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Speed is Essential for a
  Great Web Experience

  @andydavies




  Digicure
  Oct 2012
                             http://www.flickr.com/photos/ahockley/3576838608
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Performance isn’t always a priority




                             http://www.flickr.com/photos/randomidea/247994072
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
“Has it loaded yet?”


                             http://www.flickr.com/photos/kindofindie/4099768084
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Our perception of response time

       Instant

                  Seamless                                                            Yawn!




100ms 1s                                                                             10s

                        3s - Recommended         6.5s - Alexa 2000
                             Load Time               Fall 2012


                                      Response Time in Man-computer Conversational Transactions
                                                                         Robert B. Miller, 1968
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
“50% more concentration when using
                                    badly performing web sites”
                                                                                 Foviance
                                               http://www.flickr.com/photos/yourdon/3366991042
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Effect of delay on abandonment rate...




                             Abandonment rate over 200+ sites / 177+ million page views over 2 weeks - http://www.measureworks.nl / Gomez
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Bing did some experiments




                     +1s
                              $/
                               - 2.8%
                                        +




Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Wallmart made some improvements




                      -1s       +2%

Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Shopzilla cut page load time by 5 seconds!



           +12%              +25%                            -50%

             $$$

                                http://velocityconf.com/velocity2009/public/schedule/detail/7709
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Measuring page load time...


                                http://www.flickr.com/photos/wwarby/7109538317
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Synthetic Monitoring

                    4



                    3
Response Time (s)




                    2



                    1



                    0
                        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 16 27 28 29 30
                                                        September 2012
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
But these are not our visitors…


                              http://www.flickr.com/photos/br1dotcom/4297736794
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
These are our visitors


                             http://www.flickr.com/photos/yourdon/2681687374
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Measure Real Users’ Experience

                                  27%
Visitors (%)




                                        13%



                             8%               8%
               6%                                       6%

                                                                        3%   3%
                                                                   2%
                                                                                  1%

               1             2    3     4     5         6          7    8    9    10
                                                   Load Time (s)
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Measure Real Users’ Experience

                                  27%

                                                                                       24%
Visitors (%)




                                        13%



                             8%               8%
               6%                                       6%

                                                                        3%   3%
                                                                   2%
                                                                                  1%

               1             2    3     4     5         6          7    8    9    10   > 10
                                                   Load Time (s)
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Measuring Real Users - Google Analytics




   Relies on Navigation Timing API, can add extra timing calls to page
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Looking Deeper


                             http://www.flickr.com/photos/ohhector/3149051855
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
webpagetest.org


Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Waterfall for bbc.co.uk/news

Wednesday, 24 October 2012
mobitest.akamai.com

Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Bigger, Faster Servers?


                             http://www.flickr.com/photos/getbutterfly/6317955134
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
80% plus of page load time is on front-end

                                                                           Backend
     news.bbc.co.uk
                                                                           Frontend
             ebay.co.uk

  debenhams.co.uk

         direct.gov.uk

        amazon.co.uk

       mumsnet.com

      guardian.co.uk

                             0   1.25          2.5                3.75                5

                                        Measured on residential ADSL line using Chrome 19
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Fix slow server responses first




                  4 seconds!




Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Bandwidth (often) isn’t the bottleneck



   2.0

   1.5

   1.0

   0.5


         0s                        5s                                      10s

                             news.bbc.co.uk tested via webpagetest.org throttled at 1.5Mbps
                                                (bursts over 1.5Mbps are artefact of testing)
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
“More Bandwidth Doesn’t Matter (much)”
                                                                                        Mike Belshe




                    3.11s
   Page Load Time




                             1.95s
                                     1.63s
                                             1.50s    1.44s    1.41s    1.39s   1.38s     1.37s   1.36s




                     1        2       3       4         5       6        7       8          9         10
                                                     Bandwidth (Mbps)

Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Impact of Latency


                      4



                      3
 Page Load Time (s)




                      2



                      1




                          0   20   40   60   80    100    120    140     160   180   200   220   240
                                                  Round Trip Time (ms)
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Minimum round trips to download a file

                                                                            (TCP Segments)
   285kB


   214kB


   143kB


      71kB

      Size
                   1         2   3   4   5   6     7      8      9     10      11

                    Round Trips                  TCP and the Lower Bound of Web Performance
                                                                                 John Rauser
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Going Faster…




                             http://www.flickr.com/photos/mikebaird/2464769129/
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Put your pages on a diet
                             http://www.flickr.com/photos/europedistrict/4537909259
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Cut down number of HTTP requests




Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Move the content closer


                             http://www.flickr.com/photos/jamesjordan/2198988999
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Organise content so it’s easy to load




                              http://www.flickr.com/photos/jemsweb/4363548805
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
What’s the web made of?

                                                                   Images
                                                                   Scripts
                                                                   Stylesheets
                                                                   HTML
                                                                   Flash
                                                                   Other




                             Composition of ‘average’ web page via httparchive.org
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Images are 64% of an ‘average’ web page




                             http://www.flickr.com/photos/zaprittsky/4520788183/
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Bitmapped Images




                   JPEG                                PNG                           GIF


                             Optimise, Optimise, Optimise!
                              (jpegmini, pngmini, Smush.it, ImageOptim, Gifsicle etc.)

Wednesday, 24 October 2012
New Devices, New Challenges...




                             2 x Resolution = 4 x Pixels!

                                        http://www.flickr.com/photos/roopaw/6985954465
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Some Alternatives




                    CSS            SVG                Fonts


              Watch SVG sizes not always smaller than bitmap!
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Don’t block the browser...




                               http://www.flickr.com/photos/barteko/6128499314
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
news.bbcimg.co.uk
                             static.bbc.co.uk




  Browsers can download resources in parallel

Wednesday, 24 October 2012
But Sometimes... The Waterfall of Doom!




                             2 seconds! (nearly)

Wednesday, 24 October 2012
The Script Tag



                             <script src=″…″></script>



                  Until the script has executed, the rendering of
                          all elements below is blocked!



Wednesday, 24 October 2012
“Virgin Media Broadband ISP Users
  Affected by Website Routing Woes”
                                                                         ISP Review, May 26, 2012




     Customer jcmm33 said:
     “Same issue here as well, been like this all day. Sites like
     autotrader.co.uk don’t appear to be accessible, others like
     the telegraph.co.uk are waiting on other components to
     download (content from sites like cg-global.maxymiser.com,
     pixel.quantserve.com).”



                  http://www.ispreview.co.uk/index.php/2012/05/uk-virgin-media-broadband-isp-users-affected-by-website-routing-woes.html
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Impact on The Telegraph…




 Same issue affected many other sites   http://bit.ly/Ncy7Rd
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Load Third Party scripts asynchronously


      <script type="text/javascript">
        function() {
          var js = document.createElement('script');
          js.async = true;
          js.src = 'myscript.js';
          var e = document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0];
          e.parentNode.insertBefore(js, first);
        })();
      </script>




      async attribute may be option but not supported by IE & Opera
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
The Challenge of Mobile

                             http://www.flickr.com/photos/cubicgarden/3281555681
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Argh... My brain hurts!

                             http://www.flickr.com/photos/corneveaux/3248566797
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Don’t have to do it all by hand

                                         http://www.flickr.com/photos/simeon_barkas/2557059247
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Performance isn’t just for Christmas

                                        Measure




                             Optimise             Analyse



Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Measure Impact on Business Goals




                             http://www.flickr.com/photos/safari_vacation/5961260280
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
http://www.flickr.com/photos/jurvetson/6212582593
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
@andydavies
                             andy@asteno.com
             http://www.slideshare.net/andydavies




                                         http://www.flickr.com/photos/auntiep/5024494612
Wednesday, 24 October 2012
Credits


  All photographs copyright original owners on flickr.com

   Following pictograms courtesy of The Noun Project




Wednesday, 24 October 2012

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Speed is Essential for a Great Web Experience (Digicure - Copenhagen)

  • 1. Speed is Essential for a Great Web Experience @andydavies Digicure Oct 2012 http://www.flickr.com/photos/ahockley/3576838608 Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 2. Performance isn’t always a priority http://www.flickr.com/photos/randomidea/247994072 Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 3. “Has it loaded yet?” http://www.flickr.com/photos/kindofindie/4099768084 Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 4. Our perception of response time Instant Seamless Yawn! 100ms 1s 10s 3s - Recommended 6.5s - Alexa 2000 Load Time Fall 2012 Response Time in Man-computer Conversational Transactions Robert B. Miller, 1968 Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 5. “50% more concentration when using badly performing web sites” Foviance http://www.flickr.com/photos/yourdon/3366991042 Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 6. Effect of delay on abandonment rate... Abandonment rate over 200+ sites / 177+ million page views over 2 weeks - http://www.measureworks.nl / Gomez Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 7. Bing did some experiments +1s $/ - 2.8% + Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 8. Wallmart made some improvements -1s +2% Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 9. Shopzilla cut page load time by 5 seconds! +12% +25% -50% $$$ http://velocityconf.com/velocity2009/public/schedule/detail/7709 Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 10. Measuring page load time... http://www.flickr.com/photos/wwarby/7109538317 Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 11. Synthetic Monitoring 4 3 Response Time (s) 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 16 27 28 29 30 September 2012 Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 12. But these are not our visitors… http://www.flickr.com/photos/br1dotcom/4297736794 Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 13. These are our visitors http://www.flickr.com/photos/yourdon/2681687374 Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 14. Measure Real Users’ Experience 27% Visitors (%) 13% 8% 8% 6% 6% 3% 3% 2% 1% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Load Time (s) Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 15. Measure Real Users’ Experience 27% 24% Visitors (%) 13% 8% 8% 6% 6% 3% 3% 2% 1% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > 10 Load Time (s) Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 16. Measuring Real Users - Google Analytics Relies on Navigation Timing API, can add extra timing calls to page Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 17. Looking Deeper http://www.flickr.com/photos/ohhector/3149051855 Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 21. Bigger, Faster Servers? http://www.flickr.com/photos/getbutterfly/6317955134 Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 22. 80% plus of page load time is on front-end Backend news.bbc.co.uk Frontend ebay.co.uk debenhams.co.uk direct.gov.uk amazon.co.uk mumsnet.com guardian.co.uk 0 1.25 2.5 3.75 5 Measured on residential ADSL line using Chrome 19 Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 23. Fix slow server responses first 4 seconds! Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 24. Bandwidth (often) isn’t the bottleneck 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0s 5s 10s news.bbc.co.uk tested via webpagetest.org throttled at 1.5Mbps (bursts over 1.5Mbps are artefact of testing) Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 25. “More Bandwidth Doesn’t Matter (much)” Mike Belshe 3.11s Page Load Time 1.95s 1.63s 1.50s 1.44s 1.41s 1.39s 1.38s 1.37s 1.36s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Bandwidth (Mbps) Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 26. Impact of Latency 4 3 Page Load Time (s) 2 1 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 Round Trip Time (ms) Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 27. Minimum round trips to download a file (TCP Segments) 285kB 214kB 143kB 71kB Size 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Round Trips TCP and the Lower Bound of Web Performance John Rauser Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 28. Going Faster… http://www.flickr.com/photos/mikebaird/2464769129/ Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 29. Put your pages on a diet http://www.flickr.com/photos/europedistrict/4537909259 Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 30. Cut down number of HTTP requests Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 31. Move the content closer http://www.flickr.com/photos/jamesjordan/2198988999 Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 32. Organise content so it’s easy to load http://www.flickr.com/photos/jemsweb/4363548805 Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 33. What’s the web made of? Images Scripts Stylesheets HTML Flash Other Composition of ‘average’ web page via httparchive.org Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 34. Images are 64% of an ‘average’ web page http://www.flickr.com/photos/zaprittsky/4520788183/ Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 35. Bitmapped Images JPEG PNG GIF Optimise, Optimise, Optimise! (jpegmini, pngmini, Smush.it, ImageOptim, Gifsicle etc.) Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 36. New Devices, New Challenges... 2 x Resolution = 4 x Pixels! http://www.flickr.com/photos/roopaw/6985954465 Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 37. Some Alternatives CSS SVG Fonts Watch SVG sizes not always smaller than bitmap! Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 38. Don’t block the browser... http://www.flickr.com/photos/barteko/6128499314 Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 39. news.bbcimg.co.uk static.bbc.co.uk Browsers can download resources in parallel Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 40. But Sometimes... The Waterfall of Doom! 2 seconds! (nearly) Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 41. The Script Tag <script src=″…″></script> Until the script has executed, the rendering of all elements below is blocked! Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 42. “Virgin Media Broadband ISP Users Affected by Website Routing Woes” ISP Review, May 26, 2012 Customer jcmm33 said: “Same issue here as well, been like this all day. Sites like autotrader.co.uk don’t appear to be accessible, others like the telegraph.co.uk are waiting on other components to download (content from sites like cg-global.maxymiser.com, pixel.quantserve.com).” http://www.ispreview.co.uk/index.php/2012/05/uk-virgin-media-broadband-isp-users-affected-by-website-routing-woes.html Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 43. Impact on The Telegraph… Same issue affected many other sites http://bit.ly/Ncy7Rd Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 44. Load Third Party scripts asynchronously <script type="text/javascript"> function() { var js = document.createElement('script'); js.async = true; js.src = 'myscript.js'; var e = document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0]; e.parentNode.insertBefore(js, first); })(); </script> async attribute may be option but not supported by IE & Opera Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 45. The Challenge of Mobile http://www.flickr.com/photos/cubicgarden/3281555681 Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 46. Argh... My brain hurts! http://www.flickr.com/photos/corneveaux/3248566797 Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 47. Don’t have to do it all by hand http://www.flickr.com/photos/simeon_barkas/2557059247 Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 48. Performance isn’t just for Christmas Measure Optimise Analyse Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 49. Measure Impact on Business Goals http://www.flickr.com/photos/safari_vacation/5961260280 Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 51. @andydavies andy@asteno.com http://www.slideshare.net/andydavies http://www.flickr.com/photos/auntiep/5024494612 Wednesday, 24 October 2012
  • 52. Credits All photographs copyright original owners on flickr.com Following pictograms courtesy of The Noun Project Wednesday, 24 October 2012