PHONOTACTICS(PHONOLOGICAL RULES)• Phonotactics is a branch of Phonology thatdeals with restrictions (official limits) in alanguage on the permissible combinations ofphonemes.• In other words, Phonotactics are the rules thatgovern the combinations and ordering ofphonemes in a syllable or a word.
Phonotacticshas a correlation with the syllablestructure (including theconsonant clusters and vowelsequences) by means ofphonotactical constraints(phonotactical controllers).
Dealing with the syllable, there are some basicinternal segmental structure as follows:ONSETNUCLEUS (PEAK)CODA
The nucleus is obligatory, usually thevowel in the middle of a syllable; The onset is the optional sound orsounds occurring before the nucleus; and The coda is the optional sound or soundsthat follow the nucleus.
Thus, in the word cat /kæt/, for example, /k/ is theonset, /æ/ is the nucleus, and /t/ is the coda.SYLLABLEONSETNUCLEUS CODAC V C
In the pattern of consonant cluster, the Englishsyllable twelfths [twelfθs], for instance, isdivided into the onset /tw/, the nucleus /e/, andthe coda /lfθs/, and its phonotactic can bedescribed as CCVCCCCtwelfths [ twelfθs ]CC V CCCC (phonotactic)O N C (syllable structure)
In addition, commonly, in English and mostother languages, a word that begins with avowel is automatically pronounced with aninitial glottal stop, whether or not a glottalstop occurs as a phoneme in the language.Example: up /ʌp/ is supposed as /ʔʌp/Thus, in the initial-vowel word above, the glottalstop /ʔ/ is called a null onset.
One phoneme pattern V I [aɪ], oh [əʊ]Two phoneme patternVCCVOn [ɒn], it [ɪt]Be [bi:], see [si:]Three phoneme patternCVCCCVVCCDog [dɒg], cat [kæt]Tree [tri:], ski [ski:]Its [ɪts], eats [i:ts]Four phoneme patternCCVCCCCVVCCCCVCCSlab [slæb], bread [bred]Straw [strɔ:]Asked [ɑ:skt]Desk [desk], fist [fɪst]Five phoneme patternCCVCCCCCVCCVCCCSponge [spʌndʒ]Street [stri:t], stress [stres]Selves [selvz]Six phoneme patternCCCVCCCCVCCCCVCCCCStrand [strænd], sprint [sprɪnt]Stamps [stæmps]Sixths [sɪksθs]Seven phoneme patternCCCVCCCCVCCCCCScramble [skræmbl]Twelfths [twelfθs]Here are some examples of phonotactics of the English words:
COARTICULATION: Coarticulation is the overlapping of adjacentarticulations.-(Ladefoged, 1993:55)- Coarticulation is the influence of the target phoneme onsurrounding phonemes.-(Linda I. House, 1998:141)-In other words, coarticulation is the secondaryarticulations of a phoneme.
In English, actually, many consonantshave unique qualities.However, we will only discuss about thefollowing particular consonants in detail:a. / ɹ /b. / l /c. / ŋ /
/ɹ/“R” varies more inpronunciation than anyother consonant in the IPA.
During the Old English period (449 – 1100 A.D),the /r/ was used by most speakers. This soundwas carried into Middle English (1066 A.D) and isstill used in British-English nowadays.• In American-English, according to IPA (1949), theR with right tail / ɽ / or the lowercase R (/r/) wereused by most speakers. Those symbols weretranscribed in broad transcription (the transcriptionthat is often used to draw a transcription that usesa simple set of symbols) as / r /.NOTE: (A.D stands for Anno Domini (Latin) means “the time of our Lord”--in theChristian calendar, means since the birth of Jesus Christ.
The / ɹ / becomes voiceless in a CCVsyllable when preceded by a voicelessstop such as: / p / in „pry‟ [ pɹaɪ ] ; / t / in „trim‟ [ tɹɪm ] ; or / k / in „crow‟ [ kɹəʊ ]
The / ɹ / also becomes voiceless in a CCVsyllable when preceded by a voicelessfricative such as: / f / in „free‟ [ fɹi: ] ; / ʃ / in „shrink‟ [ ʃɹɪŋk ] ; or / θ / in „thread‟ [ θɹed ]
Variation of /ɹ/ in the SyllablesConsist of Diphthong /aɪ/ or /aʊ/ When the diphthongs /aɪ/ and /aʊ/ arecombined with / ɹ /, there are two kinds ofpronunciation.The word „fire‟, for example, could bepronounced as[faɪə(r)] or [faɪɹ], and „flower‟ as [flaʊə(r)] or[flaʊ(r)].[aɪ] or [aʊ] + [ɹ])
The vowel /i/ variations and /e/ can becombined with the /ɹ/ by changing the /ɹ/into /ɚ/ (rhetoric sound) and placing anapproximant /j/ between the vowel andthe “r” variation.Examples:„player‟ [plejɚ] → [plejɹ] → [pleɪə(r)]„dear‟ [dɪjɚ] → [dɪjɹ] → [dɪə(r)]
OTHER “r” PHONEMESSymbols: Kinds of Articulation Types: Used in:/ r / voiced alveolar trill LOWER-CASE R Spanish/ R / voiced uvular trill SMALL CAPITAL R French/ ɾ / voiced alveolar tap FISH-HOOK R Spanish/ ɽ / voiced retroflex tap R WITH RIGHT TAIL Nigerian/ ʁ / voiced uvular fricativeINVERTED SMALLCAPITAL RFrench/ ɹ / voiced alveolar/retroflex approximant TURNED-LEGGED RDialects ofAmerican-EnglishNote: In general English pronunciation, /ɹ/ is transcribed in broad transcription as /r/.
/l/ The / l / phoneme is the only lateral approximantconsonant, and it varies significantly based on itsposition in the word. The voiced lateral approximant / l / is pronouncedclearly when it is close to the beginning of the syllable,such as in „light‟ [laɪt], „leaf‟ [li:f], „black‟ [blæk], „lose‟[lu:z]. When the / l / is close to the end of the syllable, it isnot pronounced clearly (often called a “dark l”), as in„milk‟ [mɪlk], „full‟ [fʊl], „pool‟ [pu:l].
When vowels /i/, /u/ variations and diphthongs /eɪ/,/aʊ/, /aɪ/, and /ɔɪ/ are combined with the final /l/,the word can often be pronounced as monosyllabicor supposed as bisyllabic by the adding of theapproximant /j/ or /w/ plus schwa (/ə/).Examples:„feel‟ [fi:l] → [fi:jəl]‘cool’ [ku:l] → [ku:wəl]„fail‟ [feɪl] → [fejəl]„tile‟ [taɪl] → [tɑ:jəl]‘boil’ [bɔɪl] → [bɔ:jəl]‘fuel’’ [fjʊəl] → [fjʊwəl]
/ŋ/ Because of the nasal coarticulation andphonological rules, the /ŋ/ can only becombined with the /ɪ/, /e/, /æ/, /ɒ/, and /ʌ/ inBritish-English. When pronouncing those vowels followed bythe /ŋ/, the quality of the vowels may sounddifferent than they would in other contextsbecause of the influence of nasality.
Examples:„sing‟ [sɪŋ]„length‟ [leŋθ]„bank‟ [bæŋk]„long‟ [lɒŋ]„sung‟ [sʌŋ] In the English language, the /ŋ/ is only found inmedial and final positions.Examples:„language‟ [læŋgwɪdʒ]„song‟ [sɒŋ]