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Chapter 8 : SALTS

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Online learning to understand the concept and application of chemicals on the topic of salt. These slides were uploaded to help students understand the basic concepts of chemistry. Independent study in Freestyle.com

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Chapter 8 : SALTS

  1. 1. CHAPTER 8: SALTS<br />
  2. 2. WHO IS SALT ?<br />
  3. 3. WHAT IS SALT ?<br />WHO IS SALT ?<br />Ionic compound – formed when the hydrogen ion, H+ from an acid is replaced by a metal ion or an ammonium ion, NH4+<br />REFER TEXT BOOK : PAGE 138<br />
  4. 4. EXAMPLE :<br />replace<br />Na+<br />Na+<br />Cl-<br />Metal ions<br />Sodium chloride<br />H<br />Cl<br />replace<br />NH4+<br />NH4+<br />Cl-<br />Ammonium ion<br />Ammonium chloride<br />
  5. 5. SALTS CONSIST ANION PART COMES FROM THE ACID WHILE CATION PART COMES FROM BASES<br />Common anions (parent acids)<br />Common cations<br />HCl<br />Na+<br />Ca2+<br />Mg2+<br />Fe2+<br />HNO3<br />K+<br />Cu2+<br />Al3+<br />Zn2+<br />H2CO3<br />NH4+<br />Fe3+<br />Pb2+<br />H2SO4<br />
  6. 6. METAL ION DISPLACE H+ ION IN ACIDS<br />
  7. 7.
  8. 8. All nitrate salts ; soluble salts<br />ALL<br />NO3-<br />SOLUBLE SALT<br />
  9. 9. All Na+, K+, NH4+ salts ; soluble salts<br />ALL<br />Na+, K+, NH4+<br />SOLUBLE SALT<br />
  10. 10. All carbonate salts ; insoluble salts<br />EXCEPT<br />CO32-<br />ALL<br />INSOLUBLE SALT<br />EXCEPT<br />Na+, K+, NH4+<br />
  11. 11. All SO42-, Cl- salts ; soluble salts<br />EXCEPT<br />EXCEPT<br />EXCEPT<br />ALL<br />ALL<br />Pb2+<br />Ag+ Hg2+<br />Pb2+<br />Ca 2+<br />Ba2+<br />Cl-<br />SO42-<br />SOLUBLE SALT<br />SOLUBLE SALT<br />
  12. 12.
  13. 13. INSOLUBLE SALT<br />SOLUBLE SALT<br />PbSO4<br />ALL<br />SO42-<br />CaSO4<br />ALL<br />BaSO4<br />ALL<br />NO3-<br />CO32-<br />ALL<br />Cl-<br />AgCl<br />ALL<br />PbCl2<br />Na+, K+, NH4+<br />CLASSIFICATION OF SALTS<br />
  14. 14. PREPARATION OF SALTS<br />SOLUBLE SALTS<br />INSOLUBLE SALTS<br />NEUTRALISATION<br />OTHER METHOD<br />PRECIPITATION<br />ACID + METAL<br />ACID + ALKALI<br />SOLUBLE SALT +<br />SOLUBLE SALT<br />ACID + METAL OXIDE<br />[SPA]<br />Sodium ,Na+ salts<br />Potassium, K+ salts<br />Ammonium, NH4+ salts<br />INSOLUBLE SALT <br />& SOLUBLE SALT<br />ACID + METAL CARBONATE<br />OTHER SOLUBLE SALTS<br />
  15. 15. PREPARATION OF SOLUBLE SALTS<br />[ SODIUM SALTS / POTASSIUM SALTS / AMMONIUM SALTS ]<br />NEUTRALISATION REACTION<br />EXAMPLE<br />PREPARATION OF POTASSIUM CHLORIDE<br />K<br />OH<br />H<br />Cl<br />Cl<br />K<br />H2O<br />ALKALI<br />ACID<br />SALTS<br />TITRATION METHOD – FIND OUT THE EXACTLY VOLUME OF ACID REQUIRED TO NEUTRALISE ALKALI.<br />END POINT – POINT WHEN INDICATOR CHANGES COLOUR DURING TITRATION<br />NOTE : CONCENTRATION AND VOLUME OF ALKALI ARE KNOWN.<br />
  16. 16. LET DO THIS: <br />PREPARATION OF POTASSIUM CHLORIDE<br />APPARATUS : Pipette 25mL, Burette 50mL, Conical Flask 250 mL<br />MATERIALS : Potassium hydroxide 1.0 M, Hydrochloric acid 1.0 M, Phenolphthalein<br />Use a pipette to transfer 25.0 cm3 of potassium hydroxide solution to a conical flask.<br />Add 2 to 3 drops of phenolphthalein<br />Fill a burette with hydrochloric acid and record the initial burette reading.<br />Slowly adding the acid into the conical flask and swirls- until the indicator turns from pink to colourless. Record the volume of acid used. (V cm3)<br />Record the final burette reading in 2d.p<br />Colourless KOH turn to pink.<br />Record the burette reading in 2d.p<br />
  17. 17. PREPARATION OF POTASSIUM CHLORIDE<br />START OVER AGAIN BUT WITHOUT INDICATOR : <br />To get the pure and neutral salt solution<br />Pipette 25.0 cm3 of the same potassium hydroxide solution into a conical flask.<br />Do not add any indicator.<br />From the burette, add exactly V cm3 of hydrochloric acid to the alkali and swirls and shake well.<br />RECRYSTALLISATION PROCESS<br />[PURIFIED SOLUBLE SALTS]<br />HEATING/EVAPORATE<br />COOLING<br />FILTRATION<br />DRY<br />Solution salt contains impurities continuous with recrystallisation process <br />CRYSTAL SALT<br />
  18. 18. PREPARATION OF SOLUBLE SALTS<br />[ OTHER SALTS EXCEPT Na+, K+, NH4+]<br />OTHER METHOD : DISSOLVE METAL IN ACID<br />Pour 50 cm3of sulphuric acid into a beaker. Warm the acid<br />Use a spatula to add copper(II) oxide powder bit by bit into the acid. Stir the mixture well. Continue adding copper(II) oxide until some of it no longer dissolves(excess unreacted metal<br />Metal/ metal oxide/ metal carbonate<br />Excess unreactedmetal (residue)<br />Glass rod<br />Acid<br />Evaporating basin with salt solution (filtrate)<br />Solution salt contains impurities continuous with recrystallisation process <br />See the change of metal solid colour and dissolve<br />
  19. 19. RECRYSTALLISATION PROCESS [PURIFIED SOLUBLE SALTS]<br />HEATING/EVAPORATE<br />COOLING<br />Salt solution<br />Evaporating basin<br />Crystal salt<br />
  20. 20. RECRYSTALLISATION PROCESS [PURIFIED SOLUBLE SALTS]<br />FILTRATION<br />DRY<br />CRYSTAL SALT<br />These physical characteristics:<br /><ul><li>Regulars geometry shapes, such as cubic or hexagonal.
  21. 21. Flat faces, straight edges and sharp angles.
  22. 22. Same angle between adjacent faces.</li></ul>Glass rod<br />Rinse with distilled water<br />Filter Paper<br />Salt Cystals<br />The crystals are filtered and rinsed with a little cold distilled water.<br />
  23. 23. DISSOLVE SOLUTE IN ACID<br />PREPARATION OF SOLUBLE SALTS<br />NEUTRALISATION REACTION<br />1ST TITRATION WITH INDICATOR<br />FIND VOLUME OF ACID<br />HEATING<br />DISSOLVE METAL IN ACID<br />TRANSFER TO EVAPORATING BASIN<br />EXCESS METAL NOT DISSOLVE<br />COMPLETE REACT<br />2ND TITRATION NO INDICATOR<br />GET PURE SALT<br />recrystalisation<br />HEATING/EVAPORATE<br />COOLING<br />FILTRATION<br />DRY<br />CRYSTAL SALT<br />
  24. 24. PREPARATION OF INSOLUBLE SALTS<br />[ ALL CARBONATE SALTS except Na+/K+/NH4+ ]<br />PbSO4 / CaSO4/ BaSO4/PbCl2/ AgCl]<br />PRECIPITATION REACTION<br />PREPARATION OF LEAD(II) CHLORIDE<br />EXAMPLE<br />Pb<br />NO3<br />Na<br />Cl<br />Cl2<br />Pb<br />NO3<br />Na<br />SOLUBLE SALTS<br />SOLUBLE SALTS<br />INSOLUBLE<br />SALTS<br />DOUBLE DECOMPOSITION METHOD – TWO AQUOUES SOLUTIONS/SOLUBLE SALTS WERE MIX TOGETHER INTERCHANGE TO PRODUCE TWO NEW COMPOUND WHICH IS INSOLUBLESALT OR PRECIPITATE, AND AQUEOUS SOLUTION/SOLUBLE SALTS<br />
  25. 25. PRECIPITATION REACTION<br />two aquoues solutions/soluble salts were mix together<br />[one of the solutions contains the cations of the insoluble salt] <br />[one of the solutions contains the anions of the insoluble salt]<br />the ions of the two aqueous solutions above interchange to produce two new compound which is insoluble salt or precipitate, and aqueous solution<br />
  26. 26. PRECIPITATION REACTION<br />Glass rod<br />Glass rod<br />Distilled water<br />Mixture solutions<br />Filter paper<br />Precipitate (residue)<br />Precipitate (residue)<br />Filter funnel<br />Retort stand<br />Aqueous Solution (filterate)<br />Rinse : remove other ions from precipitate<br />Filtration : Remove solution from precipitate<br />FILTRATION<br />RINSE<br />
  27. 27. PRECIPITATION REACTION<br />FLOW CHART : PREPARATION OF INSOLUBLE SALTS<br />Precipitate/Soluble salts<br />Filter paper<br />MIX - STIR<br />TWO SOLUBLE SALTS<br />Dry : Dried by pressing between two pieces of filter paper. <br />FILTRATION<br />REMOVE FILTRATE<br />RINSE<br />REMOVE OTHER IONS <br />DRY<br />PRESS BETWEEN FILTER PAPER<br />
  28. 28. PREPARATION OF SALTS<br />REMEMBER : METAL ION DISPLACE<br />HYDROGEN ION IN ACID TO FORMED SALTS<br />HCl [H+/Cl-]<br />Hydrochloric acid<br />METAL / AMMONIUM ION<br />Na+<br />Ca2+<br />Zn2+<br />HNO3 [H+/NO3-]<br />Nitric Acid<br />K+<br />Al3+<br />Pb2+<br />H2SO4 [2H+/SO42-]<br />Nitric Acid<br />NH4+<br />Mg2+<br />Cu2+<br />H2CO3 [2H+/CO32-]<br />Nitric Acid<br />Fe2+<br />Fe3+<br />
  29. 29. SUMMARIES OF REACTION<br />
  30. 30. EXTRA INFO : REMEMBER<br />Reactive metal is magnesium, aluminium, and zinc. Unreactivemetal is iron, lead, silver <br />Metal that is less reactive from hydrogen such as copper, lead and silver did not react with dilute acid. <br />Soluble salts of sodium, potassium and ammonium can be prepared by the reaction between an acid and alkali.<br />
  31. 31. EXTRA INFO : REMEMBER<br />Metal, metal oxide and metal carbonate is a solid that cannot dissolves in water, hence during reaction that solid must be added excessively to make sure all hydrogen ions in acid is completely reacted. Excess solid can be expelling through filtration.<br />Unreactive metal such as lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and silver (Ag) cannot react with dilute acid. So to prepare salt contains lead ions (Pb2+), copper ions (Cu2+) or silver ions (Ag+), we must use either oxide powder or carbonate powder only.<br />Impure soluble salt can be purified through crystallization process<br />
  32. 32. Copyright © 2010 AlchemistFreestyle.blogspot.com<br />

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