Air Pollution On Ethiopian Perspectiv E 1


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  • Meskir Tesfaye
    I agree with what Tibebu said. The air pollution issue is not properly addressed in Ethiopia, but the problem especially in the urban areas manifest itself significantlly. Currently Forum for Environment, a local NGO in Ethiopia is taking the issue seriously and is conducting studies and awareness creation amongest different stakeholders. May be this can trigger more efforts to study the situation and find out proper solutions. I hope there could be partnership with FfE to tackle the problem.
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  • I found the contribution on the newly emerging environmental threat to Ethiopia and other rapidly urbanizing nations, air pollution brilliant. I also found that the presentation should have been more specific as its title and include many details about air pollution problem, the locations, major causes, the current status and the status in the foreseeable future and some recommendations and future tasks of the stakeholders.
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Air Pollution On Ethiopian Perspectiv E 1

  1. 1. Air Pollution on Ethiopian Perspective Andualem Abate
  2. 2. 1. Definition of air pollutants <ul><li>Air pollution may be defined as the presence of substances added directly or indirectly in the atmosphere in such amounts as to affect living and non-living things adversely . </li></ul>Air Pollution ?
  3. 3. <ul><li>Particulate matter : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>total suspended particulate (TSP) (typical size < 100  m) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>respirable suspended particulate (RSP) (typical size < 10  m) (PM 10 , particulate matter of size < 10  m) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gaseous pollutants : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary gaseous pollutants: SO x , NO x , CO, volatile organic compound (VOC), Pb; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary gaseous pollutants: peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN), ozone (O 3 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Photochemical pollutants : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VOC, O 3 , PAN, CFC, greenhouse gases (CO 2 , H 2 O) </li></ul></ul>2. Common air pollutants
  4. 4. 2.1 Air pollutants sources and properties <ul><li>Natural pollutant sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcano eruption: emitting smoke, particulate matter, SO 2 , H 2 S, CH 4 … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fires: emitting smoke, unburnt hydrocarbons, CO, CO 2 , NO x ... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dust or sand storms dispersing dust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oceans are emitting corrosive salt aerosols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lightning produces NO x and O 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal human respiration produces CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Artificial or anthropogenic sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stationary sources: combustion, fuel usage, waste incineration, industrial processes… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile sources: all emissions and exhausts from transportation </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Major Threats to Air Quality <ul><li>Sulfur </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbons </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrous Oxides and Lead </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Monoxide </li></ul><ul><li>Radon </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactive Dust </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Asbestos </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Ethiopian Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Main Sources of Air Pollutants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current Air Quality Problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations Involved in the problem solving </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Air Pollution <ul><li>The main sources of air pollutants in the urban areas are considered to be traffic and combustion of fuels for domestic purposes . </li></ul><ul><li>Offcourse industrial emission and dusts which rise in to the atmosphere due to high speed wind from arid areas of Ethiopia (Afar and Somalia) region can also be mentiond as secondary sources of pollution </li></ul>
  8. 8. General sources of Air Pollution in Ethiopia <ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Combustion of fuel for domestic use </li></ul><ul><li>Dusts from arid areas of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Indusries </li></ul><ul><li>Construction dusts </li></ul><ul><li>Mining and extraction </li></ul>
  9. 9. Contineous…. <ul><li>There are no monitoring data of air quality in ethiopia </li></ul><ul><li>The main pollution sources are considerd to be domestic and industrial fuel use </li></ul><ul><li>The green house gases emission was estimated but, air pollutants were not </li></ul>
  10. 10. The pollutants of concern in this regard are <ul><li>sulpher dioxide, </li></ul><ul><li>nitrogen dioxides, </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon oxides </li></ul><ul><li>particulates </li></ul><ul><li>Lead </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Asbestos </li></ul><ul><li>dusts. </li></ul><ul><li>There may also be localized areas of concern close to some large industries. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Contineous… <ul><li>Currently, no information is available as the status of air quality in Ethiopia. However, given the overall level of industrialization and contribution of other potential sources of air pollutants, air quality within the country is likely to be acceptable. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Contineous… <ul><li>The recent National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) prepared by the National Meteorological services Agency has shown the contribution of Ethiopia to the global emission of green house gases to be negligible . </li></ul><ul><li>Recently the Environmental Protection Authority has prepared a draft ambient air quality standard. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Major emissions from the industrial sector are shown in the Table below. Major emissions indicated in the table are not properly inventoried and further assessment needs to be done in the future. </li></ul>.Sawdust .Wood preservatives .Paints .Varnishes Wood and Wood Products, Furniture . Waste waters from scouring, mercerising, bleaching, and dyeing process of textiles, containing NaOH, peroxides, aluminium compounds & dyestuffs .Waste water from tanning of skin & hides containing chrome, sulphides, ammonium salts, chlorides, etc. .Solid waste from dehairing, fleshing & trimming of hide & skin. Textile, Clothing, Tanning and Leather Goods . Food preservatives .Cleansing chemicals, e.g. NaOH, detergents .Air pollution from dust and combustion of fu Food Products and Beverage Major emission types Description
  14. 14. Contineous.. Scrap metal, air pollution from combustion of fuels Manufacturing of basic iron and steel tools .Solid waste of scorched rubber, scraps of rubber & PVC plastics, dust .Organic and inorganic waste waters Non-metallic mineral products .Solid waste of scorched rubber, scraps of rubber & PVC plastics, dust .Organic and inorganic waste waters Chemical, Rubber and Plastic Products .Cleaning waste waters containing printing chemicals, lead in granule form .Trimmed papers and Inorganic chemical waste Paper and Paper Products, Printing
  15. 15. Contineous… Detergents, laundry soap and solvents Dry cleaning in A.A Dust, inorganic waste waters, cyanide Mining and extraction Scrap metals, cigarette making & packing paper, wastes Other manufacturing industries Inorganic waste water, scrap metals Fabrication of machinery and equipment
  16. 16. Problem visible on the country directly or indirectly related to Air Pollution <ul><li>Contineous high flood disaster in many areas of the country </li></ul><ul><li>The increase of the country temperature time to time </li></ul><ul><li>Increase of cardivascular diseases </li></ul><ul><li>As our economy was dependent on agriculture which is lead by natural rain the people of the country affected contineously by drought and famine due to the intermitant of the rain </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings are getting full of dusts are also damaged with a short life span </li></ul>
  17. 17. Organizations Involved EPA of Etiópia <ul><li>Environmental Pollution Control Department </li></ul><ul><li>1.Vision: </li></ul><ul><li>To see a clean and healthy environment by eliminating or, when not possible minimizing pollutants from their sources. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Mission : </li></ul><ul><li>Enforce Pollution Control Proclamation and related laws, in order to eliminate or, when not possible to minimize pollutants that generated from industries, agricultural activities, service rendering organizations and urban areas and enhance the health and wellbeing of the citizens </li></ul><ul><li>3.Strategic goals towards the realization of the mission: </li></ul><ul><li>Develop , implement and measure programs that promote pollution prevent and environmental management systems </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent the adverse impacts of municipal waste </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent the adverse impact of hazardous substances and waste </li></ul>
  18. 18. Contineous…EPA <ul><li>The preparation of the National Profile has been initiated and co-ordinated by the Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) of Ethiopia. The profile was prepared between November 1998 and September 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>The main purpose in preparing the National Profile is to identify all stakeholders and existing infrastructure related to chemical management in Ethiopia, to determine both the actual and potential problems, and to suggest actions needed to strengthen the process of chemical management. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Measures to come up with the problem <ul><li>The government organized </li></ul><ul><li>a project called </li></ul><ul><li>“ Two tree by 2000” </li></ul><ul><li>When the country celeberate the new “Ethiopian Millinium”by the concept of each and every body is expected to caltivate at least 2 tree. </li></ul><ul><li>Around 300,000,000 trees are cultivated by this project. </li></ul>