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Take a stand 3


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Take a stand 3

  1. 1. Taking a Stand There is a Need for More Training to Promote Effective Co-teaching Strategies for Special and General Educators and Caregivers. By: Martha A Padilla
  2. 2. Personal Experience <ul><li>I observed caregivers and teachers from different schools and age levels having difficulty working with children with special needs in a regular education setting. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No assistance was provided </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The special education specialist was not present to collaborate </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Without Effective Co-teaching Methods Infants and Toddlers With Special Needs Lack <ul><li>Effective learning strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Individualized education </li></ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Respect </li></ul>
  4. 4. Action <ul><li>Empower parents, caregivers and teachers to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>request effective co-teaching training and strategies to work with infants and toddlers with special needs in a regular education setting. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Before we begin: <ul><li>There are more students with disabilities in the regular education classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Special Education is a service, not a place. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers, administrators, and schools are held more accountable for students’ performance. </li></ul><ul><li>(Turnbull, Shank & Smith, 2004) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act ( IDEA) <ul><li>IDEA states that children with special needs be placed in the least restrictive environment . </li></ul><ul><li>Section 300.117 states: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each public agency must ensure that each child with a disability has the supplementary aids and services determined by the child’s individualized education program (IEP) team to be appropriate and necessary for the child to participate with non-disabled children in the extracurricular services and activities to the maximum extent appropriate to the needs of the child. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(National Archives, 2006) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What is least restrictive environment ? <ul><li>Students have the right to participate in general education programs as is appropriate in view of his or her educational needs and not be separated from students without disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>(Getskow & Konczal, 1996) </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is mainstreaming ? <ul><li>The integration of students with special needs into the regular classroom and providing adequate assistance for the regular classroom teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>(Getskow & Konczal, 1996) </li></ul>
  9. 9. What is inclusion ? <ul><li>To include students with disabilities into the same schools, classrooms, and activities with students who do not have disabilities and prohibits segregating students with disabilities into separate schools or classrooms. </li></ul><ul><li>(Turnbull, Shank & Smith, 2004) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Some factors of inclusion in early education are: <ul><li>Friendships between young children with and without disabilities develop </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration among parents and professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Children develop choice-making skills </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to child-centered education grounded in developmentally appropriate practices </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing evaluations of how to make inclusion work </li></ul><ul><li>(Turnbull et al., 2004) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Definition of Co-teaching: <ul><li>“ An educational approach in which general and special educators or related service providers jointly plan for and teach heterogeneous groups of students in integrated settings” (Vakesha, 2010, p.11). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Benefits of inclusion with effective co-teaching strategies: <ul><li>Co-teachers develop: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive attitudes toward collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective communication skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Damore & Murray, 2009) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Children with disabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Score significantly higher in cognitive skills than children with disabilities who are pulled out of the regular setting (Ervin, 2010) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop friendships (Estell, Jones, Pearl & Van Acker, 2009) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Friendships: <ul><li>Are a part of a positive adaptation in the school context by promoting: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social marginalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease of victimization by peers </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. How to Create Effective Co-teaching Strategies <ul><li>Caregivers and Teachers must receive training on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special education support services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time management for planning and reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Gürgür and Uzuner, 2010) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Directors and childcare centers must provide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective collaborative partnerships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased time for planning and communicating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear expectations for performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Damore & Murray, 2009, p. 243) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Conclusion <ul><li>Effective co-teaching strategies are essential in supporting positive experiences and outcomes for infants and toddlers with special needs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-teachers positively collaborate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development in all domains of infants and toddlers improve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive social skills develop </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. References <ul><li>Damore, S., & Murray, C. (2009). Urban elementary school teachers' perspectives regarding collaborative teaching practices.  Remedial and Special Education, 30 (4), 234-244. </li></ul><ul><li>Ervin, V. (2010). A comparison of co teaching only, pull-out only, and combined service methods for students with disabilities. (Ph.D. dissertation, Capella University, 2010). UMI Dissertation Publishing , AAT3390951. </li></ul><ul><li>Estell, D., Jones, M., Pearl, R., & Van Acker, R. (2009). Best friendships of students with and without learning disabilities across late elementary school.  Exceptional Children, 76 (1), 110-124. </li></ul><ul><li>National Archives and Records Administration. (2006, August 14). Federal Register: Rules and Regulation, 71 (156) 46540-46845. Retrieved April 13, 2010, from </li></ul><ul><li>Getskow, V., & Konczal, D. (1996). Kids with special needs . Huntington Beach, CA: The Learning Works Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Gürgür, H., & Uzuner, Y. (2010). A phenomenological analysis of the views on co-teaching applications in the inclusion classroom.  Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, 10 (1), 311-331. </li></ul><ul><li>Turnbull, R., Turnbull, A., Shank, M., & Smith, S. (2004). Exceptional lives: Special education in today’s schools (4 th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall . </li></ul>