TISSUESJaniceV. Ng, MScDepartment of BiologyCAS, UP Manila
Tissues “weave” group of cells with a common structureand function held together by intracellular substances
Types EpithelialTissues ConnectiveTissues MuscularTissues NervousTissues
Epithelial Tissues composed of closely packed cells with very little intercellularsubstance surface epithelia – exposed ...
EpithelialTissuesShapesquamous cuboidal columnarNumbersimple stratifiedStratifiedsquamousPseudostratifiedcolumnarName: Num...
Example…
 Simple epithelium◦ ___ layer of cell◦ Involved in selective diffusion, absorption,secretion◦ Protection? Only minimal
Simple SquamousEpithelium• air sacs of lungs, glomeruli,linings of heart, lymphatic andblood vessels• diffusion and filtra...
Simple CuboidalEpithelium• kidney tubules, ducts andsmall glands and surface ofovary• secretion and absorption
Simple ColumnarEpithelium• linings of digestive tract, gallbladder, and excretory ductsof some glands• villi, microvilli, ...
 Stratified epithelium◦ ____ layer of cells◦ Mainly for protection◦ Degree of stratification related to the kind ofphysic...
Stratified SquamousEpithelium• keratinized: surface of theskin• nonkeratinized:linings of the esophagus,mouth and vagina• ...
PseudostratifiedCiliated ColumnarEpithelium•True simple epithelium• All cells rest at the basementmembrane• Nuclei dispose...
Connective Tissues Provide structural and metabolic supportfor other tissues and organs Usually contain blood vessels M...
Connective Tissues Basic Components◦ Cells – scattered through extracellular matrix Fibroblast/fibrocyte, Adipocytes, Ma...
ConnectiveTissueConnective TissueProperLoose/AreolarDense ModifiedLooseSpecializedConnectiveCartilageBoneBloodConnectiveTi...
Loose/ AreolarConnectiveTissue• with numerous fibroblastthat produce collagenous andelastic fibers• subcutaneous layer• wr...
Dense Regular ConnectiveTissue• contains densely packedparallel collagen fibers• tendon, ligaments
Dense IrregularConnectiveTissue• contains densely packedrandomly arranged collagenfibers• Frog skin
Modified Loose ConnectiveTissueAdiposeTissue• subcutaneous layer• cushions, storage of fatsReticularTissue• supports hemop...
CartilageCell component – chondrocytesGround substance – chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronateFibers: collagen, elasticHyali...
Elastic Cartilage• collagen fibers and many elasticfibers• cartilage of external ear andepiglottis• maintains shape and al...
BoneCell Components – osteoblasts,osteocytes, osteoclastsGround Substance – calciumphosphate, chondroitin-sulfateand kerat...
BloodGranulocytes AgranulocytesNeutrophil EosinophilBasophilLymphocyteMonocyteErythrocytes Leukocytes
MuscleTissueStriated VoluntaryMuscle (SkeletalMuscle)StriatedInvoluntaryMuscle (CardiacMuscle)Non-striatedInvoluntary Musc...
Skeletal MuscleTissue• striated muscle fibers• cylindrical• many peripheral nuclei• skeletal muscles attached tobones• use...
Cardiac MuscleTissue• striated muscle fibers• branched, with intercalateddisc• uninucleated• involuntary heart movement
Smooth MuscleTissue• Spindle-shaped cells• uninucleated• lacks striations• involuntary movement ofvisceral organs and bloo...
Nervous Tissues Sense stimuli and transmit signals from onepart of the animal to another Functional unit  neuron/nerve ...
NervousTissue (smear)• cell body• nucleus• dendrites and axon• glial cells
Axons are bundled together in structurescalled nerves.Longitudinal section• Neurilemma- membrane covering the fiber• Axis ...
END
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Histology

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Histology

  1. 1. TISSUESJaniceV. Ng, MScDepartment of BiologyCAS, UP Manila
  2. 2. Tissues “weave” group of cells with a common structureand function held together by intracellular substances
  3. 3. Types EpithelialTissues ConnectiveTissues MuscularTissues NervousTissues
  4. 4. Epithelial Tissues composed of closely packed cells with very little intercellularsubstance surface epithelia – exposed to air or fluid; continuous withone or more layer of cells base of epithelia usually resting on a basement membrane◦ Basement membrane – separates epithelia from underlyingtissues; never penetrated by blood vessels cover the outside of the body and line organs and cavitieswithin the body wide range of activities:◦ protective covering and lining surfaces (skin), absorption(intestine), secretion (epithelial cells of glands), sensory(neuroepithelium) and contractility (myoepithelial cells). Cell joined together by cellular junctions
  5. 5. EpithelialTissuesShapesquamous cuboidal columnarNumbersimple stratifiedStratifiedsquamousPseudostratifiedcolumnarName: Number of layers + shape
  6. 6. Example…
  7. 7.  Simple epithelium◦ ___ layer of cell◦ Involved in selective diffusion, absorption,secretion◦ Protection? Only minimal
  8. 8. Simple SquamousEpithelium• air sacs of lungs, glomeruli,linings of heart, lymphatic andblood vessels• diffusion and filtration
  9. 9. Simple CuboidalEpithelium• kidney tubules, ducts andsmall glands and surface ofovary• secretion and absorption
  10. 10. Simple ColumnarEpithelium• linings of digestive tract, gallbladder, and excretory ductsof some glands• villi, microvilli, goblet cells• absorption and enzymesecretion
  11. 11.  Stratified epithelium◦ ____ layer of cells◦ Mainly for protection◦ Degree of stratification related to the kind ofphysical stresses to which the surface isexposed◦ Name is based on the structure of the ____cells
  12. 12. Stratified SquamousEpithelium• keratinized: surface of theskin• nonkeratinized:linings of the esophagus,mouth and vagina• protect underlying tissues inareas subject to abrasion
  13. 13. PseudostratifiedCiliated ColumnarEpithelium•True simple epithelium• All cells rest at the basementmembrane• Nuclei disposed at differentlevels• Cilia• Linings of bronchi, uterinetubes, and some regions of theuterus.• propel mucus or reproductivecells by ciliary action.
  14. 14. Connective Tissues Provide structural and metabolic supportfor other tissues and organs Usually contain blood vessels Mediate exchange of nutrients,metabolites, waste products betweentissues and circulatory system
  15. 15. Connective Tissues Basic Components◦ Cells – scattered through extracellular matrix Fibroblast/fibrocyte, Adipocytes, Mast cells,macrophages, Blood cells◦ Extracellular Matrix Fibers Collagen, Elastin, Reticulin (Type III collagen) Ground Substance - mixture of polysaccharide chains,glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), proteoglycans Structural glycoproteins – mediates interaction of cellswith other constituents
  16. 16. ConnectiveTissueConnective TissueProperLoose/AreolarDense ModifiedLooseSpecializedConnectiveCartilageBoneBloodConnectiveTissue Proper - jelly-like extracellular matrixSpecialized ConnectiveTissue - liquid/ semi-solid/ hard solid matrix
  17. 17. Loose/ AreolarConnectiveTissue• with numerous fibroblastthat produce collagenous andelastic fibers• subcutaneous layer• wrap and cushions organs
  18. 18. Dense Regular ConnectiveTissue• contains densely packedparallel collagen fibers• tendon, ligaments
  19. 19. Dense IrregularConnectiveTissue• contains densely packedrandomly arranged collagenfibers• Frog skin
  20. 20. Modified Loose ConnectiveTissueAdiposeTissue• subcutaneous layer• cushions, storage of fatsReticularTissue• supports hemopoietic organs
  21. 21. CartilageCell component – chondrocytesGround substance – chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronateFibers: collagen, elasticHyaline Cartilage• collagen fibers• cartilage of nose, trachea, larynx• support and reinforcement
  22. 22. Elastic Cartilage• collagen fibers and many elasticfibers• cartilage of external ear andepiglottis• maintains shape and allowsflexibilityFibrocartilage• dense collagen fibers• cartilage of intervertebral disc,pubic symphysis and disk of kneejoints• absorbs compression shock
  23. 23. BoneCell Components – osteoblasts,osteocytes, osteoclastsGround Substance – calciumphosphate, chondroitin-sulfateand keratan sulfate (hard andmineralized matrix)Fibers: collagen (Type I)
  24. 24. BloodGranulocytes AgranulocytesNeutrophil EosinophilBasophilLymphocyteMonocyteErythrocytes Leukocytes
  25. 25. MuscleTissueStriated VoluntaryMuscle (SkeletalMuscle)StriatedInvoluntaryMuscle (CardiacMuscle)Non-striatedInvoluntary Muscle(Smooth/VisceralMuscle)*Striations – arrangement of the contractile proteins (actin and myosin)
  26. 26. Skeletal MuscleTissue• striated muscle fibers• cylindrical• many peripheral nuclei• skeletal muscles attached tobones• useful for voluntarymovement• sarcolemma• sarcoplasm
  27. 27. Cardiac MuscleTissue• striated muscle fibers• branched, with intercalateddisc• uninucleated• involuntary heart movement
  28. 28. Smooth MuscleTissue• Spindle-shaped cells• uninucleated• lacks striations• involuntary movement ofvisceral organs and bloodvessels• epimysium, perimysium,endomysium
  29. 29. Nervous Tissues Sense stimuli and transmit signals from onepart of the animal to another Functional unit  neuron/nerve cell Smear, Cross section, Longitudinal section
  30. 30. NervousTissue (smear)• cell body• nucleus• dendrites and axon• glial cells
  31. 31. Axons are bundled together in structurescalled nerves.Longitudinal section• Neurilemma- membrane covering the fiber• Axis cylinder- the central region of the nervefiber• Medullary sheath - thick sheath covering thefiber between the neurilemma and the axiscylinder• Nodes of Ranvier- constrictions in themedullary sheathCross section (not available)• Epineurium - the membrane covering abundle of fascicule of nerve fiber• Perineurium - the membrane covering afasciculus of nerve fiber• Endoneurium - the membrane covering anerve fiber
  32. 32. END

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