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(9) phonotactics & coarticulation

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Phonotactics
&
Coarticulation

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PHONOTACTICS
(PHONOLOGICAL RULES)
• Phonotactics is a branch of Phonology that
deals with restrictions (official limits) i...

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Phonotactics
has a correlation with the syllable
structure (including the
consonant clusters and vowel
sequences) by means...

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(9) phonotactics & coarticulation

  1. 1. Phonotactics & Coarticulation
  2. 2. PHONOTACTICS (PHONOLOGICAL RULES) • Phonotactics is a branch of Phonology that deals with restrictions (official limits) in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes. • In other words, Phonotactics are the rules that govern the combinations and ordering of phonemes in a syllable or a word.
  3. 3. Phonotactics has a correlation with the syllable structure (including the consonant clusters and vowel sequences) by means of phonotactical constraints (phonotactical controllers).
  4. 4.  Dealing with the syllable, there are some basic internal segmental structure as follows: ONSET NUCLEUS (PEAK) CODA
  5. 5.  The nucleus is obligatory, usually the vowel in the middle of a syllable;  The onset is the optional sound or sounds occurring before the nucleus; and  The coda is the optional sound or sounds that follow the nucleus.
  6. 6. Thus, in the word cat /kæt/, for example, /k/ is the onset, /æ/ is the nucleus, and /t/ is the coda. SYLLABLE ONSE T NUCLEUS CODA C V C
  7. 7.  In the pattern of consonant cluster, the English syllable twelfths [twelfθs], for instance, is divided into the onset /tw/, the nucleus /e/, and the coda /lfθs/, and its phonotactic can be described as CCVCCCC twelfths [ twelfθs ] CC V CCCC (phonotactic) O N C (syllable structure)
  8. 8.  In addition, commonly, in English and most other languages, a word that begins with a vowel is automatically pronounced with an initial glottal stop, whether or not a glottal stop occurs as a phoneme in the language. Example: up /ʌp/ is supposed as /ʔʌp/ Thus, in the initial-vowel word above, the glottal stop /ʔ/ is called a null onset.
  9. 9. One phoneme pattern V I [aɪ], oh [əʊ] Two phoneme pattern VC CV On [ɒn], it [ɪt] Be [bi:], see [si:] Three phoneme pattern CVC CCV VCC Dog [dɒg], cat [kæt] Tree [tri:], ski [ski:] Its [ɪts], eats [i:ts] Four phoneme pattern CCVC CCCV VCCC CVCC Slab [slæb], bread [bred] Straw [strɔ:] Asked [ɑ:skt] Desk [desk], fist [fɪst] Five phoneme pattern CCVCC CCCVC CVCCC Sponge [spʌndʒ] Street [stri:t], stress [stres] Selves [selvz] Six phoneme pattern CCCVCC CCVCCC CVCCCC Strand [strænd], sprint [sprɪnt] Stamps [stæmps] Sixths [sɪksθs] Seven phoneme pattern CCCVCCC CVCCCCC Scramble [skræmbl] Twelfths [twelfθs] Here are some examples of phonotactics of the English words:
  10. 10. COARTICULATION:  Coarticulation is the overlapping of adjacent articulations. -(Ladefoged, 1993:55)-  Coarticulation is the influence of the target phoneme on surrounding phonemes. -(Linda I. House, 1998:141)- In other words, coarticulation is the secondary articulations of a phoneme.
  11. 11.  In English, actually, many consonants have unique qualities. However, we will only discuss about the following particular consonants in detail: a. / ɹ / b. / l / c. / ŋ /
  12. 12. /ɹ/ “R” varies more in pronunciation than any other consonant in the IPA.
  13. 13.  During the Old English period (449 – 1100 A.D), the /r/ was used by most speakers. This sound was carried into Middle English (1066 A.D) and is still used in British-English nowadays. • In American-English, according to IPA (1949), the R with right tail / ɽ / or the lowercase R (/r/) were used by most speakers. Those symbols were transcribed in broad transcription (the transcription that is often used to draw a transcription that uses a simple set of symbols) as / r /. NOTE: (A.D stands for Anno Domini (Latin) means “the time of our Lord”--in the Christian calendar, means since the birth of Jesus Christ.
  14. 14. The / ɹ / becomes voiceless in a CCV syllable when preceded by a voiceless stop such as:  / p / in „pry‟ [ pɹaɪ ] ;  / t / in „trim‟ [ tɹɪm ] ; or  / k / in „crow‟ [ kɹəʊ ]
  15. 15. The / ɹ / also becomes voiceless in a CCV syllable when preceded by a voiceless fricative such as:  / f / in „free‟ [ fɹi: ] ;  / ʃ / in „shrink‟ [ ʃɹɪŋk ] ; or  / θ / in „thread‟ [ θɹed ]
  16. 16. Variation of /ɹ/ in the Syllables Consist of Diphthong /aɪ/ or /aʊ/  When the diphthongs /aɪ/ and /aʊ/ are combined with / ɹ /, there are two kinds of pronunciation. The word „fire‟, for example, could be pronounced as [faɪə(r)] or [faɪɹ], and „flower‟ as [flaʊə(r)] or [flaʊ(r)]. [aɪ] or [aʊ] + [ɹ])
  17. 17.  The vowel /i/ variations and /e/ can be combined with the /ɹ/ by changing the /ɹ/ into /ɚ/ (rhetoric sound) and placing an approximant /j/ between the vowel and the “r” variation. Examples: „player‟ [plejɚ] → [plejɹ] → [pleɪə(r)] „dear‟ [dɪjɚ] → [dɪjɹ] → [dɪə(r)]
  18. 18. OTHER “r” PHONEMES Symbols: Kinds of Articulation Types: Used in: / r / voiced alveolar trill LOWER-CASE R Spanish / R / voiced uvular trill SMALL CAPITAL R French / ɾ / voiced alveolar tap FISH-HOOK R Spanish / ɽ / voiced retroflex tap R WITH RIGHT TAIL Nigerian / ʁ / voiced uvular fricative INVERTED SMALL CAPITAL R French / ɹ / voiced alveolar/retroflex approximant TURNED-LEGGED R Dialects of American- English Note: In general English pronunciation, /ɹ/ is transcribed in broad transcription as /r/.
  19. 19. /l/  The / l / phoneme is the only lateral approximant consonant, and it varies significantly based on its position in the word.  The voiced lateral approximant / l / is pronounced clearly when it is close to the beginning of the syllable, such as in „light‟ [laɪt], „leaf‟ [li:f], „black‟ [blæk], „lose‟ [lu:z].  When the / l / is close to the end of the syllable, it is not pronounced clearly (often called a “dark l”), as in „milk‟ [mɪlk], „full‟ [fʊl], „pool‟ [pu:l].
  20. 20.  When vowels /i/, /u/ variations and diphthongs /eɪ/, /aʊ/, /aɪ/, and /ɔɪ/ are combined with the final /l/, the word can often be pronounced as monosyllabic or supposed as bisyllabic by the adding of the approximant /j/ or /w/ plus schwa (/ə/). Examples: „feel‟ [fi:l] → [fi:jəl] ‘cool’ [ku:l] → [ku:wəl] „fail‟ [feɪl] → [fejəl] „tile‟ [taɪl] → [tɑ:jəl] ‘boil’ [bɔɪl] → [bɔ:jəl] ‘fuel’’ [fjʊəl] → [fjʊwəl]
  21. 21. /ŋ/  Because of the nasal coarticulation and phonological rules, the /ŋ/ can only be combined with the /ɪ/, /e/, /æ/, /ɒ/, and /ʌ/ in British-English.  When pronouncing those vowels followed by the /ŋ/, the quality of the vowels may sound different than they would in other contexts because of the influence of nasality.
  22. 22. Examples: „sing‟ [sɪŋ] „length‟ [leŋθ] „bank‟ [bæŋk] „long‟ [lɒŋ] „sung‟ [sʌŋ]  In the English language, the /ŋ/ is only found in medial and final positions. Examples: „language‟ [læŋgwɪdʒ] „song‟ [sɒŋ]

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