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BODY COMPOSITION.pptx

This presentation will throw light on body composition It will increase your knowledge of assessment & classification of it It gives focus on fat mass, fat free mass & lean body mass it will give information about detailed information of body composition analysis it even gives basic information about body composition which we can do without any expensive materiel that is anthropometry measurement: skin fold measurement, BMI, girth measurement, waist-hip ratio. it also inform us about the amount of storge fat and essential fat present at each part of body by the instrument named BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE

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BODY COMPOSITION
1
Dr. Aneri Patwari
MPT
Assistant Professor
2
DEFINITION
•Body composition generally refers to the absolute amount of fat and nonfat tissue within the
body as well as the ratio of fat to total body mass (TBM). Fat mass (FM) is the total mass (or
kilograms) of all fat within the body, whereas fat-free mass (FFM) is the total mass of all
tissues within the body excluding all fat. Some techniques of determining body composition
(dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) use the term total lean tissue, which is similar to the term
fat-free mass. Percent body fat or % fat is the ratio of TBM to total FM (or FM divided by
TBM).
•In physical fitness, body composition is used to describe the percentages of fat, bone, water
and muscle in human bodies. Because muscular tissue takes up less space in the body than
fat tissue, body composition, as well as weight, determines leanness.
•Two people of the same gender and body weight may look completely different because they
have a different body composition.
3
CLASSIFICATION
A healthy body composition is one that includes a lower percentage of body fat and a higher
percentage of non-fat mass, which includes muscle, bones, and organs.
4
CLASSIFICATION OF BODY
COMPOSITION
BODY COMPOITION
FAT MASS
ESSENTIAL FAT
HEART LUNGS LIVER SPLEEN KIDNEYS INTESTINES MUSCLE
LIPID TISSUE
OF CENTRAL
NERVOUS
SYSTEM
BONE
MARROW
STORAGE FAT
ADIPOSE TISSUE
PURE FAT PROTEIN WATER
FAT FREE MASS
FAT FREE MASS
WATER PROTEIN
MINERAL
COMPONENTS
LEAN
BODY
MASS
MUSCLE
5
ESSENTIALAND STORAGE FAT
•Normal physiologic functioning requires essential fat.(3% in men and 12% in female)
•In women, essential fat also includes additional sex-specific fat(biologically important functions for
childbearing and other hormone related functions).
•The storage fat depot includes fat (triacylglycerol) packed primarily in adipose tissue. The adipose
tissue energy reserve contains approximately 83% pure fat, 2% protein, and 15% water within its
supporting structures.
6

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BODY COMPOSITION.pptx

  • 1. BODY COMPOSITION 1 Dr. Aneri Patwari MPT Assistant Professor
  • 2. 2
  • 3. DEFINITION •Body composition generally refers to the absolute amount of fat and nonfat tissue within the body as well as the ratio of fat to total body mass (TBM). Fat mass (FM) is the total mass (or kilograms) of all fat within the body, whereas fat-free mass (FFM) is the total mass of all tissues within the body excluding all fat. Some techniques of determining body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) use the term total lean tissue, which is similar to the term fat-free mass. Percent body fat or % fat is the ratio of TBM to total FM (or FM divided by TBM). •In physical fitness, body composition is used to describe the percentages of fat, bone, water and muscle in human bodies. Because muscular tissue takes up less space in the body than fat tissue, body composition, as well as weight, determines leanness. •Two people of the same gender and body weight may look completely different because they have a different body composition. 3
  • 4. CLASSIFICATION A healthy body composition is one that includes a lower percentage of body fat and a higher percentage of non-fat mass, which includes muscle, bones, and organs. 4
  • 5. CLASSIFICATION OF BODY COMPOSITION BODY COMPOITION FAT MASS ESSENTIAL FAT HEART LUNGS LIVER SPLEEN KIDNEYS INTESTINES MUSCLE LIPID TISSUE OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM BONE MARROW STORAGE FAT ADIPOSE TISSUE PURE FAT PROTEIN WATER FAT FREE MASS FAT FREE MASS WATER PROTEIN MINERAL COMPONENTS LEAN BODY MASS MUSCLE 5
  • 6. ESSENTIALAND STORAGE FAT •Normal physiologic functioning requires essential fat.(3% in men and 12% in female) •In women, essential fat also includes additional sex-specific fat(biologically important functions for childbearing and other hormone related functions). •The storage fat depot includes fat (triacylglycerol) packed primarily in adipose tissue. The adipose tissue energy reserve contains approximately 83% pure fat, 2% protein, and 15% water within its supporting structures. 6
  • 7. •Storage fat includes the visceral fatty tissues that protect the various internal organs within the thoracic and abdominal cavities from trauma and the larger adipose tissue volume deposited beneath the skin’s surface called subcutaneous fat. •A similar proportional distribution of storage fat exists in men and women (12% of body mass in men and 15% in women), but the total percentage of essential fat in women, which includes sex-specific fat averages four times that in men. 7 ESSENTIALAND STORAGE FAT
  • 8. FAT-FREE BODY MASS AND LEAN BODY MASS •The terms FFM and LBM refer to specific entities. Although these terms often are used interchangeably, the differences are subtle but real. LBM (a theoretical entity) contains the small percentage of non–sex-specific essential fat equivalent to approximately 4% to 7% of body mass (located chief within the central nervous system, bone marrow, and internal organs). In contrast, FFM represents body mass devoid of all extractable fat (FFM Body mass Fat mass). Behnke points out that FFM refers to an in vitro entity (In an artificial environment outside the living organism) appropriate to carcass analysis. •Behnke considered the LBM an in vivo (within a living organism) entity relatively constant in water, organic matter, and mineral content throughout an active adult’s life span. •In normally hydrated, healthy adults, the FFM and LBM differ only in the essential fat component. The LBM in men and minimal body massing women consist chiefly of essential fat plus sex-specific fat for women muscle, water, and bone 8
  • 14. CONSEQUENCES OF TOO MUCH INCREASED BODY FAT Risk of chronic diseases and premature death associated health problems include  Unhealthy blood fat levels  Impaired heart and immune function  Heart diseases and hypertension  Cancer and obesity(3 times more than nonobese people)  Gallbladder and kidney diseases; Skin and sleeping problems  Excess body fat decreases ability to perform physical activities and key risk factor of diabetes 14
  • 15. PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH VERY LOW LEVELS OF BODY FAT Associated with reproductive, circulatory, and immune system disorders:  less than 10-12% in women  less than 5% in men 15
  • 16. CLASSIFICATION FOR ASSESSMENT OF BODY COMPOSITION ASSESSMENT DIRECT CHEMICAL ANALYSIS CADAVERS DISECTION INDIRECT HYDRO DENSITOMATRY BODY DENSITY BODY VOLUME MEASUREMENT SWIMMIN G POOL STAINLESS STEEL IN LABORAT ORY THERAPY POOL AIR DISPLACE MENT ANTHROPOMETRIC SKIN FOLD WAIST-HIP RATIO BMI GIRTH BIA DEXA IMAGING MRI CT US 16
  • 17. FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHILE CHOOSING THE TECHNIQUE 1. Need of the individual 2. Purpose of evaluation 3. Cost of measurement 4. Equipment needed 5. Availability of assessments tools 6. Training 7. Advantages vs. disadvantages 8. Accuracy, reliability and validity 17
  • 18. 1) Hydrostatic Weighing (Archimedes’ Principle) •An object “loses weight in water.” The object’s loss of weight in water equals the weight of the volume of water it displaces, thus making the specific gravity the ratio of the weight of an object in air divided by its loss of weight in water. The loss of weight in water equals the weight in air minus the weight in water. • Specific gravity =Weight in air / Loss of weight in water. 18
  • 19. A) BODY DENSITY DENSITOMETRY •The most accurate estimation of body composition is derived from body density by means of the equation of fractional densities which states that the overall density of a mixture containing more than one substance (each with a different density) can be calculated if the proportion and density of each component substance is known. For determination of body composition the body is often assumed to be composed of four basic substances ("four compartment model") with the general form of the equation 1/Db=w/Dw+f+Df+p/Dp+m/Dm Where Db= overall body density, 19 w= proportion of water f= proportion of fat p= proportion of protein m= proportion of mineral Dw= Density of water Df= Density of fat Dp= Density of protein Dm= Density of mineral
  • 20. •For illustrative purposes, suppose a 50-kg woman weighs 2 kg when submerged in water. According to Archimedes’ principle, a 48-kg loss of weight in water equals the weight of the displaced water. The volume of water displaced is computed easily because chemists have determined the density of water at any temperature. In this example, 48 kg of water equals 48 L or 48,000 cm 3 (1 g of water 1 cm3 by volume at 39.2F). If the woman were measured at the cold-water temperature of 39.2F, no density correction for water would be necessary. In practice, researchers use warmer water and apply the density value for water at the particular weighing temperature. The whole-body density of this person, computed as Mass Volume, equals 50,000 gm (50 kg) 48,000 cm3 , or 1.0417 cm3. 20 A) BODY DENSITY DENSITOMETRY
  • 21. Siri Equation: Percentage body fat 495/ Body density- 450 Percentage body fat =495 /Body density - 450 =495 /1.0417- 450 =25.2% Fat mass (kg) = Body mass (kg) *(Percentage fat /100) =50 kg * 0.252 =12.6 kg FFM (kg) = Body mass (kg) Fat mass-(kg) = 50 kg -12.6 kg = 37.4 kg 21 A) BODY DENSITY DENSITOMETRY
  • 22. B) BODY VOLUME MEASUREMENT 3 methods underwater weighing in A. Swimming pool B. Stainless steel tank in the laboratory C. Therapy pool at a pro football training facility 22
  • 23. MEASURE IN BODY VOLUME 23
  • 24. A Word About Residual Volume: The greatest source of error in calculating body volume by hydrostatic weighing results from errors in measuring RLV. Body Volume Measurement by Air Displacement: The technique uses air as opposed to water and is known as air displacement plethysmography (ADP). Subjects enter a sealed chamber that measures their body volume through the displacement of air in the chamber. Body volume is combined with body weight (mass) in order to determine body density. The technique then estimates the percentage of body fat and lean body mass (LBM) through empirically derived equations similar to those used with underwater weighing (for the density of fat and fat free mass) volume yields true body volume). Body density computes as body mass (measured in air)/ body volume (measured by BOD POD). The Siri equation converts body density to percentage body fat. 24 MEASURE IN BODY VOLUME
  • 26. 2) FROM CONDUCTIVITY Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), which uses the resistance of electrical flow through the body to estimate body fat. Unfortunately, BIA is highly sensitive to hydration status and water intake. Drinking water dilutes the electrolytes in the body making it less conductive as does increasing body fat. Recent advancements such as 8-point electrodes, multi-frequency measurements, and Direct Segmental Analysis, have improved the accuracy of BIA machines. BIA machines have found acceptance in medical, fitness and wellness space owing to their ease-of-use, portability, quick measurements and cost efficiency 26
  • 27. 3) ANTHROPOMETRY A. Skinfold Measurement B. Girth Measurement C. BMI D. Waist-Hip Ratio 27
  • 28. A) Skinfold Measurements Simple anthropometric procedures successfully predict body fatness. The most common of these procedures uses skinfolds. The rationale for using skinfolds to estimate the body’s fat composition results from the close relationships among three factors: 1. Subcutaneous fat in adipose tissue deposits directly beneath the skin 2. The body’s internal fat stores 3. Body density of the intact human body 28
  • 29. The skinfold calipers work on the same principle as a micrometer to measure the distance between two points. The pincer jaws exert a constant tension of 10 gm*m2 at the point of contact with the double layer of skin plus subcutaneous tissue. The caliper dial indicates skinfold thickness in millimeters. 29 A) Skinfold Measurements
  • 30. Skinfold Sites The most common skinfold sites include the triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, abdominal, and upper thigh. An average of two or three measurements at each site on the right side of the body with the subject standing represents the skinfold score. Except for the subscapular and suprailiac sites, which are measured diagonally, measurements are taken in the vertical plane. 1. Triceps: Vertical fold at the posterior midline of the upper arm, halfway between the tip of the shoulder and tip of the elbow; elbow remains in an extended, relaxed position. 2. Subscapular: Oblique fold just below the bottom tip of the scapula. 3. Suprailiac (iliac crest): Slightly oblique fold just above the hip bone (crest of ileum); the fold follows the natural diagonal line. 4. Abdomen: Vertical fold 1 inch to the right of the umbilicus 5. Thigh: Vertical fold at the midline of the thigh, two-thirds of the distance from the middle of the patella (knee cap) to the hip 30 A) Skinfold Measurements
  • 31. Two other sites include:  Chest (males): Diagonal fold (with its long axis directed toward the nipple) on the anterior axillary fold as high as possible  Biceps: Vertical fold at the posterior midline of the upper arm The same skinfold score reflects greater percentage body fat as a person grows older. For this reason, age-adjusted, generalized equations should be used to predict body fat from skinfolds that apply to a broad age range of adult men and women. More than 100 different equations exist to predict body density and percentage body fat from skinfolds. The different equations yield predicted values that (at best) usually fall within 3% to 5% body fat units assessed by hydrostatic weighing. 31 A) Skinfold Measurements
  • 33. A person can become a skilled skinfold technician by adhering to the following nine guidelines: 1. Be precise in locating and marking anatomical landmarks for each site before measurement. 2. Read the caliper dial to the nearest half marking (e.g., 0.5 mm) within 1 to 2 seconds of application of the caliper to the skin. 3. Take a minimum of two measurements at each site and use the average as the skinfold score. 4. Take duplicate or triplicate measurements in rotational order rather than consecutive readings at each site to avoid a compression skin plus subcutaneous fat effect. 33 A) Skinfold Measurements
  • 34. 5. Do not take measurements immediately after the individual stops exercise; the shift in body fluid t the skin spuriously increases the reading. 6. Practice on at least 50 subjects, making multiple measurements at the different skinfold sites, to gain experience. 7. Obtain training from previously skilled technicians in how to take skinfolds; this allows you to compare your results with the results of an “expert.” 8. Take measurements on dry, lotion-free skin. 9. If possible, enroll in a course that deals with body composition assessment; some continuing education providers offer courses that award certifications of completion in body composition assessment procedures 34 A) Skinfold Measurements
  • 35. B) Girth Measurements Apply a linen or plastic measuring tape lightly to the skin surface so the tape remains taut but not tight. This avoids skin compression. Take duplicate measurements at each site and average the scores. 35
  • 36. 1. Abdomen: 1 inch above the umbilicus. 2. Buttocks: Maximum protrusion of buttocks with the heels together. 3. Thigh: Upper thigh, just below the buttocks. 4. Right upper arm (biceps): Palm up, arm straight and extended in front of the body; taken at the midpoint between the shoulder and the elbow. 5. Right forearm: Maximum girth with the arm extended in front of the body. 6. Calf: Widest girth midway between the ankle and knee. 36 B) Girth Measurements
  • 37. C) BMI BMI can be calculated using following equations: BMI (Kg/m2) = weight/height2*(m2) 37
  • 38. D) WAIST HIP RATIO •Indication of pattern of body fat distribution. •The waist circumference should be measured at the midpoint between the lower margin of the last palpable ribs and the top of the iliac crest, using stretch resistance tape. 38 • Should stand with feet close together, arm at the side, should be relaxed and the measurements should be taken at the end of normal respiration. • The WHO states that abdominal obesity is defined as a waist-hip ratio above 0.90 for males and above 0.85 for females.
  • 39. 4) DUAL-ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY •Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) uses low energy x-ray beams and computer software to produce images of the body that can be used to determine body composition. •DEXA was originally developed to determine bone density, but now it is used to determine body composition, including regional body composition or composition of specific areas of the body, such as the arms, legs, or trunk. • The ability to determine regional body composition is a major advantage of this methodology 39
  • 40. •DEXA is highly reliable in determining body composition, is sensitive to small changes in body composition, and shows significant correlations (r = 0.90) to body composition measures determined by hydrostatic weighing •DEXA is now considered by many to be the most accurate, sensitive, and reliable method of determining body composition. The ability to determine regional body composition is a major advantage of this methodology. In addition, bone density is also measured in the same scan. 40 4) DUAL-ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY
  • 41. 5) Imagining Near-Infrared Interactance Ultrasonography Computed Tomography and Magnetic Reasoning Imaging 41
  • 42. A) Near-Infrared Interactance •Unfortunately, research with humans has not confirmed NIR’s validity compared with hydrostatic weighing and skinfold measurements. NIR does not accurately predict body fat across a broad range of body fat levels, and NIR provides less accuracy than skinfolds. NIR overestimates body fat in lean men and women and underestimates it in fatter subjects. 42
  • 43. B) Ultrasonography Ultrasound technology can 1. Assess the thickness of different tissues (fat and muscle) 2. Obtain an image of muscle’s cross-sectional area. •The method converts electrical energy through a probe into high-frequency, pulsed sound waves that penetrate the skin surface into the underlying tissues. •The technique has application for determining total and segmental subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) volume. •Ultrasonography to map muscle and fat thickness at different body regions quantifies changes in the topographic fat pattern and serves as a valuable adjunct to whole-body composition assessment. In hospitalized patients, ultrasonic fat and muscle thickness determinations aid in nutritional assessment during weight loss and gain. 43
  • 44. C) Computed Tomography and Magnetic Reasoning Imaging •The CT scan produces pictorial and quantitative information about total tissue area, total fat and muscle area, and thickness and volume of tissues within an organ. •MRI effectively quantifies total and SCAT in individuals with vary ing degrees of body fatness. 44