SlideShare a Scribd company logo
https://www.flickr.com/photos/sharynmorrow/643126727 
The Web Is… Too Slow 
@AndyDavies 
#TheWebIs, Oct 2014
https://www.flickr.com/photos/dullhunk/3930915541
But I’m frustrated… 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/sybrenstuvel/2468506922
The Web is Too Slow 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/the_justified_sinner/3507390621
Too many sites are too slow 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/the_justified_sinner/3507390621
and it’s getting worse! 
Only 12% of the top 100 (US) retail sites rendered 
feature content in less than 3 seconds. ! 
! 
Year-on-year the median page has slowed down 
by 23% 
Tammy Everts - Radware State of the Union Fall 2014
“We’re not being deliberate about performance”! 
Tim Kadlec 
https://www.flickr.com/photos/lukew/7382528728
But only if we build it that way… 
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-0RqujOyE1ro/Up9HF7bPxbI/AAAAAAAAAbM/Ijudm6uq-dg/s1600/This+is+for+Everyone.jpg
Reader panel (3,000 people) rated speed (fast page 
load time) as their second most important driver! 
! 
Speed had the highest percentage of people saying it 
was VERY important to them
Speed matters! 
Walmart 2012
increased conversions by 10% 
Shaved 1 second off median home page time! 
6 seconds off 98th percentile 
http://www.slideshare.net/cliffcrocker/velocity-ny-how-to-measure-revenue-in-milliseconds
We’re more tolerant as we get further into purchase funnels 
Less Tolerant 
More Tolerant
and sometimes we get suspicious if something’s too fast
and sometimes we get suspicious if something’s too fast
Design is all about finding solutions within constraints,! 
if there were no constraints, it’s not design — it’s art.! 
Matias Duarte 
“ 
”
Embrace those constraints… set a performance budget 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/communityfriend/2342578485
Setting a budget 
An event that matters to the visitor! 
within a set time! 
under defined network conditions
“Usable within 10 seconds on GPRS connection”! 
BBC News
“SpeedIndex under 1000”! 
Paul Irish
Could use page size or number of objects but…
…how well would they work here?
Make them visible 
Lara Hogan, Etsy
!
Lara Hogan, Etsy
http://lafikl.github.io/perfBar
Test with a slower network connection 
Network Link Conditioner 
(or http://slowyapp.com/) 
http://jagt.github.io/clumsy/
It’s great for comparisons… set a budget based on competitors
Build it into build processes
Commercial services based on WebPagetest
Performance budgets coming to them too
We know how to make fast sites, there are plenty of recipes out there
How well do we understand our medium? 
https://www.flickr.com/photos/37873897@N06/6924775578
Do we understand our fundamental building blocks? 
https://www.flickr.com/photos/ogimogi/2253657555
Which will be faster? 
1Mbps 10Mbps
Which will be faster? 
1Mbps / 28ms RTT 10Mbps / 280ms RTT
We often think of the network as a pipe 
https://www.flickr.com/photos/63567936@N00/4181042889
that’s sometimes really bad 
https://www.flickr.com/photos/chesh2000/4487000196
but the reality is closer to 
http://1m0esx2939yhjwld8419obqhyb.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/DSC_0492.jpg
“More Bandwidth Doesn’t Matter (much)”! 
Mike Belshe 
Page Load Time 
1.41s 1.39s 1.38s 1.37s 1.36s 1.50s 1.44s 
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 
Bandwidth (Mbps) 
1.63s 
1.95s 
3.11s
But latency has a linear impact 
4 
3 
Page Load Time (s) 1 
2 
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 
Round Trip Time (ms)
Latency increases with distance 
http://BT Backbone roundtrip times from London: http://ippm.bt.net/hour/europe/lo.shtml www.vectortemplates.com
Latency increases with distance 
81ms 
201ms 
156ms 
266ms 
232ms 
28ms 
http://BT Backbone roundtrip times from London: http://ippm.bt.net/hour/europe/lo.shtml www.vectortemplates.com
There’s the last mile latency too 
(and routers, other networking kit, mobile latencies too) 
https://www.flickr.com/photos/kiwanja/3170292282
(TCP Segments) 
TCP and the Lower Bound of Web Performance! 
John Rauser 
Larger downloads == more round trips 
285kB 
214kB 
143kB 
71kB 
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 
Round Trips 
Size
We can cheat the latency penalty 
(sometimes) 
https://speakerdeck.com/mikeyk/secrets-to-lightning-fast-mobile-design
User gets 
feedback
Network request 
still in progress 
User gets 
feedback
???
Covert HTML … 
html 
head 
meta name=viewport content=width=device-width,initial-scale=1.0 
link href=styles.css rel=stylesheet 
script src=script.js/script 
titleHTML Example/title 
/head 
body 
h1Title/h1 
pSome introductory text and picture! img src=image.jpg//p 
/body 
/html
… into Document Object Model (DOM) 
html 
head body 
meta link script title h1 p 
img
Convert CSS … 
body { font-size: 16px } 
h1 { text-decoration: underline} 
p { font-weight: bold } 
p  span { color: #000 } 
img { border: 1px solid #ccc }
… into CSS Object Model (CSSOM) 
body 
h1 p 
span 
font-size: 16px 
font-size: 16px 
text-decoration: underline 
font-size: 16px 
font-weight: bold 
font-size: 16px 
font-weight: bold 
color: #000 
img 
font-size: 16px 
border: 1px solid #ccc
Combine DOM and CSSOM to build Render Tree 
body 
h1 p 
img 
font-size: 16px 
text-decoration: underline 
font-size: 16px 
font-weight: bold 
font-size: 16px 
font-weight: bold 
border: 1px solid #ccc
Render the Page 
HTML 
CSS 
DOM 
CSSOM 
Render! 
Tree 
Layout Paint
But what about JavaScript? 
HTML 
CSS 
DOM 
CSSOM 
Render! 
Tree 
JavaScript Layout Paint
But what about JavaScript? 
HTML 
CSS 
DOM 
CSSOM 
Render! 
Tree 
JavaScript 
Layout Paint 
JavaScript blocks DOM construction! 
CSSOM construction blocks JavaScript execution
HTML 
CSS 
DOM 
CSSOM 
Render! 
Tree 
JavaScript Layout Paint
HTML 
CSS 
DOM 
CSSOM 
Render! 
Tree 
Fonts and background 
images discovered 
when render tree builds 
JavaScript Layout Paint
And we all hate this… right?
Use font foundries that prioritise your visitor’s experience 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/splorp/4951916342
Some interesting ideas that may help 
font-timeout: time;! 
font-desirability: [ optional | mandatory ]; 
https://github.com/igrigorik/css-font-timeout
https://www.flickr.com/photos/christian_bachellier/582457911 
Server push in HTTP/2 might help too
Be deliberate, design for performance 
https://www.flickr.com/photos/9760699@N08/3748770917
Measure frequently - during build and in live 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/chandramarsono/4324373384
Remember the constraints of our medium 
https://www.flickr.com/photos/33649815@N03/3367739514
https://www.flickr.com/photos/basheertome/4762529213

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