. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S processed and provide a certain output. The IPO includes requirements that are needed for the study. Figure 1. Conceptual Paradigm Figure 1 shown for the input, the researchers sought for the profiles of the students: gender, and year level. It also includes the level of study skills of the students in terms of Concentration, Time management, Note taking, Test preparation and Reading. The process included the collection of data through used of survey questionnaires, analysis and interpreting of data. The output of the study is to assess the current level of study skills of the students. Improvement of study skills and excellent grades can be achieve as Feedback.
  7. 7. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S Statement of the Problem This study sought assessed the levels study skills of Computer Engineering students. Specifically, this study aims to answer the following questions. 1. What are the profiles of the respondents in terms of the following demographic: 1.1gender 1.2year level 2. What is the level of study skills of the students according to the following: 2.1concentration 2.2time management 2.3note taking 2.4test preparation 2.5reading 3. Is there a significant relationship between the levels of study skills of the respondents to their demographic profile? Hypothesis 1. There is no significant relationship between the levels of study skills of the respondent to their demographic profile.
  8. 8. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S Scope and Limitations The study seeks to determine the factors that affect the study skills among Computer Engineering students. The researchers will give a self-evaluation questionnaire that is required to answer by 1st year and 2nd year students of Institute of Technology, regarding with their study skills in terms of: Concentration, Time management, Note taking, and Test preparation. The study is largely dependent on the honesty, sincerity, and integrity of the respondents. This study will not cover the graduating students, due to the fact that we have limited sources. Moreover, 1st year and 2nd year Computer Engineering students are only allowed to participate in the research. Significance of the Study The researchers believe that following will be benefited from the findings of this study. Computer Technology Department. The study may also be guided in the formulation of future modification of educational policies, curriculum and strategies toward a more effective delivery of learning. Professor. The study will also be help in understanding better the diversity of learning of their students. As such, it is hoped that they could develop more effective methodologies in teaching their subject matter. Students. The study will benefits students most specially the Institute of Technology will be given information on how study skills affect their academic
  9. 9. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S performance. The result of the study will make them aware of the common study skills among their co- education students. Parents/Guardian. The study will help the parents in encouraging their children in achieving academic performance in school or increase their study skills. Future Researcher. The study may be able to use the result of the study in farther research similar to what the study is. Definition of Terms For the purpose of definiteness and in order to avoid confusion and ambiguity, the following terms were defined conceptually and operationally. Conceptually Factors. It is one that actively contributes to an accomplishments, results or process. Integrity. It is basing of one's actions on an internally consistent framework of principles. Knowledge. It is the state of being aware of something Motivation. It is the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. Study skills. It is the process of organizing and taking in new information, retaining information, or dealing with assessments manner in which you consistently use to study for school or college or even for the next day lesson. Synthesize. It is to combine so as to form a new, complex product.
  10. 10. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S Operationally Factors. These refer to anything that affects study habits. Integrity. It refers to states of being whole. Knowledge. It refers to the capacity of the students. Motivation. It refers to the drive that gives the student to perform better and further improve their productivity. Study skills. It refers to the strategies in studying on a particular subject. Synthesize. It refers to summarizing information. Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES The purpose of the review of related literature and studies is to give several ideas on how the researchers formulate the proposed study. Foreign Literature In conformity with Mcknight (2006) he explained that habits are formed through repetition. Once formed, habits are difficult to break. And it is formed when we are young and are likely to stay with us in all our lives. It requires experiences whether they may bad or may be good. Sometimes, it may refer also as a routine of a person as he or she lives his or her life. Habits are being chosen and not hut something that happens without a reason. As for the study habit specifically, it has to be processed and developed in order to come up with a good one. It is not easy
  11. 11. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S for students especially those who are not consistent with what they are doing to develop their study habit because it requires consistency and persistence in order to let one’s study habit stay in our lives. Attaining one’s ideal study habit is a long- way process.. Mark Crilly (2000) said that “Successful students are able to balance social activities with good study habits.” A diversion from studies will alleviate stress and help prevent from becoming fatigued. He said that a student should make sure that he must take a break for an hour after studies to meet with friends, to play some cards, work out at the gym, or to gab with anew acquaintance. For this way, that student will find concentration when he do study, if he plans a social activity afterwards. He said, “To develop a healthy social life, develop routine study habits. After supper, lug your books and homework to the library, find a comfortable and quiet niche, and study for two or three hours, taking intermittent 10 minute breaks every 45 minutes or so.” Making friends with whom you share similar study habits, and share a table or a study space with them would be a best way in developing study habits as what Mark said. Frank Pogue (2000) did a research project to determine why students fail. What he founds to be true in that study habits survey was that more than 30 years ago still rings true today-students fail because they do not know how to study. The best advice he can give is to develop sound study skills. He said that a student should make sure that he/she has a good study environment, a good desk, a sturdy chair, good light, comfortable room temperature and a quiet atmosphere.
  12. 12. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S That means he/she should eliminate all external and internal distractions. Second, get a good overview of the assignment before starting the work. Know what skills, facts and ideas that are expected to master and the ground that are expected to cover. Start with most difficult subjects first, while the mind is freshest and most receptive. In terms of age, Andrew (2006) stated that the older the respondent, the better grade he gains, expecting that results of this study will yield more older respondents with better performance. Older existence means better experience. Experience enhances the way of thinking and gains a sharper view for studying. Age surely doesn’t matter but when it comes to thinking, it does. Critical thinking and understanding are developed through time and studying From a reliable source (Abderisak, 2007), students cannot study properly without considering the time as the main factor of study habit. It is most certainly a study technique in itself. The schedule given in each student should guide them in how to allocate the available time among the academe works, extracurricular activities and social life. Time is the most important element of studying. It must be properly observed and practice the studying accordingly to the given time span. According to Palm Beach Community College (PBCC, 2008), they recommend that student’s study should have at least three hours out of class for every hour spent in class. They also said that a student must have a special place to study with plenty to work. And students should not be cramped. They presupposes that study time will go better if a learner take a few minutes at the stat
  13. 13. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S to straighten things up. A desk and straight-backed chair usually best. “Don’t get comfortable—a bed is a place to sleep, not to study” as what they said. A student must have everything close at hand (book, pencil coffee, dictionary, computer, calculator, tape recorder, etc.) before starting to study. Students are not suggested to on time jumping up and down to get things. The PBCC suggested also that distracting noise should be minimized however they said that there are some people need sound and some like silence. In this case, a learner must find what work for him or her. Culprits are family and friends. Consider a “Do not disturb” and turning your answering machine is the way also to have better study habits according to the PBCC Fielden (2004) states that good study habits help the student in critical reflection in skills outcomes such as selecting, analyzing, critiquing, and synthesizing. But Fielden’s study was slightly opposed by the work of Gladen (2008) who mentioned that there is no definite way to define good study skills. As every student is different and works. Nneji (2002) states that study habits are learning tendencies that enable students work private. “The best thing students should be doing is self-testing and self-monitoring,” Van Blerkom says. “So many students read over the material and say, ‘I’ve got this.’ Maybe this worked with high school tests. However, when they study by reading over the material for their college exams, they are surprised when they do not excel because they thought they knew the material.”
  14. 14. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S In accordance, Kelly (2000) explains that learning is very significant on the study habits of students. “If no learning takes place, studies are useless”. The study is somehow a general term and in fact, it is being measured by learning. When a student study, it means they will be learning something. And the quality of their study habits whether they may be bad or good depends on the learning that they have acquired because the mere fact in here is that if the students learn a lot, it means that they have applied the a sound study habits. The more the learning that a student learns, the better they have studied. In addition, Richards (2009) stated, it will be a big help in studying to divide up large tasks into smaller ones. In this way, students may limit their allotted tie for studying. Dividing large tasks into smaller ones is one of the few ways to lessen the time for studying and also organizes the material for studying. As it is said in the study of Crede and Kuncel (2008), study habit, skill, and attitude inventories and constructs were found to rival standardized tests and previous grades as predictors of academic performance, yielding substantial incremental validity in predicting academic performance. Study motivation and study skills exhibit the strongest relationships with both grade point average and grades in individual classes. Academic specific anxiety was found to be an important negative predictor of performance. In addition, significant variation in the validity of specific inventories is shown. Study groups help solve the problem of forgetfulness. Studying one hour immediately after a class will do more good in developing an understanding of the
  15. 15. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S material as several hours a few days later. Studies show that as much as 80% of material learned in class is forgotten within 24 hours if there is no review. Maryland Community College S.O.A.R. Program Revised. (April 2002) Simmons (2003) said. professors in the developing countries said that the undergraduate students should be fully equip with high level of analytical skills, the capacity for critical reasoning, self-reflection and conceptual grasp and ability to learn autonomously and exercise flexibility of mind. Study habits are said to be improving because of the advent and wide use of the Internet, hypertext, and multimedia resources which greatly Affects the Study Habits. Liu (2005) According to Allan Paivio (2006), an emeritus professor of psychology at the University of Western Ontario, noted that habits of study, which are formed in school have greater significance and students must realize the need to acquire these effective study habits. Effective studying will help students to prepare schoolwork in less time and achieve greater degree of mastery of the lesson. Students who study effectively and efficiently make use of methods of learning which provide gaining in the acquisition, retention, application of knowledge, facts and information from textbook and class discussion, lectures and other resources. While Bolivar Pascual MD, a psychiatrist, stated that study skills/habits or study strategies are approaches applied to learning. They are generally critical to success in school, are considered essential for acquiring good grades, and are useful for learning throughout one's life. There are arrays of study skills, which may tackle the process of organizing and taking in new information, retaining
  16. 16. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S information, or dealing with assessments. They include mnemonics, which aid the retention of lists of information, effective reading and concentration techniques, as well as efficient note taking. Acquiring effective study habits are often left up to the student and their support, however there is and evidence that they increasingly taught at high school and university level. Li (2009) explained that students don’t need to study for a long period of time but instead, but instead, enough time is recommended for healthy amount. Local Literature Ortinero (2000) particularly highlights the role of family and environment in students’ acquisition of rational capacities and skills. It has been scientifically confirmed that family upbringing, neighborhood culture, schooling experience, and the national milieu positively or adversely affect the shaping of rational capacities. It is believed that good study habits and positive attitude towards learning proven in many studies enhance the process of learning skills, including reasoning skills. Good study habits lead to enhancement in learning, as “ability improves and sharpens through mastery of principles and by means of training, exercise and constancy of application. (Ortinero, 2000, pg. 56) Local studies (Muega, 2003; Acuna, 2000; Orteza, 1999) have also stressed the need for students to acquire reasoning skills that would enable them to think critically and to make the right decisions claims on issues.
  17. 17. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S In support, Salcedo, Lumantas, and Masunong (2006) affirmed that motivated students are most successful when learning a target language are those who are like the people that speak the language, admire the culture, and have desire to become familiar with or even integrated into the society in which the language is used. In the local setting specifically in Davao City, Nacito (2006) and Azarcon, et.al. (2004) found that Grade Six students enrolled in Piedad District of Toril S.Y. 2005-2006 as well as the freshmen students of Erico T. Nograles National High School both need to improve their study habits due to their low academic performance. In addition, college students of the University of Mindanao, where the researcher is currently studying, observed that most of the students lack study habits As recommended by Borro (2006), the good study habit should be taught by parents first at home. The school will later on guide the students on studying their lessons. Teachers should impart the good values of studying. According to Salandanan (2008), the most important goal of education is to teach the students how to learn on their own. The quotation on the side margin stresses this. It is vital that students acquire the skills of how to learn; and that these skills enable them to learn not just while they are in school but for a lifetime. This entails a deeper awareness of how one processes information, the ability to evaluate his own thinking and to think of ways to make his own learning process more effective. Proficiency in employing a variety of instructional methodologies is
  18. 18. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S the best guarantee of attaining a desired learning outcome. There is no single best method in accomplishing a planned objective one may be selected as the most appropriate for learning episode but may not be suited for the same objective in another learning engagement. The teacher’s decision in choosing one is crucial. Each of teaching approaches and strategies will be discussed highlighting their effectiveness in achieving learning objective. The cause of this drastic decrease in the performance of the students was supported by a study conducted by Acido (2010) who identified students in public high school in Manila who performed low due to poor study habits. Manila Bulletin (2011).The point of having good study habits is to be effective and efficient. Effective: retaining, understanding, and having a good grasp of the subject matter. Efficiency: maximizing the time you study in order to spend as little of it as possible. Having good study habits helps greatly in achieving one's goals in college. Lee-Chua (2011). He believes that the most common problem of students is not bullying, cheating or drug abuse. Those three are insidious, but procrastination may be the most prevalent. Teachers must always motivate their students to submit the assignments on time and have the regular consultation of students who need more assistance and guidance. Teachers must treat the students equally even the slow learners and give them proper attention to develop the appropriate way of study habits and practices inside and outside the classroom. Parents must keep away their children
  19. 19. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S from watching television most especially during weekdays to concentrate from studying and finishing their assignments. Teachers must also explain or discuss clearly all the topics being discussed and they must consume the complete hours allotted for the subject. It is recommended that guidance services where affective behavior of students can be properly monitored and worked on to all freshmen students to established a better academic foundation and facilitate the achievement of the objective of the universal basic education (Aquino, 2011). Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette (2012) Says that a breakup affects students' perceived academic performance including their concentration, homework and test scores. Foreign Studies Crede and Kuncel (2008) found that non-cognitive factors like study habit, skill and study motivation, among other attitudinal constructs, accounted for incremental variance in academic performance beyond standardized tests and previous grades. Moreover, a literature review by Nagaraju (2004) pointed out that for good academic success, good study habits and attitudes are important. A substantial amount of research has examined the role of students’ study habits and their attitudes to study on academic performance. The study of Osa- Edoh and Alutu (2012) which examined the usefulness of imbibing in the students study habit, as a means of enhancing their academic performance, revealed a high correlation between study habits and students’ academic performance. This
  20. 20. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S suggests that it is only when students imbibe or cultivate proper study habits that their academic performance can be improved upon. De Escobar (2009) stated that if students are a college student, high school student or in elementary school students still need good study habits in order to perform better and succeed in school. Good study habits for students start at home, however we learn the most of them by practicing them and through trial and error. For instance students should start with taking notes in class. Write down what the teachers says but only what students think is important and could be on your next test. Use colors and high light the most important things because this will help you study better and in less time for your next test. Pay attention in class. Sometimes we go to class and start thinking about who knows what. You know what I am talking about right? Well, try to actually listen to what is going on in class, what the professor is saying and other people's questions as well. Another good study habits for students is to do homework at school. This is very rewarding for anyone because by the time you get home you will have more than enough time to enjoy what you like to do most without worrying about your assignment for the next day. Studying for tests and exams ahead of time is also a very good habit. If one knows a test is approaching the way then start going through ones notes today, read little by little every day so when the time comes one is prepared and ready to take on it. The above examples are only a few good study habits one could implement into ones routine (De Escobar, 2009).
  21. 21. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S According to Chambers (2009), student days are considered to be one of the busiest moments in our lives. Recitations, assignments, projects, and exams are the things that make students feel exhausted. Aside from that, there are work commitments and social events that they would like to attend. All of these competing demands influence time management. If the students do not have any idea about budgeting time and keeping a schedule they can easily spin out of control, get stressed out and fall into bad practices such as cramming or doing 'all- nighters’. This gives rise to the importance of time management for students. Here are some positive benefits to learning student time management skills. Firstly, academic time management can help the student better learn new material. By taking a steady and consistent approach he/she absorbs the material in small chunks so that he/she is better prepared when exam time comes around. Secondly, student time management also helps one for class preparation. Often concepts that are introduced in a previous class need to be properly understood in order to build a new understanding of concepts that are introduced. By allocating time to study material as one learns, one can improve class absorption rate and efficiency. Thirdly, student time management also ensures the structuring of commitments by priority. By properly scheduling requirements, one can avoid running into competing demands. This can happen if one is disorganized. Next, time management also allows setting aside time for leisure and social events. If one has priorities to attend to, one won't find the position of having to skip social events that one has been looking forward to. Moreover, student time management
  22. 22. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S is a proactive approach to making best use of all available time. By knowing when to have breaks between classes one can set aside that time to attend to study commitments. By setting up a schedule this way one can get to take control of the day to day student requirements. This can help avoiding falling into the trap of 'goofing off' between classes and frees time at night for other activities. Getting started on student time management is often the most difficult task. Taking the time to learn this skill will pay dividends throughout college life and will also be a valuable skill one can take forward for managing life. Be prepared and learn is needed to know early in life to make the best use of time (Chambers, 2009). Nonis and Hudson (2010) also conducted a study on performance of college students-impact of study time and study habits in which they found that some study habits had a positive direct relationship on student performance but others had a negative direct relationship. Hassanbeigi et al. (2011), in their study of the relationship between various study skills and academic performance of university students, noted that the study skills scores of students with GPA of 15 and above (out of 20) were statistically higher than those students with GPA of less than 15 in all of the seven skills (time management and procrastination, concentration and memory, study aids and note- taking, test strategies and test anxiety, organizing and processing information, motivation and attitude, and reading and selecting the main idea). According to Menzel, cited by Rana and Kausar (2011), many students fail not because they lack ability but because they do not have adequate study skills.
  23. 23. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S Students who have difficulty in college frequently do not have adequate study habits that affect their academic achievement. A central problem noted was that many of these students had not learned how to take effective notes and manage time for studying (cited by Mutsotso S.N. & Abenga E.S., 2010). Moreover, a study by Nagaraju (2004) found that students usually do not devote sufficient time to their studies and seldom have proper study habits. The study conducted by Hope L. Graven (2008) on the relationship between an individual's amount of caffeine consumption during his/her study session and the individual's study habits showed that the main effect of drinking caffeine on exam preparation was not significant There were participants, 20 male and 58 female college students (N=78), answered self-ratings on their personal consumption of caffeine as well as their study habits when preparing for a test/exam. It was hypothesized that the more caffeine a student consumes while studying, the more accurately his or her study habits would be labeled as 'unhealthy', as determined by the researchers. Unhealthy study habits were operationally defined as low scores on amount of time per study session, time (in days) when preparation began, and amount of information the participants believed they had retained. High scores on anxiety level were included in 'unhealthy' study habits. A Pearson correlation indicated no relationship between amount of caffeine consumed while studying and the individual's effectiveness of studying and preparation.
  24. 24. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S Local Studies According to Muega (2003), students need to acquire reasoning skills that would enable them to think critically and to make the right decisions claims on issues. Reasoning entails presentation of arguments. It is when one makes conclusions from what he reads. It is from reading and reasoning one gets to extend his knowledge critically. The Filipino females under study are more likely to procrastinate and they are relaxed-pleasure seeking type of procrastinators. In the Filipino culture, women are expected to be the helper of the husband, and support the family with their income after school or marriage. These conforming to these roles easily, they tend to put off doing or performing them instead. Males on the other hand, are tensed-afraid type of procrastinator. Their basic characteristics as task-oriented, directive and dominating others may explain why they are tense-afraid type of procrastinator. Dela Cruz, M.C. (Baguio City, 2004) Based from an unpublished thesis of Jabonete (2004), “Study Habits Enhancement Program: Its Effectiveness”, it states that the Study Habits Enhancement Program was established in order to eliminate deficiency in class performance and promote awareness in improving their learning styles. The researches formulated the program based on the students’ baseline data which was gathered from their given survey of study habits and attitudes in assessment of adjusting their program. Specifically, the researchers were able to obtain data from their selected students as profile: sex and grade. As revealed in the survey,
  25. 25. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S the researchers were able to discover and identify the problems the students have. These are delayed attention, learning styles, and educational background. In the Philippine concept, as cited in a research conducted by Cabahug and Ladot (2005), the University of the Philippines’ greatest failure is in mathematics. It is also said that repetition in mathematics is common among UP students that almost one out of three repeat a mathematics course. Cabahug and Ladot (2005) also said that the faculty of the UP Cebu Natural Science and Mathematics Division or NSMD has felt the declining performance of students in basic mathematics. It is also stated that the attitude towards mathematics and achievement in mathematics have always been a great concern. The Department of Education’s (DepEd) Monitoring and Evaluation Report for SY 2004-2005 also showed that 44% of the students who were under the Bridge Program cited parental neglect as a major hindrance to student learning (DepEd, 2005). According to the study of Torres and Fajardo (2006) 63.25% of the respondents spend more time in studying rather than of playing. 79.14% out of the 302 respondents can be considered healthy for the reason that they do not get sick or ill often. This contributes to a result of a high percent of 94.04% respondents who attend their class regularly. Based on the study of Alexis D. Tan (2010) majority of the students often gets 82% and below in minor subjects while 83%-85% in major subjects.
  26. 26. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S In the 2010 professional licensure examinations given by the PRC, almost 70 percent of college graduates in the country failed and, last year, only 125,419 of the 345,182 or 36.3 percent college and technical school graduates passed their respective professional eligibility examinations, as per PRC records. This statistics were based on the results of licensure examinations for 45 groups of professionals. Among the lowest number of passing rates were posted by: elementary teachers (15.4 percent); secondary teachers (23.3 percent); electronic engineers (23.5 percent); and registered electrical engineers (31.9 percent) (Philippine Education Sector Assessment Project, 2011) Aquino, L (2011) Students generally do not approve teacher methods and classroom management and have inefficient time management. Intervention programs based on the theory of confluent education which can improve the study habits and attitudes of students was proposed. The study of Cadosales (2013) reveals that the first year students have the skills in organizing and planning their work, preparing assignments or projects, and note-taking and reading. The students’ skills in organizing and planning one’s work; working with others and utilizing resources and feedback; note-taking and reading; and preparing an assignment/project correlate with their grades. The best predictor of students’ academic performance is note-taking and reading. First year college students need to develop the habit of studying their lessons, reading, and taking down notes to improve their academic performance
  27. 27. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S Synthesis and Relevance of Related Literature and Studies Each literature and studies are come from articles, thesis/dissertation and journals that are related to the proposed study. Each literature and studies are come from articles, thesis/dissertation and journals that are related to the proposed study. According to the study of Borro (2010) the common reason of drastic decrease of academic performance of the student is a weak study habit. In the present study the researcher seeks for the factors that affect the study habits of a student; the factors that causes a weak study habit. Fielden (2004) once stated that a good study habits have a good effects towards the academic performance of the student which is hypothetically true. The present study finds similarities to the study of Jabonete (2004), wherein the study identified the problems of students to their study skills. Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the method of research, population, sample size and sampling technique, description of respondents, research instrument, data- gathering procedure, and statistical treatment of data. Method of Research
  28. 28. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S The type of research method that is used by the proponents in this study is the descriptive research method. That it is focused on the study skills of 1st year and 2nd year Computer Engineering students. The descriptive design focuses at the present condition. Applied research defined as scientific study and research that seeks to solve practical problems. Applied research is used to find solutions to everyday problems, cure illness, and develop innovative technologies. It accesses and uses some part of the research communities' accumulated theories, knowledge, methods, and techniques, for a specific, often state-, business-, or client-driven purpose. Applied research usually involves solving useful problems and real world protocols. Krishnakumar (2011) Applied research is used in the study because the study aims to help the students of Polytechnic University of the Philippines more specifically to the students of Itech, to assess the level of study skills that they currently have. According to Krishnakumar (2011), Quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of any phenomena via statistical, mathematical or correlational research. This was applied in the study because the study aims to measure the levels of study skills and wants to determine if there’s a relationship between the levels of study skill to their demographic profile. Population, Sample Size and Sampling Technique The respondents of the study took from 1st year and 2nd year Computer Engineering students of Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Institute of
  29. 29. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S Technology. The number of respondent each level will be determine through the below formula. Slovin Formula: 𝑛 = 𝑁 1+𝑁𝐸2 Where: n = sample size N = population size E = margin of error The researchers have chosen first year and second year Computer Engineering students to be the respondents. First year level has a total number of 128 students while second year level has 109 students. The total number of respondents is 251 students. The computation below shows the number of the respondents that will answer the survey questions. It shows that only 117 students from first year and 98 students from second year will be picked to answer the questionnaire. The respondents of the study are composed of 215 out of population of 237. Description of Respondents The respondents are the 1st year and 2nd year Computer Engineering students of Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Institute of Technology. SECTIONS TOTAL NUMBER OF STUDENTS SAMPLE SIZE
  30. 30. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S 1st Year Level CET 1-1 26 students 24 respondents CET 1-2 35 students 32 respondents CET 1-3 36 students 33 respondents CET 1-4 31 students 28 respondents TOTAL 128 students 117 respondents 2nd Year Level CET 2-1 33 students 30 respondents CET 2-2 33 students 30 respondents CET 2-3 43 students 38 respondents TOTAL 109 students 98 respondents Table No. 1. Total number and sample size of the students As manifested in Table No. 1, 54% of the respondents came from 1st year level and 46% respondents from 2nd year level. The total number of respondents in the study is 215 students. Research Instrument The study used test questionnaires in gathering data. It was adapted from a source: Study Skill Inventory questionnaire developed by Dennis H. Congos (2010), formerly of Central Piedmont Community College, Charlotte, North Carolina. The research instrument were the questionnaire for study skills which will be described in terms of concentration, time management, note taking, test
  31. 31. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S preparation, and reading. The test questionnaire will have five questions for each indicator. The respondents again will choose from always, often, sometimes, and never and put a check on the corresponding box which will be based on the level of study skills that they are experiencing. Appendix A shows the questionnaires of this study. The researchers obtained the respondents’ level of study skills through self- rating. Level of study skills are measure with the following rating scale with definitions: 1 – Always The respondents have outstanding study skills in terms of concentration; time management; note taking; test preparation; and reading. 2 – Often The respondents have average study skills in terms of concentration; time management; note taking; test preparation; and reading. 3 – Sometimes The respondents have fair study skills in terms of concentration; time management; note taking; test preparation; and reading. 4 – Never
  32. 32. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S The respondents have poor study skills in terms of concentration; time management; note taking; test preparation; and reading. Data-Gathering Procedure The researchers personally administered the test questionnaires to the respondents and provided them with clear instructions on how to answer. The respondents answered the test questionnaire at their convenient time and place within the school campus. The questionnaires were retrieved on the same day of the administration. Data that was extracted from the questionnaires will be classified, organized and tabulated accordingly. The researchers tabulated the data gathered from the answered questionnaires. Analyzation and interpretation of data helped to formulate findings, conclusions and recommendations. Statistical Treatment of Data For the purpose of analysis and interpretation, the responses to the terms on the questionnaires were tallied and recorded accordingly and the following assessment tools will be used:
  33. 33. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S Frequency and Percentage. This is used to determine the proportion of students who answered in a certain way. Formula P = 𝐹 𝑛 𝑋 100 Where: P = Percentage F = Frequency n = No. of respondents Weighted mean. It is the mean of each weighted value when it is multiplied by some weight. Formula 𝑥̅ = ∑ 𝑓𝑖 𝑥𝑖 ∑ 𝑓𝑖 Where: 𝑥̅ = Weighted mean ∑ = Summation 𝑓𝑖 = Frequencies 𝑥𝑖 = Items given
  34. 34. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S Chapter 4 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter provided the gathered data and the researcher’s analysis and interpretation of the results of the distributed surveys. The data were presented in a clear and concise form, most which used graphs and tables. Out of the 215 surveys distributed to different sections of first year and second year Computer Engineering students, only 145 surveys were completed and returned; the remaining 65 were missing, presumably lost, forgotten, and/or unreturned. Most of the respondents preferred not to write their name and remain anonymous. Sub problem No. 1. Profiles of the respondents in terms of the following demographic: Gender Frequency Percentage Male 92 63% Female 53 37% Total 145 100% Table 1.1. Profile of the Respondents in Terms of Gender The Table 1.1 shows that 63% of our respondents are male and 37% of them are female, we have a total of one hundred forty-five respondents and the table
  35. 35. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S clearly shows that majority of them are male with sixty-three respondents and the remaining thirty-seven are female. Year level Frequency Percentage 1st Year 70 48% 2nd Year 75 52% Total 145 100% Table 1.2. Profile of the Respondents in Terms of Year Level The Table 1.2 shows that majority of the respondents came from 2nd year level that has 52% and the remaining 48% were from 1st year level. Sub problem No. 2. Level of study skills of the respondents according to the following categories: Legend: SCALE MEAN VALUE DESCRIPTION 1 1.00-1.75 Always The respondents have outstanding study skills in terms of concentration; time management; note taking; test preparation; and reading. 2 1.76-2.50 Often The respondents have average study skills in terms of concentration; time management; note taking; test preparation; and reading. 2 2.51-3.25 Sometimes The respondents have fair study skills in terms of concentration; time management; note taking; test preparation; and reading. 4 3.26-4.00 Never The respondents have poor study skills in terms of concentration; time management; note taking; test preparation; and reading. Table 2. Criteria of levels of study skills To determine the level of study habits of the respondents
  36. 36. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S Figure 2.1. According to Concentration Figure 2.1 presents the level of study skills according to concentration. 61% out of 145 respondents have average study skills in terms of Concentration. 25% have below average, 10% have an excellent skill and the remaining 4% has a weak concentration skill. 10% 61% 25% 4% Concentration Always Often Sometimes Never
  37. 37. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S Figure 2.2. According to Time Management Figure 2.2 presents the level of study skills according to time management. Majority of the respondents have below average study skills in terms of managing of time. 33% have average, 6% have an excellent skill and the remaining has a weak skill. 6% 33% 46% 15% Time Management Always Often Sometimes Never
  38. 38. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S Figure 2.3. According to Note Taking Figure 2.3 presents the level of study skills according to note taking. It illustrates that half of the respondents were have an average time to take down notes, re-read notes or summarizes lessons. 11% 51% 30% 8% Note Taking Always Often Sometimes Never
  39. 39. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S Figure 2.4. According to Test Preparation Figure 2.4 presents the level of study skills according to test preparation. It illustrates that almost half of the respondents have an average time to review and get ready for the examinations; Only 13% of the respondents have an absolute time to prepare for the exams. 13% 47% 37% 3% Test Preparation Always Often Sometimes Never
  40. 40. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S Figure 2.5. According to Reading Figure 2.3 presents the level of study skills according to reading. It illustrates that 48% of the respondents have an average time to have an advance reading and average skill to analyze sentences or paragraphs. 28% have a below average skill; 18% have excellent skills in reading; the remaining have weak reading skills. Sub problem No. 3. The relationship between the levels of study skills of the respondents in terms of Concentration, Time management, Note taking, Test preparation and Reading to their demographic profile. 3.1 The Depicts of the Level of Study Skills of the Respondents in terms of Type of Secondary School according to the following: 18% 48% 28% 6% Reading Always Often Sometimes Never
  41. 41. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S Figure 3.1.1. Level of Study Skills in Terms of Concentration According to Gender Figure 3.1.1 illustrates that majority of male (58 out 92) and female (30 out of 53) respondents have an average study skill in terms of concentration. 22% of male respondents and 30% of female have fair concentration skills. Figure 3.1.2. Level of Study Skills According to Time Management in Terms of Gender 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Always Often Sometimes Never Male 13% 63% 22% 2% Female 6% 58% 30% 8% AxisTitle Concentration 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Always Often Sometimes Never Male 9% 29% 49% 13% Female 0% 40% 40% 20% AxisTitle Time Management
  42. 42. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S In Figure 3.1.2, illustrates that the percentage in terms of time management, the male has the highest percentage on sometimes which got 49%. It only means that most male has poor study habits in terms of gender. In female, the often and sometimes has same percentage which is 40% each, which means that the female respondents has an average percentage and also has an fair percentage in terms of gender. Figure 3.1.3. Level of Study Skills According to Note Taking in Terms of Gender In figure 3.1.3, it illustrates that majority of the male and female respondents often do the note taking in terms of gender. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Always Often Sometimes Never Male 13% 48% 28% 11% Female 9% 53% 34% 4% AxisTitle Note Taking
  43. 43. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S Figure 3.1.4. Level of Study Skills According to Test Preparation in Terms of Gender Figure 3.1.4 illustrates that male and female respondents has almost same percentage with all levels. Figure 3.1.5. Level of Study Skills According to Concentration in Terms of Gender Figure 3.1.5 illustrates that majority of male and female respondents have an average and fair reading skills. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Always Often Sometimes Never Male 15% 48% 35% 2% Female 11% 47% 40% 2% AxisTitle Test Preparation 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% Always Often Sometimes Never Male 9% 29% 49% 13% Female 13% 42% 40% 5% AxisTitle Reading
  44. 44. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S 3.2 The Depicts of the Level of Study Skills of the Respondents in terms of Year Level according to the following: Figure 3.2.1. Level of Study Skills According to Concentration in Terms of Year Level Figure 3.2.1 illustrates that 1st year students has greater percentage of students who have outstanding concentration skills than 2nd year students. Figure 3.2.2. Level of Study Skills According to Time Management in Terms of 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Always Often Sometimes Never 1st Year 16% 62% 19% 3% 2nd Year 5% 59% 31% 5% AxisTitle Concentration 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Always Often Sometimes Never 1st Year 9% 39% 40% 12% 2nd Year 3% 28% 50% 19% AxisTitle Time Management
  45. 45. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S Year Level Figure 3.2.2 illustrates that 1st year and 2nd year students suffering from lack of time management. Figure 3.2.3. Level of Study Skills According to Note Taking in Terms of Year Level in figure 3.2.3, it illustrates that majority of the 1st and 2nd year respondents has an highest percentage in often which if 53% to 1st year and 47% to 2nd year students. it only means that most of the students often do the note taking in terms of year level. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Always Often Sometimes Never 1st Year 17% 53% 21% 9% 2nd Year 7% 47% 38% 8% AxisTitle Note Taking
  46. 46. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S Figure 3.2.4. Level of Study Skills According to Test Preparation in Terms of Year Level In figure 3.2.4, it illustrates that majority of the 1st yearstudents are often do the test preparation. In 2nd year students the percentage on often and sometimes has same percentage which means that the 2nd year students are often and sometimes do the test preparation in terms of year level. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Always Often Sometimes Never 1st Year 12% 54% 31% 3% 2nd Year 15% 41% 41% 3% AxisTitle Test Preparation 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Always Often Sometimes Never 1st Year 26% 47% 19% 8% 2nd Year 11% 49% 37% 3% AxisTitle Reading
  47. 47. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S Figure 3.2.5. Level of Study Skills According to Reading in Terms of Year Level In figure 3.2.5, it illustrates that majority of the 1st and 2nd year students, they have average skills with regards of reading. Chapter 5 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS CONLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary The study assessed the levels of study skills of Computer Engineering student of Polytechnic University of the Philippines at the Institute of Technology from first year and second year level. Hypothetically, there is no significant relationship between the levels of study skills according to concentration, time management, note taking, test preparation, and reading to the demographic profile of the students. Descriptive method and qualitative research were applied in the study. Frequencies, Percentage and Weighted mean were used in statistical treatment. Findings Based on the results gathered, the following findings are thereby presented: 1. What are the profiles of the respondents in terms of gender, year level, and type of secondary school?
  48. 48. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S Majority of the respondents are male with frequency number of 92 respondents out of 145. 52% of the respondents were sophomore students, the remaining 48% were freshmen. Respondents came from public schools are dominant, only 21% of the came from private. 2. What are the levels of study skills of the students according to the following: 2.1 Concentration 61% of the respondents have mean range of 1.76 to 2.50. It means that majority of the respondents have the capacity to concentrate most often. 2.2 Time Management 46% of the respondents have mean range of 2.51 to 3.25. It means that lot of the respondents barely not manage their time in studies well. 2.3 Note Taking 51% of the respondents have mean range of 1.76 to 2.50. It means that majority of the respondents take down notes and summarizes lessons most oten. 2.4 Test Preparation
  49. 49. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S 47% of the respondents have mean range of 1.76 to 2.50. It means that majority of the respondents have average skills when it comes in preparing before the exams. 2.5 Reading 48% of the respondents have mean range of 1.76 to 2.50. It means that majority of the respondents have average reading skills and strategies. Conclusions Based on the findings, the researchers came up with following conclusions: 1. The researchers conclude that students have poor time management skills and reading skills. 2. The researchers conclude that students have common problems with regards of their study skills. 3. The researchers also conclude that there is no significant relationship between the levels of study skills to the demographic profile of the students. Recommendations Based on the findings and conclusions gathered, the researchers would like to recommend the following:
  50. 50. P O L Y T E C H N I C U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E P H I L I P P I N E S 1. The researchers recommend that students should improve their concentration. Below are the study skills that might help to improve concentration::  Reduce interference  Minimize intervening activity  Do not study with multiple of subjects  Systematized your tasks  Find a comfortable place to review. 2. The researchers recommend that used of study system is the best skill that will help to have outstanding remarks. One of the oldest and best- known study system is "SQ3R", stand for Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review. 3. The researchers recommend that students must use the Cornell, outline, mapping or charting method to condense and synthesize reading, lectures and discussions. 4. Lastly, the researchers recommend that students must learn to manage time effectively. Make study schedule or plans and stick to it, make list of things to do and less cramming. These will help to have a good time management.

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