Adapting to change generic format - 031510


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An overview of the impact of change which contains several models for helping individuals and organizations effectively navigate the frequent changes we experience.

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Adapting to change generic format - 031510

  1. 1. An Overview of Adapting to Change Andy Berman
  2. 2. <ul><li>By the end of this session, you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the Innovation Adoption curve </li></ul><ul><li>and explain how it relates to organizational change </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the impact of change on </li></ul><ul><li>performance at the individual and </li></ul><ul><li>organizational levels (i.e., explain the “Change </li></ul><ul><li>Curve”) </li></ul><ul><li>Understand and explain Bridges’ three phases </li></ul><ul><li>of change </li></ul>Objectives
  3. 3. Objectives, continued <ul><li>Understand and explain the difference between “change” and “transition” and the impact of both at work </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the emotional component of change and transition </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the benefit of personal accountability during periods of change </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Change Curve
  5. 5. The Change Curve Current level Of Performance Change is Introduced Performance Declines The “ Valley of Despair” Learning Curve Higher Level Of Performance
  6. 6. The Impact of Change <ul><li>Change impacts performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is always an initial decline in performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We can influence the extent and length of the impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Training, Education, Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What does this mean for you? What changes have </li></ul><ul><li>you experienced that initially led to a decline in your performance? </li></ul><ul><li>What changes do you anticipate that might have a similar effect on you, your staff, or the organization? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Change versus Transition: William Bridges Model
  8. 8. Change versus Transition <ul><li>“Change” is external </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequently outside of your control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates a “new” reality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“Transition” is internal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological process to adapt to new reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Starting point for “transition” is the ending that </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>you will have to make to leave the old situation behind. Psychological transition depends on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>letting go of the old reality and old identity you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>had before the change took place” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(William Bridges) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Three Phases of Transition ENDING NEUTRAL ZONE BEGINNING
  10. 10. Three Phases of Transition, cont. <ul><li>“The starting point for transition is not the outcome but the ENDING that you will have </li></ul><ul><li>to make to leave the old situation behind.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The failure to identify and be ready for the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>endings and losses that change produces is the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>largest single problem that organizations in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transition encounter.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The first step in transition management is understanding that “transition begins with letting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> go of something.” </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Three Phases of Transition, cont. <ul><li>The second step in transition management is “understanding what happens after letting go: </li></ul><ul><li>the neutral zone .” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “no-man’s-land” between the old reality and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the new </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The limbo between the old sense of identity and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the new </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The time when the old way is gone and the new doesn’t feel comfortable yet </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Three Phases of Transition, cont. <ul><li>The Neutral Zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertainty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>BUT – the Neutral Zone is also the core of the transition process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best chance for creativity, renewal, development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place and time when old habits no longer adaptive to new situation are extinguished and new, better-adapted patterns of behavior take shape </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Three Phases of Transition, cont. <ul><li>Beginning – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can only occur after people have first made an ending and spent some time in the neutral zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excitement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relief </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occasional ambivalence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Makes the ending more real </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertainty about the new reality </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Resistance to Change
  15. 15. Resistance To Change <ul><li>Think back to your own experiences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some reasons that people resist change? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does “resistance” look like? How do you know a person is “resisting change?” </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Rogers’ Innovation Adoption Curve <ul><li>Is it really “resistance”? Consider where </li></ul><ul><li>people fall on the adoption curve: </li></ul>Innovators 2.5% Early Adoptors 13.5% Early Majority 34% Late Majority 34% Laggards 16%
  17. 17. Rogers’ Innovation Adoption Curve, cont. <ul><li>Innovators – Willing and anxious to try something new </li></ul><ul><li>Early Adoptors – Willing to try out new ideas once there is more information and “history” available </li></ul><ul><li>Early Majority – Cautious, but willing to accept change more quickly than average </li></ul><ul><li>Late Majority – Will accept change when the majority is already using it </li></ul><ul><li>Laggards – Will accept change once it has become mainstream </li></ul>
  18. 18. Rogers’ Innovation Adoption Curve, cont. <ul><li>Consider: Is the person who is “resisting change” simply at a different point on the curve? </li></ul><ul><li>Five stages of adoption: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In which stage of adoption is the person who is “resisting”? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Resistance To Change <ul><li>Most resistance results from difficulties in managing the transition to the new reality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Change means discomfort – in stopping the old ways and doing things differently; it’s as much an emotional process as an intellectual one.” (John Cotter) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The Emotional Side of Change <ul><li>The perceived losses that accompany change may </li></ul><ul><li>cause people to grieve those losses. </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived losses include: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of Control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy, Competence, Influence, Resources, Predictability </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of Status </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prestige, Respect, Privileges </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of Identity & Meaning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Role, Career, Skills </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of Belonging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connections with Friends, Co-workers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of their Future </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security, Career options </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The Emotional Side, continued <ul><li>Grief has several stages* through which a </li></ul><ul><li>person “cycles”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bargaining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Normal emotions may be interpreted as resistance </li></ul><ul><li>*Kubler-Ross </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Emotional Side, continued <ul><li>Stages of Grief and Associated Emotions </li></ul>Resigned, Feeling Less Hurt, Accepting Acceptance Empty, Helpless, Sad, Lonely, Hopeless Depression Panic, Loss of Control Bargaining Bitter, Angry, Hurt, Irritated Anger Numb, Confused, Isolated, Panicked Shock/Denial Feelings Stage
  23. 23. Resistance to Change <ul><li>Resistance is natural and normal and frequently a function </li></ul><ul><li>of the endings we experience. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to perceived losses, other reasons for resistance include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Of the Unknown </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Of Failure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Of Ambiguity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of Understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not “bought into” the reasons for the change or the perceived benefits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment to Status Quo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress from Change “Overload” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remember the overlap of the three phases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased workload </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Categories of Resistance <ul><li>Four broad categories : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct and Conscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open and intentional </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can articulate the reason(s) for the resistance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct and Unconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open opposition with no articulated rationale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect and Conscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Sabotage” – subtle or direct </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect and Unconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lethargy, pessimism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t believe in what is being done, but can’t explain why </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Addressing Resistance to Change <ul><li>Strategies include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educate – yourself and others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal transition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sources of resistance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responses to change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and acknowledge the impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Actual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Addressing Resistance, continued <ul><li>Strategies, continued: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATE! - You cannot over-communicate in times of change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reasons for the change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stress positive outcomes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acknowledge concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize and address individual feelings </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Addressing Resistance, continued <ul><li>Strategies, continued: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities to influence the change process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tools, Training, Time </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Personal Accountability and Transition
  29. 29. Personal Accountability <ul><li>Understanding how your actions and behaviors influence what happens to you and others is an important element in managing transitions effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Accountability is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizing and accepting the impact of our own attitudes and behaviors on outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding that we create, promote, or allow most things that we experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accepting that accountability is a choice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We choose whether or not to be accountable </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Victim-Accountability Model © SITUATION Success Or Failure Self-Doubt No Learning VICTIM Blame Denial No Preparation Prepared Learn Accountability Acceptance Self-Assessment (Create/Promote/Allow ) Encouraged/ Self-Confident CHOICE EXPECTATION © 1992 IMPAQ
  31. 31. Lower Circle – Victim Cycle SITUATION Success Or Failure Self-Doubt No Learning VICTIM Blame Denial No Preparation © 1992 IMPAQ CHOICE EXPECTATION
  32. 32. Upper Circle – Accountability Cycle SITUATION Success Or Failure Prepared Learn Accountability Acceptance Self-Assessment (Create/Promote/Allow) Encouraged/ Self-Confident © 1992 IMPAQ EXPECTATION CHOICE
  33. 33. Self-Assessment Questions <ul><li>What did I do to create what I am experiencing? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How have my actions/decisions contributed toward this experience? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What have I done to promote (i.e., encourage, increase the probability of) what I’m experiencing? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How have my actions/decisions made it more likely that I would have this experience? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What have I done, or NOT done, to allow what I am experiencing? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What did I do or choose not to do that has permitted what I’m experiencing to occur? </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Summary/Key Points <ul><li>Change impacts performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is always an initial decline in performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“Change” creates a new reality </li></ul><ul><li>People adopt (adapt to) changes at different rates </li></ul><ul><li>“Transition” is the psychological process to adapt to the new reality </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Transition has three phases: Ending, Neutral Zone, and Beginning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Neutral Zone is the “core” of the transition process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transition is an emotional process </li></ul><ul><li>“Resistance” is normal and natural. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most resistance results from difficulties in managing the transition to the new reality </li></ul></ul>Summary/Key Points, continued
  36. 36. Summary/Key Points, continued <ul><li>Resistance is frequently the result of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived Loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of Understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment to Status Quo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress from Change “Overload” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased workload </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Accepting “accountability” for your feelings, actions, and decisions imparts control and helps facilitate the transition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid being a “victim” </li></ul></ul>Summary/Key Points, continued
  38. 38. What Questions Do You Have?