• Peptic ulcer occurs in that part of the gastrointestinal tract which is
exposed to gastric acid and pepsin
• The term ‘peptic ulcer’ describes a condition in which there is a
discontinuity in the entire thickness of the gastric or duodenal mucosa
that persists as a result of acid and pepsin in the gastric juice.
• An ulcer is defined as disruption of the mucosal integrity of the stomach
and/or duodenum leading to a local defect or excavation due to active
inflammation. Ulcers occur within the stomach and/or duodenum and are
often chronic in nature.
• A peptic ulcer is an abnormal area of mucosa that has been damaged by
the pepsin and hydrochloric acid of gastric juice, with consequent
inflammation of the underlying and surrounding tissue.
• Most peptic ulcers occur either in the duodenum or in the stomach, where
the pH is sufficiently low for peptic action, although ulcers may also occur
in the lower oesophagus, as a result of refluxing of gastric contents
• There two different types of Peptic Ulcers.
• Gastric ulcer, which form in the lining of the stomach
• Duodenal ulcer, which forms in the upper small intestine
• Gastric ulcers occur in
the stomach, located in the
Atrum (submucosal or beyond )
• Gastric ulcers cause stomach
pain 1-2 hours after eating
• In Gastric Ulcers pain is worse
during me meal
• Associated with H.Pylori 70%
• Gastric ulcers cause
hematemesis or vomiting of
• Duodenal ulcers occur in the
duodenum bulb, portion of
the duodenum which is
closest to the stomach
• Duodenal ulcers cause pain 3-
4 hours later
• Eating can relieve stomach
pain in duodenal ulcers
• Associated with H.Pylori
GASTRIC ANATOMY AND
• PUD can be fully understood after anatomical study of the stomach, The gastric
epithelial lining consists of rugae that contain microscopic gastric pits, each
branching into four or five gastric glands made up of highly specialized epithelial
• The majorities of gastric glands (75%) are found within the oxyntic mucosa and
contain mucous neck, parietal, chief, endocrine, and enterochromaffin cells.
Pyloric glands contain mucous and endocrine cells (including gastrin cells) and
are found in the antrum.
• A typical adult human stomach will secrete 2 or 3 liters of gastric acid daily.
Gastric acid secretion happens in several steps.
• It consists of:
• Water and mineral salts secreted by gastric glands
• Mucus secreted by mucous neck cells in the glands
• Hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor secreted by parietal cells in the gastric glands
• Inactive enzyme precursors; pepsinogen secreted by chief cells
• The benefits of gastric acid are to facilitate digestion of proteins and the
absorption of calcium, iron, and vitamin B12. It also suppresses growth of
bacteria, which can help prevent enteric infections and small intestinal bacterial
• Mucus prevents mechanical injury to the wall by lubricating the contends
• Gastroduodenal Mucosal Defense - The gastric epithelium is under a
constant assault by a series of endogenous noxious factors including HCl,
pepsinogen/pepsin, and bile salts
• In addition, a steady flow of exogenous substances such as medications,
alcohol, and bacteria encounter the gastric mucosa.
• The mucosal defense system can be envisioned as a three-level barrier,
composed of preepithelial, epithelial, and subepithelial element.
REGULATION OF SECRETION
• Gastric acid production is regulated by both the autonomic nervous
system and by several hormones. The parasympathetic nervous system, via
the vagus nerve, and the hormone gastrin stimulate the parietal cell to
produce gastric acid, both directly acting on parietal cells and indirectly,
through the stimulation of the secretion of the
hormone histamine from enterochromaffine-like cells (ECL).
• Vasoactive intestinal peptide, cholecystokinin, and secretin all inhibit
production. Positive regulators and negative feedback mechanism regulate
production of gastric acid in the stomach.
• PUD encompasses both gastric and duodenal
ulcers. Ulcers are defined as a break in the
mucosal surface 5 mm in size, with depth to the
submucosa. Duodenal ulcers (DUs) and gastric
ulcers (GUs); share many common features in
terms of pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment,
but several factors distinguish them from one
• Peptic ulcers are common: it has been estimated that up to 10% of
the population has an ulcer at some time, though many of these are
asymptomatic, the annual incidence of symptomatic peptic ulcer
being about 0.3%. Duodenal ulcers are four times as common as
gastric ulcers and occur mainly in the duodenal cap .
• DUODENAL ULCER: DUs are estimated to occur in 6 to 15% of the
western population. The incidence of DUs declined steadily from
1960 to 1980 and has remained stable since then. The death rates,
need for surgery, and physician visits have decreased by 50% over
the past 30 years.
• GASTRIC ULCER: GUs tends to occur later in life than duodenal
lesions, with a peak incidence reported in the sixth decade. More
than half of GUs occur in males and are less common than DUs,
• The etiology of peptic ulcer disease is multifactorial, the mechanisms normally
operating to protect the mucosa from self-digestion by the acid and pepsin of
gastric juice either failing or being overcome by a combination of injurious
• The most common causes of peptic ulcer in are H. pylori infection and NSAID
• The old hypothesis that ulceration is caused simply by hyperacidity is not
tenable, because about 70% of gastric ulcers and 50% of duodenal ulcers (i.e.
about 55% of all ulcers) are not associated with abnormally high acid production
• However, gastric ulcers occurring near the pylorus may be associated with
combined H. pylori infection plus hyperacidity, as are many duodenal ulcers.
• Heredity is also important: the development of duodenal ulcer at an early age
tends to run in families.
• Added to these naturally occurring factors are a number of social and
environmental ones, the most important being smoking. The ingestion of some
drugs, especially NSAIDs and alcohol, also promotes acute ulceration
• Spicy foods do not cause ulceration, but may aggravate symptoms
H PYLORIAND ACIDPEPTICDISORDERS
• Gastric infection with the bacterium H. pylori accounts for the
majority of PUD. This organism also plays a role in the development
of gastric mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma
and gastric adenocarcinoma.
• The bacterium, initially named Campylobacter pyloridis, is a gram-
negative microaerophilic rod found most commonly in the deeper
portions of the mucous gel coating the gastric mucosa or between
the mucous layer and the gastric epithelium
• The first step in infection by H. pylori is dependent on the bacteria’s
motility and its ability to produce urease. Urease produces ammonia
from urea, an essential step in alkalinizing the surrounding pH
• NSAID use is a common cause of PUD. These drugs disrupt the
mucosal permeability barrier, rendering the mucosa vulnerable to
• Prostaglandins play a critical role in maintaining gastroduodenal
mucosal integrity and repair. It therefore follows that interruption of
prostaglandin synthesis can impair mucosal defense and repair, thus
facilitating mucosal injury via a systemic mechanism
• NSAIDs act by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenases (COX-1) which
is a constitutive enzyme in the production of gastric mucosa
• Stressful conditions that may cause PUD include burns, CNS trauma,
surgery, and severe medical illness. Serious systemic illness, sepsis,
hypotension, respiratory failure, and multiple traumatic injuries
increase the risk for secondary (stress) ulceration.
• . Stress ulceration and upper-GI hemorrhage are complications that
are increasingly encountered in critically ill children in the intensive
care setting. Severe illness and a decreased gastric pH are related to
an increased risk of gastric ulceration and hemorrhage
HYPERSECRETORY STATES (UNCOMMON)
• The following are among hypersecretory states that may,
uncommonly, cause PUD:
• Gastrinoma (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome) or multiple endocrine
neoplasia type I (MEN-I)
• Antral G cell hyperplasia
• Systemic mastocytosis
• Basophilic leukemias
• Cystic fibrosis
• Short bowel syndrome
SYMPTOMS OF PEPTIC ULCER
• A number of symptoms are associated with Peptic ulcers. The
severity of the symptoms depends on the severity of the ulcer. Each
person’s symptoms may vary. In some cases ulcers don’t cause any
The most common symptom of peptic ulcers is abdominal pain.
• The pain is usually in the upper middle part of the abdomen, above the belly
button (navel) and below the breastbone.
• The ulcer pain can feel like burning, or gnawing, and it may go through to the
• Pain often comes several hours after a meal when the stomach is empty.
• The pain is often worse at night and early morning.
• It can last anywhere from a few minutes to several hours.
• The ulcer pain may be relieved by food, antacids, or vomiting.
MANAGEMENT OF PUD
• Treatment of peptic ulcers varies depending on the etiology and
clinical presentation. The initial management of a stable patient with
dyspepsia differs from the management of an unstable patient with
upper GI hemorrhage. In the latter scenario, failure of medical
management not uncommonly leads to surgical intervention.
• Given the current understanding of the pathogenesis of PUD, most
patients with PUD are treated successfully with cure of H
pylori infection and/or avoidance of NSAIDs, along with the
appropriate use of antisecretory therapy.
The aims of pharmacotherapy are to:
• • Relieve symptoms, by neutralizing acid or reducing acid secretion;
• • Promote healing, by enhancing mucosal resistance, eliminating bacterial gastric
infection and reducing acid secretion.
• Ulcers are intrinsically self-healing if the imbalance between erosive
and protective factors can be corrected. Healed ulcers are often
found at postmortem examination in individuals with no prior ulcer
history. With the exception of sucralfate and bismuth chelate,
‘ulcerhealing’ drugs do not actually heal or stimulate repair, but
correct the imbalance and so promote natural healing. About one-
third of ulcers remit spontaneously.
APPROACHESFOR TREATMENTOF PUD
1. REDUCING OF GASTRIC ACID SECRETION
a. H2 antihistamines: Cimetidine, Ranitidine, Famotidine, Roxatidine
b. Proton pump inhibitors: Omeprazole, Esomeprazole, Lansoprazole,
c. Anticholinergic: Pirenzipine, propantheline, Oxyphenonium
d. Postaglandin analogue: Misoprostol
2. NEUTRALIZATION OF GASTRIC ACIDS (ANTACIDS)
a. Systemic: sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate
b. Nonsystemic: magnesium hydroxide, mag. Trisilicate, Alluminium hydroxide
3. ULCER PROTECTIVES
Sucralfate, colloidal bismuth subcitrate
4. Anti.H. PYLORI DRUGS
Amoxicillin, Clarithromycin, Metronidazole, Tinidazole, Tetracycline
• A special diet is not indicated for patients with peptic
ulcer. Its common sense approach to avoid any food or
beverages that may aggravate symptoms.
• Although the link between duodenal ulcers and alcohol is
inconclusive, moderation of alcohol intake maybe
recommended for other health reasons
• AND YES AVOID SPICY FOOD
COMPLICATIONS OF PEPTIC
• Refractory, symptomatic peptic ulcers, though rare after eradication
of H pylori infection and the appropriate use of anti secretory
therapy, are a potential complication of PUD
• Patients with gastric ulcers are also at risk of developing gastric
• H pylori is associated with atropic gastritis, which in turn,
predisposes to gastric cancer
• H pylori is associated with gastric lymphoma or mucosa associated
lymphoid tissue (MALT)