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2015 Overview Rail Transport Course

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2015 Overview Rail Transport Course

  1. 1. V2010-1 Rail Transport Overview modules / course material 2015
  2. 2. V2010-1 Rail Transport Module 1.0 From transport to traffic
  3. 3. V2010-1 Modal split / Modal shift Rail transport Demand for rail transport Spatial planning Economy Mobility Following market requirements or politically driven
  4. 4. V2010-1 Classification of Railway systems Rail transport course based on Joern Pachl Public Transport and goods Industrial railways Streetcars, trams Local electric railways Metro, Subways Mountain railways Other special railways Connected to the public network Not connected to the public network Standard railway Light rail systems Railway systems Monorail systems Special railway systems
  5. 5. V2010-1 Site preparation. Substructure It comprises the subgrade itself, including in particular embankments, cuttings, drainage channels, planting for protection side slopes etc. Superstructure This consists of the rails (including turnouts and crossings), sleepers, fastenings, ballast and sub ballast or slab track. Engineering structures Viaducts, (moveable) bridges, tunnels, covered cuttings, culverts and other underpasses, retaining walls etc. Level crossings Including appliances to ensure the safety of road traffic. Traction power supply Which includes catenaries or supports of third rail, substations, power supply cables and control equipment. Safety, signalling and telecommunications installations Signal masts and / or cab signalling systems, train detection system, train control equipment, cables and control systems. Additional facilities For example baffle boards, fences etc. Ground area Stations and stops Terminals, platforms, pedestrian route, elevators, escalators, stairs etc. The railway system and its components
  6. 6. V2010-1 Transport Traffic Infrastructure Three pillars of the rail system Passenger- and ton-kilometres Demand for transport Origin and destination Definition of the transport needs to be satisfied (product- market) Ticket price Quality of service Travel time Frequency of service Punctuality Change needed Reliability Track length Speed (maximum) Routes Synchronism External constraints Environmental Relation with other modalities Safety Legislation Interaction scenery Technical aspects Required space Maintenance Costs Trains Number and length Cruise speed Acceleration and deceleration Weight Diesel or electric traction 1500 Volt / 25kV Functions Preconditions
  7. 7. V2010-1 Door to door journey Connecting mode Main leg Connecting mode
  8. 8. V2010-1 Logistic chain
  9. 9. V2010-1 Organisation goods transport • Full train load • Unit cargo • Intermodal transport
  10. 10. V2010-1 Full train load • One customer, one train. No shunting. Fast. • Goods from origin to destination by train. No other transport mode needed. No throughput. • “Chartered” trains. No freight, no train. Ores Cereals Cars
  11. 11. V2010-1 Rail Transport Module 2.1 Rolling stock
  12. 12. V2010-1 Traffic Three pillars of the rail system Trains Number and length Cruise speed Acceleration and deceleration Weight Diesel or electric traction 1500 Volt / 25kV
  13. 13. V2010-1 Our clients People Goods
  14. 14. V2010-1 =€ Transport capacity Revenues =€
  15. 15. V2010-1 Width and height Rail head NL L D DK A PL EU GB 1500 mm Standard or normal track width Track gauge 1435 mm 3150 mm 2790 mm 1380 mm 3500mm 3805mm 4650mm 4320mm 3220mm Overhead contact wire, viaducts and tunnels Vehicle gauge
  16. 16. V2010-1 Length Freight European UIC standard = 750 m. While in the United States … .
  17. 17. V2010-1 Weight Rail head Axle load 2 axles 4 axles Ton / meter Class Axle load 103 kg Ton / meter 103 kg / m. A 16 5,0 B / B1 18 5,0 B2 18 6,4 C / C2 20 6,4 C3 20 7,2 C4 20 8,0 D / D2 22,5 6,4 D3 22,5 7,2 D4 22,5 8,0
  18. 18. V2010-1 Rolling stock Basic forms vehicles Locomotive Wagon Coach Multiple unit
  19. 19. V2010-1 Rail Transport Module 2.2 Rolling stock
  20. 20. V2010-1 Train characteristics One direction Two directions
  21. 21. V2010-1 • Long: Trains up to 400 m. passengers and up to 750 m. freight (Europe). • Heavy: Freight trains up to (gross) 5400 ton (Europe). • High top speed: HST 200 - 350 km/h. • Slow: Acceleration and deceleration. • Limited gradient: 2,5 - 4 % maximum. • Power: Diesel, electric (external supply) or hybrid Train characteristics
  22. 22. V2010-1 Product – market combinations freight Multimodal Ores (bulk) Chemistry Steel Unit cargo / automotive
  23. 23. V2010-1 Regional 10 – 30 km. 2-4x t/u. Multicity 10 – 30 km. 4-8x t/u. 30 - 100 km. 2-6x t/u. International 300 – 1000 km. 6x t/d. International 1000+ km. 1x t/d. National 100 - 300 km. 1x t/u. Product – market combinations passengers Urban 3 – 10 km. 8-16x t/u. Urban 1 – 3 km. 8-16x t/u.
  24. 24. V2010-1 Rail Transport Module 3.0 Guided transport systems
  25. 25. V2010-1 Traffic Infrastructure Three pillars of the rail system Track length Speed (maximum) Routes Synchronism Trains Number and length Cruise speed Acceleration and deceleration Weight Diesel or electric traction 1500 Volt / 25kV Functions
  26. 26. V2010-1 Guided transport • Only a single degree of movement. Infrastructure determents direction and position. There is no steering wheel inside the vehicle! What is the most essential characteristic element of rail transport?
  27. 27. V2010-1 Guided transport Guided transport systems in components Passenger compartment Drivers cab Engine / propulsion Bus (way) Tram / train Support Guide
  28. 28. V2010-1 Train(type) versus infrastructure
  29. 29. V2010-1 Network elements Only three elements: • Transfer node • Link • Junction node
  30. 30. V2010-1 Junction node • A network consists of many transfer nodes. Linked together with junction nodes. Characteristics: Speed (maximum), relations, and synchronism
  31. 31. V2010-1 Rail transport Module 4.0 Track alignment
  32. 32. V2010-1 Infrastructure Three pillars of the rail system Track length Speed (maximum) Routes Synchronism External constraints Environmental Relation with other modalities Safety Legislation Interaction scenery Technical aspects Required space Maintenance Costs Functions Preconditions
  33. 33. V2010-1 V2 R = a Cant allows higher speeds g = gravity (m/s2) h = cant (m) s = gauge (m) (g x h) s + Maximum speed according to elementary physics (centrifugal acceleration) is limited (safety / comfort / wear). • V = speed (m/s) • R = curve (m) • a = (centrifugal) acceleration (m/s2) Maximum centrifugal acceleration for passenger comfort = 0,8 m/s2 Curved track
  34. 34. V2010-1 Rail Transport Module 5.0 Turnouts and crossings
  35. 35. V2010-1 Infrastructure Three pillars of the rail system Speed (maximum) Routes Synchronism External constraints Environmental Relation with other modalities Safety Legislation Interaction scenery Technical aspects Required space Maintenance Costs Functions Preconditions
  36. 36. V2010-1 Routes (the amount of) D EC A B Routes or connections is the amount of possible exits across an interlocking from a specific track (in one movement!). For instance: There is only one possible route from track A; track D.
  37. 37. V2010-1 Synchronism D EC A B Routes A- D and B – E
  38. 38. V2010-1 Standard turnout Switch rails or points Frog Front Rear Check or guard rail Scheme standard turnout Operating rod to switch stand ‘Hand throw’ or switch / point machine remote controlled
  39. 39. V2010-1 Standard turnout Front Rear Check or guard rail standard turnout Prevents wheel flange (opposite wheel) taking ‘the wrong direction’
  40. 40. Rail Transport Module 6.0 Terminals and stops
  41. 41. V2010-1 Transport Infrastructure Three pillars of the rail system Functions Preconditions Quality of service Change needed Required space
  42. 42. Intermediate terminal and stop Stop Terminal
  43. 43. The four main functions Platform Hall Forecourt Pedestrianroute
  44. 44. “Creepy types” I work night shifts. Is it safe to travel in the evening or at night? Social security
  45. 45. V2010-1 Rail Transport Module 7.1 Signalling and safety
  46. 46. V2010-1 Infrastructure Three pillars of the rail system Functions Preconditions Track length Speed (maximum) Routes Synchronism External constraints Environmental Relation with other modalities Safety Legislation Interaction scenery Technical aspects Required space Maintenance Costs
  47. 47. V2010-1 Safety directly related to the train system • Infrastructure limitations • Train separation • Interaction with other transport modes (level crossings) • Rail defects
  48. 48. V2010-1 Infrastructure limitations Movable Bridges Curves Points Buffer stop
  49. 49. V2010-1 Train separation Tools Communication Information Control Movement authorisation Point machines Remote controlled and part of an interlocking Train detection GSM-R Signalling
  50. 50. V2010-1 Movement authority Different forms: • Spoken • Written • Procedures • Tokens • Signs • Light signals • Electronic The message is always the same: “From – to” and maximum speed allowed.
  51. 51. V2010-1 Rail Transport Module 7.2 Signalling and safety
  52. 52. V2010-1 Infrastructure based traffic control system 4 2 Higher speeds ≈ longer blocks
  53. 53. V2010-1 Infrastructure based traffic control system Track circuits Power source Relay + + - - Gravity Block occupied Insulating joints Insulating joints Track circuit
  54. 54. V2010-1 Infrastructure based traffic control system Axle counters Axle counters 60 402
  55. 55. V2010-1 Vehicle based traffic control system Authority and track description GSM-R Train position and train integrity ERTMS level 3
  56. 56. V2010-1 ERTMS GSM-R 2 EVC TIM DMI Antenna RBC IXL Eurobalise Train report Identification, position, actual speed, train integrity, Level and mode GSM-R 876–880 MHz Traffic management Signalling system Interlocking Odo
  57. 57. V2010-1 ERTMS GSM-R 2 EVC TIM DMI Antenna RBC IXL Eurobalise Movement Authority (MA) Distance of the movement authority, static speed profile, gradient profile and linking information GSM-R 921–925 MHz Traffic management Signalling system Interlocking Odo
  58. 58. V2010-1 ‘Safety net’ Limit effects of passing a stop signal 1. Crosslocks in combination with a trap point. Preventing a train entering an occupied track.
  59. 59. 2010-1 Rail Transport Module 8 Rail system design / capacity
  60. 60. 2010-1 Brake margin = 5 m. Couple / split = 5 m. extra Train length part 1 Train length part 2 Sum platform length = longest train + 5 m. brake margin + potential 5 m. couple / split From train length to track length End face platform Dwarf signal = 15 m. End face platform Standard signal= 10 m. Fouling point – Insulating joints = 4x tangent + 5 m. Insulating Joint - Signal General 10 m. Fouling point – Insulating joints = 4x tangent + 5 m. Insulating Joint - Signal General 10 m. Gross track length between fouling point indicators is 405 meter for 340 meter long train!
  61. 61. 2010-1 Headway 1181 m.1181 m. 9 seconds reaction time 325 2687 m. / 130 km/h = 1 minute 14 seconds. 130 – 0 = 1181 meter. 9 sec. / 130 km/h = 325 meter. 1506 meter / 130 km/h = 42 seconds Cab signalling Blok system Curve brake ≤ 0,66 m/s2
  62. 62. 2010-1 Line capacity Time / Distance time timetable
  63. 63. 2010-1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Distance → Time→ A B C D E 00 12 02 22 15 27 Line capacity
  64. 64. 2010-1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Distance → Time→ A B C D E Line capacity
  65. 65. Environmental capacity • Geographic topics • Traffic related topics • Social topics •Visual hindrance •Spatial planning “Healing” city structure Noise reduction Vibrations Hazardous goods
  66. 66. Rail Transport Module 9.0 Track concepts The balance between safety, space and speed
  67. 67. V2010-1 Infrastructure Three pillars of the rail system Functions Preconditions Track length Speed (maximum) Routes Synchronism External constraints Environmental Relation with other modalities Safety Legislation Interaction public space Technical aspects Required space Maintenance Costs
  68. 68. V2010-1 Drivers appreciation (optional) Line side signal masts Signalling Cab signalling (required) Traffic regulation with signalling (required) 0 18 200140 300+50
  69. 69. V2010-1 Braking power 5,2 m/s2 = 36 meter 2,5 m/s2 = 76 meter 4,5 m/s2 = 42 meter 1,0 m/s2 = 189 meter 1,2 m/s2 = 157 meter 0,66 m/s2 = 286 meter Braking distance at 70 km/h Legislation Passenger comfort
  70. 70. V2010-1 Interaction with other transport modes 0 18 200140 300+50 Mixed traffic Crossings Traffic lights Level crossing (secured) Completely segregated infrastructure Additional shielding
  71. 71. Track concepts • Fully integrated track • Free (tramway) track • Exclusive (tramway) track • Fully segregated track Speed Safety measures Required space
  72. 72. Fully integrated track
  73. 73. Fully segregated track
  74. 74. Fully segregated track (automated, driverless operation) Renewed line 1 Paris Sliding doors match vehicle like an elevator
  75. 75. Rail transport Module 10.0 The railroad and it’s environment
  76. 76. Integration • Geographic topics • Traffic related topics • Social topics •Visual hindrance •Spatial planning “Healing” city structure Noise reduction
  77. 77. 77 © 2009 ARCADIS Geographic topics Waterways
  78. 78. Automatic crossings Start alarm bells and red lights: 25 seconds based on maximum track speed allowed. V= 130 km/h = 903 m.
  79. 79. Gradients different modalities 7% 5% 2,5%
  80. 80. Different level crossing rail - road Optimalisation 1,7% = 120 m. 2,50m. 4,60m. 7% = 50 m.50 m. = 3% 2,00 m.
  81. 81. … hybrid. Solution … Visual hindrance Overhead contact wire
  82. 82. V2010-1 Rail Transport Module 11 Line planning and rescheduling
  83. 83. V2010-1 Line planning Line planning OV SAAL 2016 ASD WP ASB RAIASDZHFD SHL ASDL ASSH ASS ASDM ASSP DMN DVD DMNZ HVS HVSN NDB BSMZ ALMPT ALM ALMM ALMP ALMO ALMB LLS KPNZ DNT ZL AMFS AVAT BRN AMF es dv hnk paris/bxl rtd bd hfdo gvc gvc gvc hfdo hfdo hfdo hfdo hfdo ut ut ut ut HST Intercity All station service Goods awhv on bh gn/lw kfh hfdo Product – market translation
  84. 84. V2010-1 ASD WP ASDM ASSP DMN HVS HVSN NDB BSMZ AMFS AVAT BRN AMF es dv ut ut awhv bh shl alm alm Hilversum Amsterdam Centraal Form line planning to time table Line planning OV SAAL 2016 HST Intercity All station service Goods ut
  85. 85. V2010-1 Amsterdam Centraal Schiphol Hilversum AlmereTransfer Transfer Weesp Cross platform Gpda Mdsa Form line planning to infrastructure
  86. 86. V2010-1 Rescheduling
  87. 87. V2010-1 Amsterdam Centraal Schiphol Hilversum Almere Amsterdam X ! Weesp Schiphol ☺ Gpda Mdsa Rescheduling ‘Yellow infra’ Infrastructure required for a complete / corridor blockade
  88. 88. V1.1, 21-9-09 Rail Transport Module 12 Introduction traction power supply
  89. 89. V2010-1 Traffic Three pillars of the rail system Trains electric traction 1500 Volt / 25kV Metro / tram 600 / 750 V
  90. 90. V1.1, 21-9-09 Contact wire support structures Frame 2.85 meter Height 5.50 meter Height 8.50 meter
  91. 91. V1.1, 21-9-09 Energy 10.000 V ≈ 1.800 V = 4 kA + - Ω ± 1.500 V 4 kA M U = I * R Power (max) = U * I = 6mW Power plant Substation
  92. 92. V1.1, 21-9-09 Sections To allow maintenance to the traction power supply system, without having to turn off the entire system, the line is split up into electrically separated portions known as "sections". D EC A B Insulator
  93. 93. Thank you Any questions? andre.vanes@arcadis.nl / a.vanes@utwente.nl +31 6 2706 2413

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