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  1. 1. Connect Now HTML 5 refers to the latest browser specification. HTML 5 supports live streaming via H.264, H.265, WebRTC, and other codecs. Media players may be coded using HTML 5 directly. STREAMING & BROADCASTING CHEAT SHEET STREAMING AND BROADCASTING are rapidly converging technologies. Sometimes, the same terms apply to both. I have tried to separate them for ease of understanding, but there is much crossover. Diagrams are on the following page. STREAMING TECHNOLOGY HTML 5 BROADCAST TECHNOLOGY Know enough to be dangerous! H.265 replaces H.264 and adds support for 4K DCI, and UHD resolution, as well as WCG and HDR streaming (Rec. 2020). Booyah! H.265 (aka HEVC) H.264 replaces VP6 (Flash) with better quality encoding/decoding. It supports resolutions up to 1080P and standard color and dynamic range (Rec. 709). x.264 is a slightly higher quality version of H.264. H.264 HLS refers to the Apple Streaming Server environment to support iOS and Android devices. Similar to MPEG-DASH, it works by breaking the overall stream into a sequence of small HTTP-based file downloads, each download loading one short chunk of a continuous stream. Supports adaptive bit rate (ABR) streaming. HLS (aka HTTP Live Streaming) RTMP servers can stream H.264 as well as Flash (VP6 codec). The Adobe Flash Media Server has been the primary means of delivering live streams for many years. Supports ABR streaming. RTMP (aka Flash Streaming Server) WebRTC was developed by Google and others. It was designed as a live streaming video and voice collaboration technology. The best example is Google Hangouts. The WebRTC interface may be coded directly into HTML 5 and offers the ability to include various live streaming sources and switch between them on the fly. Veeery cool! WebRTC UDP is the basic way live streaming media is delivered. This is the transport layer and it is prioritized for speed (low latency), but does not guarantee delivery – packets may get lost along the way. This is why you need a CDN like Akamai, L3, etc. Think of streaming like an equation, with one protocol and codec inside the other: < UDP [ RTMP { H.264/AAC } ] > - see the table on the next page. UDP Rec. 2020 refers to the latest broadcast standards and includes up to 4K (4096 x 2160) resolution, 10 or 12 bit color, up to 120 frames per second, as well as WCG and HDR video . Rec. 2020 (aka BT.2020) HDR refers to high dynamic range television. Dynamic range is the ability of a camera or display to capture or show a certain range of black to grays to white. This is normally referred to in f-stops to use familiar camera light measurement techniques. Human eyes can see ~14 stops (though it is more complex than that really - we vary dynamic range within what we see). Most professional cameras capture 10 - 12 stops and cinema cameras (like the RED) go up to 18 stops. For monitors, this is calculated in nits. Your pre-2016 monitor is generally up to 300 Cd/m2 (nits). HDR will bring up to 4,000 nits with technologies like Dolby Vision promising up to 10,000 nits. HDR WCG refers to wide color gamut television. Color space is a complex topic, but in short it is the range of colors a given technology can either capture or reproduce. The CIE 1931 color space chromaticity diagram with Rec.2020 (BT.2020) and older Rec.709 color space diagrammed explains it best. Rec. 709 is a small box of Crayons! WCG Rec. 709 refers to the previous broadcast standards and includes up to 1080P resolution supporting standard color and dynamic range. Rec. 709 CDN refers to a content delivery network. Think of this as FedEx for packets. CDNs manage private networks to get your streams where the audience is. Some CDNs serve from Internet top tiers (L3, Limelight) and others serve from the edge in local ISPs (Akamai), and some into specific geographies (China Cache). CDN DASH is an adaptive bitrate (ABR) streaming technique delivered from HTTP web servers. Similar to Apple's HLS solution, MPEG- DASH works by breaking the content into a sequence of small HTTP- based file segments at different bit rates. Each viewer is served the best bit rate for their network conditions, based on the levels set. MPEG-DASH Smooth Streaming uses the Microsoft IIS (Internet Information Server) to serve live streaming video and audio. Much like DASH, this is an adaptive bitrate (ABR) HTTP streaming technique. Microsoft Smooth Streaming DCI-4K is the new acquisition standard resolution for production professionals. 4K (most people forget the DCI reference) is 4096x2160 in resolution. For a quick comparison, see the diagram on the next page (480i = standard definition TV). DCI-4K UHD is the new standard for television. Think of this as the consumer version of 4K. It is 3840x2160 pixels in dimension. This was picked as the consumer standard because it is four times the resolution of the current HD resolution (1920x1080). UHD ATSC refers to standards for digital television transmission over terrestrial, cable, and satellite networks. This is basically a table that describes all the different combinations of resolution, frame rate, color, and dynamic range. ATSC 3.0 allows delivery of multiple image sizes, frame rates, color, and dynamic range at the same time. ATSC A Nit is a candela per square meter (cd/m2). The candela is the SI unit of luminous intensity and the square meter is the area of measurement. A nit is used to describe the brightness range of a monitor; a higher nit rating means a better contrast range. Nits DCI-P3 or D65 is a common color space for digital movie projection. Mid-ground between Rec. 709 and Rec. 2020. DCI-P3 © 2016 Andy Kochendorfer OTT M2TS +1 415 760 0508 shift your thinking
  2. 2. Connect Now DIAGRAMS. Because sometimes pictures are better than words. IMAGES SIZES COMPARED FIVE DIMENSIONS OF VIDEO QUALITY 4K 1080P 480P Dynamic Range (contrast ratio) 12 bit 8 bit 6 bit 24/30 P3/D65 Rec. 2020 Rec. 709 120 60 Grandma’s tube TV SDR HDR Color Space (range of colors) Frame Rate (temporal resolution) Color Precision (bit depth) Image Size (spatial resolution) Rec. 2020 vs. P3/D65 vs. Rec. 709 Color Gamut NETWORK LAYERS FOR STREAMING APPLICATION HTTP, RTP, RTMP, HLS, WebRTC, SIP, SMTP, POP, FTP, XML, etc. TRANSPORT TCP, SCTP, UDP TCP/SCTP = guaranteed delivery, but slower UDP = fastest, but does not check for delivery NETWORK IP (Internet Protocol) DATA LINK Ethernet, ATM, frame relay, etc. PHYSICAL CAT-5, fiber optic, coax cable, microwave, satellite © 2016 Andy Kochendorfer TELEPRESENCE & VIDEOCONFERENCE CALL TYPES SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) via IP is the most secure call. H.323 via IP is still the most common call type. ISDN uses a legacy telephone technology (not common) STREAMING & BROADCASTING CHEAT SHEET Know enough to be dangerous! OTT M2TS +1 415 760 0508 shift your thinking
  3. 3. Connect Now OTT - WebRTC – RTMP – HLS – DASH – VC-1 - VP9 – AV1 - ATSC – SHVC – DVB/ASI - H.264 – HEVC - UHD – REC 2020 – HDR – WCG – P3 – DRM – SIP – H.323 – H.320 Direct worldwide staff (San Francisco, New York, Charlotte, London, Beijing, & Singapore offices) to drive the acquisition and delivery of digital media for Fortune 500 clients. Leading member of the core team that brought ON24, Inc. to profitability in late 2003 despite the dire 2001-2004 recession. Directs staff and partners to provide live streaming, broadcast production, signal acquisition, and content delivery. Currently manage over 65,000 events per year resulting ~$100 million yearly revenue. Multi-million dollar project budget oversight. Manage and design multi-tiered, web-based streaming applications. Design and engineering of streaming and broadcast network infrastructure for ON24 24/7 live streaming services. C O M M U N I C A T I O N S live interactive webcast applications broadcast televisionmillions of viewers social data acquisition & analysis L E A D E R S H I P ANDY KOCHENDORFER Accomplished - Professional MANAGEMENT PROFILE COMMUNICATIONS & TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT EXPERIENCE SR. DIRECTOR, GLOBAL PRODUCTION Directed nationwide staff delivering global, live digital programming. Managed and developed a three-tiered, web-based application that incorporates streaming video software to deliver video, audio, synchronized slides, chat communications, and voting surveys. Directed worldwide production and encoding staff and infrastructure. Engineered worldwide CDN streaming networks. Scheduled all resources, budget actions, manage CRM (Siebel), and manage forecasting. DIRECTOR, STREAMING PRODUCTION Directed staff at Fox Television broadcast stations and digital production facilities. Designed and deployed Fox News, Orlando operations. Engineered multi-station master control operations and digital transmission conversions. Directed commercial and marketing content for entire Meredith Broadcast Network of 20 national stations. Directed broadcast commercial material for Fortune 500 companies such as Coke, IBM, Disney, Toyota, Intel, Lockheed, ESPN, Arista Records, etc. BROADCAST DIRECTOR Responsible for content, assembly, and coordination of 6 and 10 PM newscasts at the No. 1 Fox station in America. 10 PM newscast voted Best Newscast by Associated Press. Demonstrated clear ability to succeed under tight deadlines. Managed photography and editorial staff, coordinated live microwave and satellite broadcasts. BROADCAST PRODUCER Managed all productions, equipment, and budgets for national broadcasting firm, as well as sister film and video production firm. Directed projects in the $50,000 to $180,000 range. Managed 4 full- time and 25 part-time contract employees. Negotiated vendor contracts and pricing, managed accounts/sales staff and business development. Saved company $60,000 in the first quarter by restructuring and negotiations with vendors. PRODUCTION MANAGER BROADCAST ONE T E L E P R O D U C T I O N S PERSONAL INFORMATION As a highly experienced professional with over 20 years of television broadcast and live interactive streaming management, I was pivotal in the development of ON24’s cutting edge, live interactive streaming environment. I have a contagious passion to develop and the technological leadership to create financially beneficial, market driven business strategies. I received my Bachelor of Science in Resource Management from the University of California, Berkeley in 1990 with honors. I am a long- standing Scout leader in my local community and volunteer to support local schools. COMMUNICATIONS LEADERSHIP & STRATEGY EDUCATION/ACCREDITATION “I possess an innate ability to motivate people through exemplary leadership in enterprise communications. I believe people thrive when given quality leadership and the necessary responsibilities to fulfill their occupational demands. As a highly motivated self-starter, I excel when presented with tight deadlines and constant technological change.” “I desire to partner with those poised for the future of business collaboration and communications. I will continue to develop new streaming technologies and applications. What can we do together?” RESOURCE MANAGEMENT – BACHELOR OF SCIENCE University of California, Berkeley ACCOLADES “What a great job. You are extremely well aligned, and doing a tremendous job at Merck. Fantastic.” “On behalf of the Cisco team, I want to thank you for your support during Cisco Live Las Vegas. We attempted one of our largest captures ever at a Cisco convention….Due to your hard work, we had our most successful event ever!” “IBM executives were very pleased with the great rollout of IBM Cognos. Special thanks to Andy Kochendorfer for making this event a tremendous success.” “On behalf of Merrill Lynch and the entire technology group, we wish to thank you sincerely for the flawless execution of broadcasting Merrill conferences. From inception to completion you exceeded our expectations and your positive, skillful attitude was a true asset.” +1 415 760 0508 shift your thinking